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A BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SURVEY 


C. A. STOREY 


FASCICULUS 3 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA 


LUZAC & CO*, 

46 GREAT RUSSELL STREET, LONDON. 





PREFACE 

FTIHE present fasciculus almost completes the survey of historical 
literature in Persian, but not quite, since the next fasciculus, 
devoted primarily to biography, will contain also additions and 
corrections to the Quranic and historical sections as well as a 
provisional index. 

A few words must be said about points of transliteration. 
The sign d having been used to represent the Arabic dad, it has 
been found necessary to use a different sign (d) for the palatal d 
which occurs in Urdu and; other Indian languages. In previous 
fasciculi thd\ Mid’ and dMl have been represented by th, Mi, and 
dh, while th, th, Mi, dh and dh (without the underlining) have stood 
for the combinations 4 O S > and It seems, however, 
that a clearer distinction is desirable, and therefore, in this 
fasciculus 4 b 4-0 S » ** and have been transliterated 
i'h, fit, kh, (Vh, and d’h in accordance with the practice adopted 
sporadically by Rieu in his British Museum catalogues and 
regularly by Ivanow in the catalogues prepared by him for the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. In transliterating the proper names of 
Indians I have allowed myself to represent certain vowel sounds 
in accordance with the Indian pronunciation and to write 
Aurangzeb, Firoz-Shali and the like, but I have not been rigidly 
consistent in this matter and I have not, for example, thought 
it necessary to change the title Safmah i Khwuskgu into Safhiah 
i Khwmhqo (or Khvash-ad), though “ Kh wushgo " was an Indian. 
Such inconsistencies as there are will probably cause no trouble. 

It remains for me to express my grateful acknowledgments to 
Dr. A. J. Arberr y , who has provided me with information con-, 
cerning India Office accessions as well as other matters, and to 
Mr. A. F. L. Beeston, who has informed mo about manuscripts 
in the Bodleian library and the Indian Institute at Oxford. 
I am indebted, also to several reviewers, who have suggested 
additions and corrections, Professor V. Minorsky ( BSOS . viii 
(1935-7), pp. 255-7, ix/t (1937), pp. 253-4), Dr. IV. Hinz 
(ZDMG. 91 (1937), pp. 755-8), Mr. 0. N. Seddon (JMAS. 1938, 
pp. 568-9), Professor J. Rypka (Archiv Orientdlm x, 1-2 (1938), 
pp. 358-9), Mr. R. Lescot ( Bulletin d' eludes orientates de Vlnstitut 
Francais de I Jamas, vii-viii, pp. 281-3), Professor G. Morgenstierne 
(Acta Orientalia , xvii, pp. 238-9), and others. 

May, 1939. 


xlvii 


0. A. Storey, 


LIST OF 

AUTHORITIES AND ABBREVIATIONS 

[Supplementary to the lists printed on pp. ix-xxiii, xxix-xxatvy and [xlsv j 

facing p. 237.] 

Arberry = Catalogue of the Library of the India Off re. YoL ii. 
Part vi. Persian books. ByA.J. Arhcrnj .. . London, 1937..: 

Bankipiir Suppt, i, ii = Supplement to the Catalogue of the Persian 
manuscripts in the Oriental Public Library at Bankipore. 
Volume i {Volume ii). By Madam Abdul Muqtadir. Patna 
(Calcutta printed) 1932, 1933. [I regret that the existence of 
this supplement did not come to my knowledge until 1936.] 

Caetani = La fondaziom Caeiani per gli sludi mmulmam . 
NotMia della sua istituziom c, (Jafalogo del suoi .M:8A. 
onehtali per cum di G. Gabrieli. Rome, 1926. 

Edhem and Stohoukine — Les man-merits orinntaux Must ns dn 
la Bibliotheque. de V Vniversite de Alamboul. Par Id hud Edhem 
et Iran Stchoukine {Mcmuires de VluUiint Fra met is d'Archvt>- 
logie de Slamboul , 1). Paris, 1933. 

Philadelphia Lewis Coll. — Oriental manuscripts of the John 
Frederick Lewis Collect, ion in the Free Library of Phila- 
delphia. A descriptive catalogue . . . hg Mohammed Ahmed 
8‘mtsar. Philadelphia, 1937. 


xlviii 


433 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

M. HISTORY OE INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

[For the general Histories of the Muhammadan world, including 
India, see pp. 01-158 of this work.] 

Oil*. A certain ‘“Isami” composed in 750/1349-50 and 
dedicated to 'Ala al- Dunya. wa-T-Din Abu T-Muzaffar Bahman- 
Shali Sultan, the first ruler of the Bahmani dynasty, his 

Imtllh al-salatin 3 an epic poem on the rulers of India from 
the Ghaznawids to the date of composition, one of the authorities 
of the Tahwfii i Akhun : Eth4 895 (damaged. 16th cent.), 
HaMarabad Manlawt . AL Ghanth’s Library (see Oriental College 
Magazine, "VoL xiv. no. 1 (Nov. 1937) p. 90 1 ), possibly also 
Rebatsek p. J31 no, 10 (of. p. 493 infra) and A§afiyali I p. 220 
no. 073 (ef.' p. '493 infra). 

Edition : Agmls 1938 (ed. .Agha Mahd! IJusain). 

Description etc, : Afiini-nihnafu by S. Yusha‘, Madras 1937 
{mi Oriental College Magazine, vol. xiv no. 1 (Nov, 1937) p. 89). 

613. KhwTnah Ni$tp al-DM Alimad b. M. Muqlm al-Harawi 
was appointed ,Ba khsh 7 of ■Gujrat in Akbar’s 29th regnal year 
ami Ba khehi of the empire in the 37th year. He died at the age 
of 45 on 23 Safur 1003/1594, the 39th year. 

Tabagat i Ahbarl , as it is usually called, or Tabaqat i 
Akhar-Shahi , as the author himself called it, or Tarlfch i 
,\ iz-ht‘~. us it is sometimes called, written a. it. 1001/1592-3 
pen Akhurb ftd'ju is brought down, to the end of the 38th 
year a.h. i‘»>2 1503 1), the earliest of the general histories 
"■ of' India and ' tlm'/fcasfa offsubsequent works like the MuntaMab 
ithiutriCihl ;u*d lie- i Ihra/ilnt 7, divided into a vmqaddi- 

,ft> (tie* jjh umuv ids), nine tubaqut ((1) Delhi a.h. 574/1178- 
1002 ir/.r, f >•>!,> hiding with rioiiws of celebrated men of Akbars 

time, fg, the U '-an a.h. 74 8 13-17 I.002/J593, (3) Gujrat 

A.st. TO'l l;5ou tmu 1572. {1} MAI wall a.ii. 809/1400-977/1569, 
(5) IVei.^i a.h.TH 134 o 9H 1570, (0) Jnunpur a.h. 781/1382 - 
•■s.sf J 17<», : 7 1 Kadimir a. it, 717/ 134(5 -995/1580, (8) Sind 

a.h. >6 7^5 3 * k s I 1392, (<\) Multan a.il 847/1443-923/1517) and 
n l s u jr.t; hu al IJCithnnh (apparently never finished, since in the. 



434 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

MSS. it consists of only a few lines) : ‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. 
p. 57 no. 954 (3) (a.h. 1003/1594-5), Rieu iii 900a (lacks circ. 
40 foil, at beginning. Late 16th cent,), 900a (transcribed from 
the preceding, a.d. 1854), i 220a (17th cent.), 2216 (a.h. 1049/ 
1640), 2216 (18th cent.), 222a (from Balkan to Ibrahim Lodi. 
17th cent.), 222a (Babur and Hiimayun. 19th cent.), Eton 182 
(a.h. 1020/1611-12), 183 (a.h. 1059/1649), Ethd 225 (a.h. 1031/ 
1622), 226 (a.h. 1 1/1659), 227, 228, 229 (lacks Tahrah ix. 

Collated a.h. 1079/1669), 230 {Muqnrfd twill and Tabaqah i, 
a.h. 1066/1656), 231 ( Muqaddiuath and parr of Tabaqah i. 
a.h. 1103/1691), 232 (portion relating to Shcr Shah. a.h. 1016/ 
1636), ii 3014 ( Tabaqah iii), Bodleian 184 ’(a.h. 1049/1039), 
185 (a.h. 1088/1677), 186-191 (six undated copies, of which 190 
is described as very good, 191 ( Muqaddimah and most of Tabaqah 
i) as old, and 189 as differing in arrangement), Oxford Iml. 
Inst. MS. Pers. A. iv 54 (a.ii. 1131/1719), Voilers 972 
(a.ii. 1063/1653), 973, Blochet i 530 (lacks Tabaqah ix and 
Khdtimah. Mid 17th cent.), 531 {Muqaddimah and Tabaqah i. 
a.h. 1089/1678), 532 ( Muqaddimah and Tabaqah i. Late 17th 
cent.), 533 (Tabaqdl ii, iii, v, vi (?), vii. 17th-I8th cent.), Aumer 
235 (collated a.h. 1081/1670-1), Bankipur vii 535 (lacks 
Tabaqah iv. 17th cent.), Mehren p. 21 no. 56 (Akbar's reign 
from a.h. 969 to 1001. Copied a.h. Ill 4/1702 -3), Ivanow 115 
(early 12th cent. h .) 3 116 (12th cent, h.), Curzon 24 (defective. 
18th cent.), 25 (defective. 18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 205 no. 
934 (circ. a.d. 1750), _no. 405 (circ. a.d. 1780-1830), Buhar 00 
(23rd year of Shah- c Alam’s reign = 1195-6/1781-2), Berlin 485 
(a.d. 1809), A?afiyah i p. 246 no. 732 (a.h. 1298/188.1), p. :>26 
no. 720 (part relating to the Deccan), Edinburgh 77 (old), 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (one nearly coni])lete copy and one 
of the Delhi tabaqah only. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, 
no. 4 (Lahore, August 1920} pp. 45 -6), R.A.S. P. 59 --- Morlev 40 
(defective), Rehatsek p. 100 no. 54, Salemann-Rosen p. 12 
no. 269* {“ jild i awwal az Tarlkh i Akbar-Shahl V\ Author not 
stated). 

Editions : Tabaqdt i Akban [Lucknow,] 1870 \ 1292, 1875*, 
Calcutta 1913- (edited by B. De. Bibliotheca Indica. The 


435 


M, HISTORY OF INDIA \ (a) GENERAL 

three parts so far published (in 1913, 1927 and 1931) contain 
the Muqaddimah and the whole of Tabaqah i). 

English translation : by B. De, Calcutta 1913- (Bibliotheca 
Indiea. The two fasciculi published in 1913 and 1927 form 
“ vol i " of the translation and contain the history to the 
end of Ibrahim Lodi’s reign. “ Vol. ii,” published "in 1936, 
carrif.-* tin* 1 nnislation to the end of Tabaqah i). 

Translations of extracts: (1) Elliot Bibliographical index 
pp. 186-203. (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 187-476 
(translated hy J. Dowson). 

Descriptions : (1) Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 178-80, 
183, 203-4. (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India vpp, 177-87. 

Anonymous epitome : ( Muntahhab i Tabagdt i Alban) 1,0. 
D.P. 7 46. ~ ‘ “ 

Condensed extract relating to various dynasties of the Deccan 
(only ?) ; Dhikr i ahwdl i saldfin i Hindustan , Ivanow 117 
(A.D. 1811). 

[Muniakfab al-tawarikh ii 397 ; Ma'cithir al-nmard * i 660-4 
(English translation in Elliot and Dowson History of India v 
178-80) ; Elliot Bibliographical Index i 180-5 ; Elliot and 
Dowson History of India v 178-83, vi 130 ; Rieu i 220 ; Khiva jah 
Sizftm al-Lin Ahmad (in Urdu) by S. Ahmad Allah Qadiri 
(in the Urdu periodical Ma‘drif, A‘zamgarh, August 1931, pp. 
121-37) ; Encg. Id. under Nizam al-Dln.j 

614. ‘AM al-Qadir “ Qadiri ” b. Muluk-Shah b. Hamid 
Pada’unI 1 was born on 17 Rabi‘ ii a.h. 947 /21 August 1540 2 

! Acr-ontiiiir to H. Blochmann, JASB. 38 (I860) p. 119 n., “The word 
JHaiidrm [ -rV 1 has the accent on the penultima, and a final nasal » ; hence 
tmlrnni, with a short o or u, and the Shakl i ilamzah above the wdw, an 
inhabitant of Iladaon. The transliteration Budauni, which I have seen in some 
works, is misleading ; for Jjloi has the tvazn of and BadMni 

would he Blociimaiin’s pronouncement is probably based 

on the scansion of the nidxih in 51. al-l. iii pp. M l 13 and 146 T1 “ 1S - The name of 
t he town occurs in a verse on p. 1 39 of vol. ii, where the scansion is — - The 
bust word hm not yet been said on this subject, Gf. JR AS. 1924 p. 272 j 1925. 
pp. 517 and 715-16 ; 1926 pp. 103-5. 

z J iunlakhab aX'taioariigh i p. 363 penult. 


436 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

at Todali 1 [i.e. apparently Toda Shim, now in the state of Jaipur]. 
Soon afterwards he seems to have been taken to Basawar, 2 
evidently for a time at least the home of Ins family. 3 At the age 
of twelve he was at Sambhal, where his father had taken him to 
pursue his studies under Shaikh Hatim Sanbhali (M. al-t. i 
p. 425, iii pp. 2, 66). 4 In 966/1558-9 he went from Basawar to 
study at Agrali (M. al-t. ii p. 32) and for some years he was a 
pupil of Shaikh Mubarak Nagaurl (jL al-t. iii pp. 07, 74). In 
969/1562 his father died at Agrali (if. al-t: ii p. 53), and not long 
after he evidently removed to Bada'uh. : He was there, for 
example, in 971/1563-4 (Jf. al-t. ii p. 73), ami it was there that, 
he married for the second time in 975/1507-8 (M . al-t. ii p. 103). 
In 973/1565-6, however, leaving Bacla'uii, he entered the service 
of Husain Khan, the Jdglridr of Patiyull, and remained with 
him for nearly nine years (M. al-t. ii pp, 86-7, 22*2), moving with 
him when his jar fir was transferred to Lucknow and again to 
Kant u Golah. 

It was at the end of 981/1574 that 4 Abd al-Qadir, having 
severed his connexion with Husain Khan, went from Bada'fm 
to Agrah and was presented to Akbur through the influence of 
Jalal Khan Qurchi and Hakim ‘Ain al-Mulk (ilf. al-t. ii p. 172). 
In 982/1574-5 he was appointed an imam {M. al-t. ii p. 206) 

1 ill. al-t. ii p. 236, 1. 0 : qasabah i Todali kih maulid, ifaqir nsi u f.sir] Bamimr 
kih nisbat i “ im-amvalu arfln ntassa jildi turafmhn " da rad . This appear,-; to 
mean that he was bom at Todali and learned to walk at Buxiwar. It is. there- 
fore, difficult to see why the Enc-ydopxdia of Islam should say that ‘Abd 
al-Qadir was “ horn at Basawar in the mrhlr of Sambhal j vVj That Todali 
and Basawar were west of Agrah {and therefore* not in the m>i.nr of Sambhal)- 
seems clear from Jf. al-t. ii pp. 235-6, where ‘Abd al-Qadir records a journey 
from Gogundah to Fathpur via Mohani, Bag’haur [sic], MSudalgarh, Anber, 
Todah, and Bisaw&f. AM 

2 i.e. Bhasawar, now in the Bharat pur State, about IS miles X.B, of Toda 

Bhim, ■■■.■■■■ A----' 

3 “Abd al-Qadir often mentions the place. Mis father was buried there 
(Jf, al-t. ii p. 53) and so was his maternal grandfather .Makhdum Ashraf { M. al-t, 
: ii p. 64). ‘Abd al-Qadir was not the first of his family to be eoimeeted with 
Bada’uh, since we learn from M. al-t, iii 73 that his father studied at Sambhal 
and Bada’uh. 

4 In the third volume of the Munlabkah al-laicarikh there is a section 
(PP* 66seq,} devoted to the author’s teachers. 


437 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

and in 983/1575-6 he became one of the seven imams and was 
instructed to lead the prayers on Wednesdays (M. al-t. ii p. 226). 
In the same year he was granted 1,000 big' has of land as a madad 
i ma‘dsh (originally at Basawar, but in 997/1588-9 the grant 
was transferred to Bada’uh. M. al-t. ii p. 368). From 982/1574 
onwards he took a prominent part in the literary activities — 
mainly historiography and the translation of Hindu works into 
Persian — which Akbar promoted. His religious orthodoxy made 
him unsympathetic to Akbar’s free-thought and he regarded 
his master’s innovations with a disapproval which he does not 
conceal in the Muntakhab al-tawankh. It is stated in the Khizdnah 
i 'amir ah on the authority of a pupil of his that he died in 1004/ 
1595-6. According to the Mir at ijahan-numd, however, he died 
in 1006/1597-8 and according to the Tabaqdt i Shdh-Jahdm in 
1024/1615. According to Bakhtawar Sing’h’s Urdu Tankh i 
Baddyun (quoted by Blochmaim, J.A.S.B. 38, Pt. i (1869) p. 143) 
his grave is at ‘Atapur near Bada’un. 

The works with which 'Ab& al-Qadir’s name is associated as 
author, epitomator, translator or collaborator are the following : 

(1) Kiidb al-ahddith (a chronogram — 978/1 57 0—1 ) , a collec- 
tion of forty traditions on the merit of waging war. Presented 
to Akbar in 986/1578 (see M. al-t. ii p. 255), but now apparently 
lost. (2) Ndmah i kkirad-afzd (a chronogram — 989/1581), a 
translation of the Siw/kamn batiisi undertaken by Akbar s order 
in 982/1574 and begun immediately with the help of a pandit 
designated by Akbar (M. ahh ii pp. 183-4). The date indicated 
by the chronogram is puzzling and is not explained by £ Abd 
al-Qadir’s further statement (M. al-t. i 67) that he translated 
this work first in 982 and again in 1003. Several Persian transla- 
tions of this work are extant, but none of them seems to be 
definitely identifiable with 6 Abd al-Qadir’s. (3) Razm-namah, a 
translation of the Mahabhdrata undertaken by Akbar’s order in 
990/1582 (M. al-t. ii p. 319). In this enterprise ‘Abd al-Qadir 
had only a small share, being associated with Naqib Khan (for 
whom see p. 118, n. 1 , supra) for three or four months during 
which a translation of two of the eighteen parvas was produced. 
For manuscripts of this translation see Rieu i 57, Ethe 1928-46, 



438 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Bodleian 1306-12 etc. (4) Tar jamah i Utah i Mnmjan, a 
translation or abridgment of the Mmdyana undertaken by 
Akbar’s order in 992/1584, completed in four years and submitted 
to Akbar in 997/1589 (M. alt. ii 336, 366). (5 ) TanB lalfi. 
The part taken by ‘Abd al-Qadir in the compilation ot this 
history has already been mentioned (pp. 119-20 supra). (6) JSajat 
al-rashid {a chronogram ^ 999/1590-1), described by Blochmami 
as a polemical work and by Ivanow as v * a Sufieo-ethical treatise, 
richly interspersed with interesting historical anecdotes, con- 
troversial discussions, etc.” It contains inter alia an account 
of the Mahdawi sect. ‘Abd al-Qadir makes a passing reference 
to this work in M. al-t. ii p. 208. For a manuscript see Ivanow 
1263. (7) Tar jamah i Tdnkh i Iiashnur. In 999/1590 by Akbar s 
order he re-wrote and abridged a translation made for Akbar 
by Mulla Shah-Muhammad Shaliabadi of a history of Kashmir 
[probably the Rdja-tarangim]. M. al-t. ii p. 374. (&) Tarjaimn 

i Mujam al-buUdn. In 999/1590 he was one of ten or twelve 
persons, both ‘Iraqis and Indians, who collaborated in a transla- 
tion of Yaqut’s geographical dictionary. He completed his 
portion, one twentieth of the whole, in one month (M. al-t. 

ii p. 375). This translation does not seem to be preserved. 
(9) hitikhdb i Jdmi' i RasJviJi. In 1000/1591-2 he was instructed 
by Akbar to epitomise the Jdmi' al-ta.irun.kh _ , evidently the 
Arabic versiqp (see p. 75 supra), since he speaks of translating 
from Arabic. The words in which he describes the result of his 
labours (M. al-t. ii p. 384) suggest that he epitomised only a 
part of the work. (10) Bahr al-asmdr. In 1003/1595 he 
ordered to complete the Bahr al-asmdr. a fragmentary transla- 
tion of a “ Hindi ” (i.e. no doubt Sanskrit) tale {njsCtnah ) 1 made 
for the Sultan Zain al- ‘Abidin of Kashmir (a.h. 820-S/2). In 
five months he translated the last volume [jihl i akhrr) of this 
work and then received instructions to modernise the old Persian 
of the earlier translation (jild i aw ml). When lie wrote about 

1 Apparently the KatM-sarit-s’igara. The India Office manuscript Ethe 
1987 seems to be a copy of ‘Abd al-Qadir’s translation. It is clear from the words 
of the Muntakhab al-lawirikh that the title Bahr al-amrvlr belonged to the earlier 
translation and was not. given by ‘Abd al-Qadir, as stated in the Em't/chpiedm 
of Islam. ■ ”/ 7 ,// ' 


439 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

this in the MuntaWiab al-tawanJch (ii pp. 401-2) he was hoping 
to finish the work in two or three months. 

In 983/1575-6 he had taken part in the unsuccessful attempt 
to produce a translation of the Afharva Veda (M. al-t. ii p. 212). 

Muntakhab al-tawari kh , often called Tdnkh i B add’ uni, 
a history of India from the time of Subuktigln a.h. 367/997-8 
to a.h. 1004/1595-6, the fortieth year of Akbar’s reign, followed 
by short biographies of contemporary shaikhs, scholars, physicians 
and poets (the notices of the last being based on the Nafd’is 
al-ma'dthir of “ Kami ”) : Bloehet i 534 (a.h. 1132/1719-20), 
Bankipur vii 536 (a.h. 1141/1729), Bodleian 192 (a.h. 1143/ 
1730), 193 (n.d.}, 194 (part ii only (i.e. Akbar’s reign with the 
biographies of saints and poets), a.h. 1219/1804), Ethe 234 
(vol. i only. a.h. 1159/1746), 233 (n.d.), Rieu i 2226 (18th cent.), 
223a (18th cent.), iii 9066 (circ. a.d. 1850), 9066 (extracts. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), 10306 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Ivanow 
119 (a.h. 1255/1839-40), 118 (early 13th cent, h.), 120 (13th/19th 
cent.), 121 (Akbar’s reign etc. a.h. 1267/1650-1), A§afiyah i 
p. 254 no. 197, Aumer 247 (apparently, to judge from the opening 
wotcIs. History of India from A.H. 923/1517 (accession of Ibrahim 
Lodi) to a.h. 1002/1593-4 (Akbar’s 39th regnal year) with 
appendix on the contemporary shaikhs), Berlin 469, Browne 
Suppt. 1252 (King’s 77), Eton 162. 

Abridgment made in 1049/1639-40 by Tahmasp-Qull : Berlin 
470. 

Editions : Calcutta 1864-9°* (edited by Ahmad ‘All, Kabir 
al-Dm Ahmad, and W. Nassau Lees. Bibliotheca Indica), 
Lucknow 1868°*. 

English translation : Munt akh abvA-iawdnMi by l Abdu-l- 
Qddir ibn i Muluk SMh known as al-Baddom [sic] translated 
[vol i [from the beginning of the work to Humayun’s death] 
by G. S. A. Ranking, Calcutta 1895-9°*, vol. ii [Akbar’s reign] 
by W. H. Lowe, Calcutta 1884-98°*, reprinted 1924*, vol. iii 
[biographies of saints, poets etc.] by T. W. Haig, Calcutta 
1899-1925°*. Bibliotheca Indica]. 

Condensed translation by W, Erskine : B.M. MS. Add. 26,609. 



440 


IX. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, KIC. 

Translated extracts : (1) Elliot Bibliographical index, Calcutta 
1849*, pp. 227-58. (2) The Emperor Akbar s repudiation of 
Eslldm and- profession of his own religion, called u Tomhhyd 
Elahy Akbar Shahy 55 or Akbar Shah's Divine Monotheism’', 
Consisting of passages from the- Muntakhab al-Tau:dnkh gj Ahd 
al-Qddir bin-i Maluk Shah Al-Bad/nrni. Translated by E. Rehat sek . 
Bombay I860 0 *. (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India v 485 51 9 
(translated by II. M. Elliot and J. Dowson). (4) [Extracts 
relating to Akbar's reign translated by J. Leyden] BA1. 318. 
Add. 26,601. 

The passages relating to Akbar's new religion were summarised 
by TI. H. Wilson in an article entitled Account of tfm religious 
innovations attempted by Akbar, which he contributed to the 
Quarterly Oriental Magazine, Calcutta, 1824, vol. i, pt. i, pp. 49-62 
and which was reprinted in Works by the late Horace Hay man 
Wilson, vol. ii, London 1862, pp. 279-400. 

Descriptions: (I) Elliot Bibliographical index, pp. 219-20. 
(2) IT. Blochmann Bad don't, and his works (in J.A.AJi, 88 (1809), 
pt. i, pp. 105-44). 

[Autobiographical statements in the Muntakhab al-tauTifi kh 
(some/not by any means all, of these are collected in the 16-page 
biography prefixed to vol. iii of the Calcutta edition and a few 
are translated in Elliot's Bibliographical index and History of 
India ) ; Tabagdt i Akban ii p. 468 ; A'm i Akban rr. Bloch- 
mann i 104 (translation of the Mahdbhdrala ), 104 n. 2 (a brief 
biography by Blochmann), 547 (merely his name in the list, of 
scholars) ; Mid at aVfilam (quoted in M. al-t, iii, preface, p, 12 
foil.) ; Khizdnah i * amirah p. 323, no. 79 ; H. Blochmann 
Baddoni and Ms works (in J.A.S.B. 38 (1809), pt. i, pp. 
105-44) ; Bieu i 222, iii 10826 ad 222 ; Kahmim All 130 ; Ency. 

I si. under Bada’uni ; Banklpur vii pp. 6-8.] 

615, *Abd al-IIa<i<i Dihlawl, wlio died in 1052/1642, has 
already been mentioned as the author of the Ah a r k A afar al~ 
sa‘adah (p. 181 supra), the Maddrij al-nubuwwah (p. 194 supra), 
the Ahwdl i Admm-ah i Itjina-bisfutr (p. 214 supra) ami the 
Jadhh al-qulub ild diydr al-mahhfih (p. 427 supra). 


441 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Dhikr al-muluk 5 or Tarlkh i Haqqi , completed a.h. 1005/ 
1596-7, a concise history of India from the time of Mu‘izz al- 
Din M. b. Sam to that of Akbar based on the Tabaqdt i Nasirl , 
the Tarikh i Firdz-Skdhi (of Barani), the Tarlkh i Bahadur- 
tthahi and, for the period from Buhlul Lodi onwards, on oral 
tradition and personal observation : Bankiphr vii 537 (a.h. 1023/ 
1614), Bodleian 195 (with a continuation (little more than 
dates) to a.h. 1044/1634. Old), 196 (with the same continua- 
tion), 197 (n.d.), 198 (a.h. 1039/1629), Rieu ii 8556 (a.h. 1066/ 
1656), 823. (a.h. 1129/1717), 12236 (a later and enlarged recension. 
a.h. 1136/1724), Asafiyah i p. 224 no. 612 (29th year of Aurang- 
zeb), Browne Pers. Cat. 81 (a.h. 1221/1807), R.A.S. P. 60 = 
Morley 47. ■ 

Description, 5 pp. of extracts and translated extract of 1| pp. : 
Elliot Bibliographical index to the historians of MuJiammedan 
India pp. 273-80, and (Arabic pagination) 60-4. 

Description and translated extract of 2 pp. : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vi pp. 175-81. 

616 Nur al-Haqq al-Mashriql al-DihlawI al-Bubharl was 
the son of ‘Abd al-Haqq Dihlawi, whose Dhikr al-muluk or 
TdriMii Haqqi has just been mentioned and whom he succeeded 
as a religious teacher at Delhi. In Shall- Jahan’s time he became 
Qddi at Akbarabad (i.e. Agrah). He died at Delhi in 1073/1662 
at the age of ninety. Among his works were a Persian com- 
mentary on the Sahih of al-Bukharl entitled Taisir al-qdri fi 
shark Sahih al-BuMdri (seeBrockelmaim 1st Suppt. p. 263 no. 31), 
a Persian commentary on the Sahih of Muslim entitled Manba‘ 
al-'ilm fz shark Sahih Muslim revised and enlarged by his son 
Fakhr al-Dln Muhibh Allah (see Brockelmann 1st Suppt. p. 266 
no, 13) and a commentary on iC Khusrau’s ” Qirdn al-sa'dain 
entitled Nur al-ainfi shark Qirdn al-sa'dain (see Rieu ii 6176, 
Ivanow Curzon 220, Sprenger 330). 

Zubdat al-tazcankh , a general history of India from Mu £ izz 
al-Dln M. b. Sam to the accession of Jahangir (a.h. 1014/1605), 
being a much enlarged edition and continuation of his father’s 
history: Blochet i 535 (a.h. 1068/1657-8), iv 2324 (a.h. 1104/ 



442 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


1692-3), Linclesiana p. 207 no, 384 (a.h. 1082/167 1-2), Riea 
i 2246 (17th. cent,), it 8216 (portion only. 17th cent.), 9066 
(17th cent.), iii 10396 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Browne 
Suppt. 733 (a.h. 1118/1706-7. Corpus 220), Berlin 471 (a.h. 
1197/1783), A§afiyah i p. 242 no. 160, EtM 290. 

Extracts : Elliot Bibliographical index, MuntaJchabdt pp. 65-8. 

Translations of extracts : (1) Elliot Bibliographical index 
pp. 283-96. (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India vi pp. 184-94. 

Descriptions: (1) Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 281-97. 
(2) Elliot and Dowson History of India vi pp. 182-4. 

[ ; Amal i Salih (B.M. MS. Add. 26,221 = Rieu i 263, fol 6926, 
i.e. the 19th leaf from the end of the work).; Mi fat gl-alam 
(B.M. MS. Add. 7657 - Rieu i 1256, fol. 455a, i.e. Ate 43rd 
leaf from the end) ; Subhat al-marjdn 53 ; Farhat abnuzinn 
(passage quoted in Oriental College Magazine iv no. 4 (Aug. 
1928) pp. 58-9) ; Khazimt al-asjkfal ii 356 ; Ithaf al-mtbala' 426 ; 
Rieu i 2246 ; Hadaiq al-Hanafiyah 418 ; Rahman ‘All 246 ; 
Eney. IsL under Dihlawl.] 

617. M. Qasim Hindu-8hah 1 AstarabadI known as (al- 
mashhwr bb) Firishtah, as lie calls himself in the (hd-skan i 
Ibrdhinn , or M. Qasim surnamed ( abmulaqqab hi-} Hindtl-Shah 
known as ( al-mashlmr bi~ ) Firishtah, as lie calls himself in the 
Bastur al-atibbd% was the son of GhulamMAlI Hmdu-Shab. [see 
Bombay ed. ii p. 449, [Lucknow] ed. ii p. 120], Neither the date 
nor the place of his birth seems to be known. 2 On reaching years 

1 Not M. Qasim ihn Hindu Shah, 

2 The two biographies of Firishtah by General Briggs contain si number of 
unsupported statements which are not easily verified from his own abridged 
and unindexed translation and from the equally unindexed editions of the 
Persian text, the sole source of information. [The Urdu translation published 
by the Osmania University has an index in the first volume hut not in the other 
three 1] Mohl is more scientific in giving references to the Persian text, but. he, 
like several later writers, repeats unevideneed statements from Briggs, 
Firishtah, says Mohl, following Briggs, “ etait no a Asterabad duns le Maxell* 
deran, ” and he gives a reference to \t»l, i, p. 4, where the only reference to 
Astarabad is the nisbah AstarabadI appended to FirishtahA mum*. This, of 
course, does not prove that he was bom at Ast&rabad. According to the 
Encyclopedia of Islam Firi§fc.tah was. “ born 960 «= 1552 but no evidence 


443 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

of discretion Firishtah entered the service of Murtada Nizam- 
Shah 1 (ruler of Ahmad-nagar a.h. 972/1565-996/1588 2 ), and 
it was at Ahmadnagar that, while still in the prime of youth, 3 
he conceived the idea of writing a history of the Islamic kings 
and saints of India. At Ahmadnagar, however, he was unable 
to obtain all the historical works that he desired and so his 
project had to be deferred. When the Prime Minister Mirza 
Khan 4 (Sultan Husain Sabzawari) plotted with Bilawar Khan, 
Regent of Rxjapur, to depose Murtada Nizam-Shali in favour 
of his son Mlran Husain and mobilised an army ostensibly to 
defend the kingdom of Ahmadnagar against the forces of 
Bijapur, which by arrangement had assembled on the frontier, 
Firishtah was sent by the king to find out what was really 
happening. 5 Mirza, Khan, knowing that Firishtah’s loyalty to 
the king would cause him to make a true report, intended, when 

is produced, and no such statement is found in the authorities mentioned 
in the bibliography, though they do contain conjectural and approximate 
dates. Among the assertions of Briggs and his followers for which they 
cite no evidence are the following ; (1) His father, “ quitting Ms 

native^ country, travelled into India and eventually reached Ahmudnuggur 
in the Deccan, during the reign of Moortuza Nizam Shah ” [acc. to J&ncy. Jsl. 
Firishtah “ was brought to Aiimadnagar as a child in the reign, of Husain 
Nizam Shah I ”], (2) Firishtah “ states that he had only attained his twelfth 
year when he reached Ahuxudnuggur ”, (3) “ Gholam Ally Hindoo Shah . . . 
was. selected, on account of his erudition, to instruct the Prince Meeran Hoossein 
in the Persian language ”, (4) “ it seems probable that the former [i.e. Firishtah’s 
father] died at Ahmudnuggur not long after his arrival there. Ferishta was 
[sic i] thus left an orphan in his youth”. Mohl’s statement that Firishtah 
Was at one time in .Bada khsh an is based on a misconception. The reference 
to Bada khsha n occurs in a quotation from the Tdnjch i BadddT. It was Mirza 
Haidar, not Firishtah, who was at one time in Bada khsh an. 

1 Bombay ed. ii p. 253 penult., [Lucknow] ed. of 1281/1864, iip. 130, 1. 6 : 
dar ‘ ahd i farkhutidak % an duih i Jam-jah bah sitm i rushd % tamiz rasidah 
dar silk i mmkaran muntasim gardM. Not m Briggs’s translation, 

2 094/1580 according to Enctj. Id, under Nizam-Shah, but Firishtah gives 

the date of Ms death as 18 Rajah 096, ' . 

a dar ' unfit n-tih i jawanl, Bombay ed. i p. 4, 11. 5-6, Lucknow ed. i p. 3 penult.,, 
Briggs’s trans. i p. xlvii. 

* Mohl consistently calls this person Mihrab Khan. 

5 Bombay ed. ii p. 286, L 9, Lucknow ed. ii p. 146, l. 15, Briggs’s translation 
iii p. 267, Journal ties savants 1840, p. 214 (where Mohl gives a detailed account 
of these events). 



444 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

he joined the army a little later, to arrest Firishtah, but the 
latter was warned by a friend and managed to escape on. a 
dromedary. He disclosed the plot to the king and, on being 
asked for his advice, made certain recommendations. Yielding 
to the persuasion of a disloyal favourite, the king decided to 
remain in the palace, contrary to FirishtaVs advice. Hearing of 
this, the troops who had remained loyal lost heart and left 
Ahmadnagar to join Mfrza Khan. .Firishtah, who was -apparently 
captain of the palace guard 1 or something of that kind, and live 
or six others were all who remained in the palace with the king. 
"Not long afterwards Mlrza Khan and Mirim Husain with thirty 
or forty ruffians entered the palace and Firishtah would have : 
been killed if Miran Husain had not recognised him and , respecting, 
his claims as a school-fellow, 2 spared his life. 

The deposition and murder of Miran Husain Nizam-Shah 
after a reign of only ten months led to xenophobic disturbances 
and a massacre from which few 4 4 foreigners ** (ghanbdn, i.e. non- 
Dakanis, and their descendants, ghanb-zadahu ) escaped, and 
these, less than 300 in number, were expelled to Bijapur on the 
“ ‘Id i Ramadan 3! 997/1589. Through the influence of Dilawar 
Khan. Regent during the minority of Ibrahim ‘Adil-Shah II, 
they were given appointments, and on 19 Safar 998/28 Dec, 1589 
Firishtah was presented at court and entered the government 
service at Bijapur. 3 

1 Raqim i fyuruf m Icih ba-muk&fagat- i durbar iiMighfd da§ bj 8»-rfc' ba-lu<4'ur 
i aqdas talabidah ba-mukedamah i shnrif mr-afraz sukht, Bombay til. ti p, 287 till., 
Lucknow cd. ii ]). 14-7, I. 6, Briggs's trana. iii p, 208. 

2 Shah-zddqh bandah rd shimkhtah u nishat i him-nmktabi nmnzttr diidhtuh 
mand i kiujfiJun shud u mard ham-ruh i khmul bala-yi ‘ Iimrat i Baghdad burdah 
etc., Bombay ed« ii p» 288, 11. 9-10, Lucknow ed. ii p. 147, 1. 13, Briggs's transla- 
tion iii p. 2(59. Firishtah tells us that Mirim Husain on his accession was sixteen 
years old. Firishtah, to judge from the part played by him in them events, 
must have been at least several years older. The word ham-maktabl in this 
context seems to bo the basis for General Briggs's imaginative statement 
that “. Ghoiam Ally Hindoo Khah, the father of Ferishla, was selected, on 
account of his erudition, to instruct the Prince Meeran Ho ossein in the Persian 
language. 

3 u raqim i fyuruf nix dar nuzdahum i Safar mnah i tfyimin wa-tis'in u-a-tiK- 
mi f ah az Ahmadnagar bah Bijapur amadah Ui-wamtat i iJiluwir Khan ba~.^traf 
i a$iamh-bu$i i §hfih i '’addlut-gmtar muskirraf gcml'td u dar &ilk i naukuran, u 


445 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

At the end of Rabf al-Awwal 998/1590 Burhan Nizam-Shah, 
desiring to obtain the throne of Ahmadnagar, then occupied by 
his son, Ismael, sent messengers to Firishtah with an autograph 
parwdnah asking him to place before the King of Bijapur some 
letters appealing for support. Firishtah took the messengers to 
Dilawar Khan, the Regent, who submitted the letters to the 
king and obtained his consent to a campaign. 1 In a battle which 
ensued between Dilawar Khan and Jamal Khan, the dictator of 
Ahmadnagar, Firishtah was wounded and after fleeing to 
Darasang fell into the hands of Jamal Khan but escaped by a 
stratagem. 2 In Rajah of the same year he was among those who 
accompanied the king on the. night journey against Dilawar 
Khan, which resulted in the latter’s fall and flight to Bidar. 3 ? 

In Safar 1013/July 1604 Firishtah accompanied the palanquin 
of Begam Sultan, Ibrahim ‘Adil-Shah’s daughter, from Bijapur 
to Paithan on the Godavari, where she was married to Akbar’s 
son Daniyal, and thence to Burhanpur, where Daniyal died a 
few months later. 4 At the beginning of Jahangir’s reign 
(a.ii. 1014/1605-1037/1 628) Firishtah was sent to Lahore by 
Ibrahim ‘Adil-Shah for a purpose which is not specified. 5 In 
1023/1614 he visited the fortress of Aslr, 6 and he was still alive 

imdaziman i u intizdm yaftah td yaum al-lahrir az khdk-mbdn i an l atabah i 
'nit yah ast, Bombay ed. ii p. 295, I. 8, Lucknow eel. ii p. 150 antepenult., 
Briggs's trans. iii p. 277. Of. Bombay ed. i p. 4, i. II, ii p. 120, 1. 5, Lucknow 
ed. i p. 4, 1. 3. ii p. 62, i. 9, Briggs’s trails, i p. xlvii (the passage occurring in 
vd; ii p. 120, i. 5 of the Bombay edition is omitted by Briggs). In the last 
passage Firishtah says that he received his appointment on the 1st. of Rabid 
al-Awwal. : 

1 Bombay ed. ii p. 120, Lucknow ed. ii p. 02. Not in. Briggs’s translation. 

2 Bombay ed. ii p. 124, 11. 4, 11, Lucknow ed. ii p. 64, II. 7, 11, Briggs’s trans. 
iii p, 104, 11. 1, 1L 

3 Bombay ed. ii p. 126 ult., Lucknow ed. ii p. 65, 1. 18, Briggs’s trans. iii p. 167. 

4 Bombay ed. ii p. 543, 1. 12 (cf. i p. 510, 1. 11). Lucknow ed. ii p. 277, 1. 14 
(cf. i p. 27 1, 1. 21), Briggs’s trans. iv p. 284 (ef. ii p. 279). 

* Bombay rd. i p. 230 antepenult. : Jt InsawwA i in auraq 3I.Q.F . cUun clar 
avn'il i 1 ahd i Xur al-Din M. Jahangir Padshah az jdnih % sultan i ' asr Ibrahim. 
’Adi! -Shah fn-baldak i Luhaur rasulah az bal'd i viardum i an-ja , . . istifmr i ad 
u nasal) u iudman i Tughluq-Shahi niiinJid, Lucknow ed. i p. 130, 11. 6-8, 
Briggs's trans. i j>. 401 . ,. '■/.'.y c d 

« Bombay ed. ii p, 567, 1. 7, Lucknow ed. ii p. 200, 11. 26-7. Not in Briggs’s 
translation. yh: 



446 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

in 1033/1623-4, if the record of the death of Bahadur Khan 
Faruql at Igrah in that year 1 was not inserted in his history 
by a later hand. 

As Firishtah tells us in two places, 2 he was encouraged in the 
writing of bis history by Ibrahim ‘Adil-Shiih, who on an occasion 
wdien he was presented at court by Shah-natvaz Khan (Khwajah 
Sa‘d al-Dln Hnayat-Allah ShlrazI) gave him a copy of the Randal 
al-safd ’ (for which seep. 92 supra) and instructed him to write 
a history of India which should be an improvement upon the 
very concise and, especially in matters relating to the Deccan, 
inadequate history of Nizam al-Dm Ahmad Ba fchshf , He also 
received much encouragement from Blnih-nawaz Khan. 3 Firishtah 
wrote also an exposition of the Indian system of medicine, entitled 
Dastur al-atihbff and often called Ikhtiydmt i Qdshm , which is 
extant in many manuscripts (e.g. Rieu Suppt. 160, Bthe 2318-24, 
cf. Fonahn Zur Quettenkunde der per sisclien Medizin pp. 22-3). 

Gulshan i Ibrahimi, usually called TdrlM i Fmshiah, a 
general history of India dedicated to Ibrahim, ‘Add -Shah and 
existing in two slightly different recensions, the first dated 
(in the preface) 1015/1606-7, the second, with a new title, 
Tankh i Nauras-namah, 1018/1609-10 (both contain later 
insertions), 4 both divided into a muqaddimah (on the beliefs of 
the Hindus, their early rajahs and the coming of Islam to India), 
twelve maqalahs ((1) the Ghaznawids of Lahore, (2) the Sultans 
of Delhi, (3) the Deccan in six ramlalis ((i) Bahmanids, (ii) *AdiI- 
Shahs, (iii) Nizam-Shahs, (iv) Qutb-Shahs, (v) Hmad-Shfihs, 
(vi) Barldis), (4) Gujrat, (5) Malwah, (6) Burhanpur, (7) Bengal 
(including the Sharqls of Jaunpur), (8) Sind, Tattah and Multan, 

1 Bombay ed. ii p. 568, Lucknow eel. ii p. 291 uU. Not in Briggs's t ranslation. 

a Bombay ed. i p. 4, ii p. 156 penult., Lucknow ed, i p. *1, ii p, 70, Briggs's 
trans. i p. xlrii (the second passage is nut translated by Briggs). 

3 Bombay ed. ii p. 151, 1. 6, Lucknow ed. ii p. <7, 1. 23 (not translated by 
Briggs). 

4 The Bombay and Lucknow editions have the date 1015 arid the title G'ttlxhfin 
i Ibrahim! in the preface, but they contain the later dates 1018 {described 
as the current year Bombay ed. i p. 104, 1. 12, Lucknow ed. i p. tin, 4, \\ p, 177), 
1023 (Bombay ed. i p. 603, 1. 16, p. 724, J. 2, ii p. 77, ante penult., p. 567, 1. 7, 
Lucknow cd. i p, 358, l 5, p. 373, 1. II, ii p. 41, 1. 17, p. 260, I. 26) and 1033 
(Bombay ed. ii p. 568, 1. 7, Lucknow ed. ii p, 291 ult.}. 



447 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

(9) the Samagan or Zamlndars of Sind (the Jam and Arghun 
dynasties and the Sultans of Multan), (10) Kashmir, (11) Malabar, 
(12) Indian saints) and a Jchdtvmah (a short description of India) : 
EtM 296 (defective and damaged. a,h. 1042/1633), 291 
(a.h. 1058/1648), 292 (a.h. 1141/1728-9 and 1163/1750), 293 
(a.h. 1176/1762), 294 (Nauras-ndmah [?]. N.d.), 295 (apparently 
Nauras-ndmah. N.d.), 297-301 (five incomplete copies), Rieu i 
2266~227a (defective, breaking off near the beginning of Maqdlah 
xi (Malabar). 2 vols. in the same hand, the first dated a.h. 1048/ 
1639), 225a (18th cent.), 227a (a.h. 1209/1795), 227a ( Naums - 
ndmah. Late 17th cent.), 2276 ( N aums-ndmah . Lacunae, 17th 
cent.), 2276 (Nauras-ndmah. a.d. 1779), 228a (from Akbar to 
beginning of Raudah 6. 18th cent.), 228a (Maqdlah iii only, 
19th cent.). Lindesiana p. 141 nos. 378-9 (circ. a.h. 1079/1668-9), 
826 (circ. a.d, 1760), 380 (“ Parts i. ii. and iii. only.” Circ. 
a.d. 1810), Aumer 23 6 (Nauras-namah 1 a.h. 1087/1676-7), 
Blochet i 536 (late 17th cent.), 537-9 (lacuna, a, h. 1164/ 
1750-1), 540 (fragments. 18th cent.), Berlin 465 (Naums- 
namah. a.h. 114 = 1114/1703 [?]), 462-3 (a.h. 1212/1797- 
1214/1800), 464 (a.h. 1208/1793), 466 (defective at both ends 
and elsewhere), 467 (vol. i, defective), 468 (part of Maqdlah iii 
only), Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pers. A.I. 9 ( MuqaddimaJi and 
Maqdlahs i-ii. a.h. 1139/1727), Leningrad Asiat. Mus. (a.h. 
1146/1733. See Melanges asiatiques iii (1859) p. 499. For another 
MS. see Melanges asiatiques vi (1873) p. 124), R.A.S. P. 61 — Morley 
48, P. 62 —Morley 49 (a.h. 1147/1734-5), P. 63 = Morley 50 (de- 
fective. a.h. 1159/1746), P. 64 = Morley 51 (Muqaddimah (part) 
and Maqdlahs i-ii), P.65 — Morley 52 ( Muqaddimah and Maqdlahs 
i-ii), Ivanow 138 (2nd half of Maqdlah ii. a.h. 1147/1734-5), 
135 (early 12th/18th cent.), 136 (late 12th/18th cent.), 137 
(Maqdlahs i-ii. I2th/l8th cent.), 139 ( Maqdlah iv. Late 12th/ 
18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 82 (Maqdlahs i-ii), 83 (vol. ii 
(i.e. Maqdlah iii, Raudah 2 to the end of the work), a.h. 1152/ 
1739-40), Suppt. 1100-2 (3 copies, Christ’s), 1103 (a.h. 1198/ 
1783-4. King’s), Edinburgh 200 (vol. i, Not later than a.h. 117 8/ 
1764-5), Vollers 977, 978 (vol. i), 979 (vol. ii. a.h. 1246/1830-1), 
980 (a.h. 1208/1793-4), Rehatsek p. 90 nos. 33-5 (a.h. 1222/ 
1806-7), 36 (MuntaMab az TawdnJeh i Firishtah (most of Maqdlah 


448 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETG. 

iii apparently), a.h. 1243/1827), Bombay Univ. 17 (vol. i. a.il 
3256/1841), Asaflyah i p. 228 no. 704 (a.il 1257/1841), iii 
p. 90 n ok. 998, 1074, 1282 (the last dated a.h. 1160/1747}/: 
Bankipur vii 538-9 (19th cent.), Bodleian 217 ( Muqaddimah and 
Maqalahs i-ii), Caetani 71, Dresden 376 (vol. i). 

/ Editions : Tdrikh i Firishfah, Bombay (and Poonah) 1831-2°* 1 
(edited by Major-General J,. Briggs;;' and. Mir' 'Ehairat^Al! Khali 
“ Mushtacj ”, Some of the copies have also an English title-page : 
Tarikh-i-Fcrishta, or History of the rise of the Ma/mmedan power 
in India , till the year a.h. 1612 , hy Mahonn-d Kasim- Ferislda . . . 
edited and collated from various manuscript copies , , . by Major- 
General J. Briggs ■ ... . . assisted by Mir: Klmrdt/AU IUian Mushtak), 
[Lucknow], Nawal Ivishore, '« 1281/1864-5°, Oawnpore 1290/ 
1874*, 1884*. 

Extracts : (1) [Maqdlah xi .(Malabar)' with English translation 
by Anderson] The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. ii (Calcutta 1786) 
pp. ^ 278- . a (2) Elliot Bibliographical index , Muntakhabdt , 
pp. 76-84. 

English translation [somewhat abridged] of the whole work 
except Maqdlah x ii : History of the rise of the Mahomxdan power 
in India , till the year a.d. 1612, Translated from the . . . Persian 
of Mahomed Kasim Ferishta , by J. Briggs. To which is addeil } 
an account of the conquest , bg the Kings of Hydrabad, of those 
parts of the- Madras Provinces denominated the Ceded Districts 
and Northern Ci rears . London 1829' : *. Calcutta 1908-10°*. 

Urdu translation by M. Fidii-bUi “ l Tfdib ” (with a few brief 
notes by S. lluslmm Farldabadi) : Haidarabad 1920-32* 
(Osmania University Press. 4 vols., containing apparently the 
whole work except the lives of the saints. Only vol. i contains 
an index). 

Translations of extracts: (1) f Maqalahs l and ii only] The 
history of Hindustan, from the earliest account of time to the death 

1 IHUl is the date given on tin* English title-page. In the Persian colophon 
the date of completion is said to he the last day of ,'DeeeinU‘r 1832 [tore] eorre- 
spun ding to the 27th of Rajah 1247. Thu 27th of Rajah 1247 was the 1st of 
January 1832, A'....;;.'. "/.Xv; 7: ' ! 

* The 1.0. copy of vol. ii is defective, ending with p. 124. 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA* (a) GENERAL 


449 


of Ahbar ; translated from the Persian of Mahimvmud Casim 
Ferishta . . . together until a dissertation concerning the religion 
ami philosophy of the Brahmins. With an appendix containing 
the history of the Mogul Empire from its decline in the reign of 
Mahummud Shorn to the present time. By A. Bow. 2 vols. London 
1768°, 1779-2°* (2nd ed., enlarged. With, a third volume con- 
taining The history of Hindostan from the death of Ahbar to 
the . . . settlement of the empire under Aunmgzebe [compiled from 
various writers] . . . A dissertation on the origin and nature of 
despotism in Hindostan . . . An enquiry into the slate of Bengal 
. . . By A. Dene), 1792 (3rd ed. See Morley, p. 07, n. 4), 1803 
(4th ed. See Morley ibid.), 1812* (“ New edition ”). (2) [. Maqalah 
xi (Malabar)] see above under Extracts (1). (3) [Maqalah iii 
(the Deccan)] Ferishta* s History of Dekkan, from the first Mahum- 
medan conquests : with a continuation from other native writers 
[or rather, from Bhlm Sen’s Dil-kushd in abridged translation] 
of the events in that part of India to the reduction of its last monarchs 
by the Emperor Aulumgeer Aunmgzebe ; also, the reigns of his 
successors in the empire of Hindostan to the present day [translated 
from the Memoirs of Iradat Khan and other works] : and the 
Mstory of Bengal, from the accession of Aliverdee Khan to the 
■pear,::! 780 [translated as far as the death of ‘All-Wirdi Khan 
“ from a Persian manuscript ” (see p. 717 infra ) and thereafter 
from the Siyar al-muta’ akhkM rin of Ohulam-Husain Khan], Com- 
prised in six parts. [Translated] By Jonathan Scott. Shrewsbury 
1794 c *. London 1800 (2nd ed. Sec Morley p. 67, n. 6), London 
n.d, [?] (3 vols. 8vo. See Morley ibid.). (4) [Extracts from Briggs’s 
translation] Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 322-36. (5) [The 

same extracts] Elliot and Dowson History of India vipp. 218-36. 
(6) [The Maqaddmah] Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 
pp. 532- 69. 

Descriptions : (1) J. Mohl in Journal des savants , 1840, pp. 212- 
26, 354-72. 392-403. (2) Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 310-39. 
(3) Elliot and Dowson History of India vi pp. 207-36. (4) Ency. 
Isl. under Fnrisbta. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Gulfhan i IhrdJwm ; 


450 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Briggs’s translation, 1829 ed., vol. i pp, xxxix-xlvi {unsatis- 
factory, since there are no precise references to the translation, 
which, moreover, omits some of the author’s allusions to himself) ; 
J. Briggs Essay on the life and writings of Ferishta (in Transactions 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. ii (1830) pp. 341-61) ; J. Mohl 
in Journal des savants 1840 pp. 212-20 (contains references to 
the Bombay text) ; Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 310-13 (based 
on Briggs and Mohl) ;■ Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 
pp. 207-9 (a repetition of the preceding) ; Morlev pp, 63-4; 
Bieu i 225 ; Bankipur vii 538 ; Ency. Id. nnder Fvrishta (some 
conjectures are stated here as facts. No precise references).] 

618. An anonymous author 1 compiled from Fkishtah and 
other histories a 

Tarikh i rajaha (or hdhimdn) i Hind (beg. I)ar muHaqaddi 
% ahl i Hind), a sketch of Indian history in twelve maqdhhs 
corresponding to those of Firishtah : EtM 303 (a.h. 1149/1736), 
304 (n.d,). ■ 

619. M. Sharif al-Najafi (HanafI acc. to Elliot and Dowson) 
was bom in the Deccan. In an official capacity he visited 
Cvujrat, Malwah, Ajmer, Delhi, Agra, the Panjab, Sind, and 
Kashmir, the last in 1031/1621-2 in the train of Jahangir and 
under the command of Q.asim Khan. 

Majdlis al-salditn 5 a brief history of the kings of Delhi, 
the Deccan and Kashmir, completed a ,h. 1038/1628 -9 : Rieu 
hi 9066 (circ. a.h. 1850). /■ ■ . ; b 

Extracts (chiefly on Kashmir) translated by a mimski : B.M. 
MS. Add. 30,779, foil. 92-102. 

Description and 4.1 pp. of .translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii 134-140., mi/ 

620. Banwall or Banwall-Das « Wall ”, who is sometimes 

1 EtM gives 1018/1600-10 as the date of compilation, but presumably the 
passage where 1018 is mentioned as the current year is a quotation from 
FirMitah, .; : y by v-yr:.- b. .bib./ 


451 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : {a) GENERAL 

called Wall Ram, 1 was a munshi under Shall- Jahan’s eldest son 
Dara-Shukoh and received instruction in Sufism from Dara- 
Shukoh’s pir, Mulla Shah Radakhshi (for whom see p. 18 supra). 
His Mathnawi in six wazns (beginning Qadird az man mam, 
bi-slan u bas . See Ivanow Curzon 270, 462 (27), Sprenger no. 564) 
was written, in part at Ieast, in 1054-5/1644-5, and his Gulzar 
i MI, a translation of the Sanskrit drama Praboddia Chandrodaya. 
in 1073/1662-3 (for MSS. see Rieu iii 1043, Ethe 1995-6, Ross 
and Browne 195, Eton 157. Editions : Bombay 1862*, Lucknow 
3877*, 1887°). According to the editor’s preface to the 1868 
edition of his diwdn he died in 1085/1674-5. 

An incomplete manuscript of his diwdn , containing ghazals, 
couplets, nibd%s and part of the above-mentioned Mathnawi, 
is preserved at Calcutta (Ivanow Curzon 270). The Diwan i 
Walt published at Lahore in 1868* contains only cjhazals 
(beginning, as in Ivanow Curzon 270, Ganji kill bud ma tch, f t 
aknun shud dshkara ) and two pages of rubd‘is. According to the 
preface to that edition “ Wall s> wrote many works such as the 
Maliit i malrifai (a mathnawi), the Gulzdr i ML a Hindi diwan 
and a Persian diwdn entitled Ganj i ‘ irfdn . The Mathnawi i 
Wall Ram published at Lahore in 1867* by the same press as 
the afore-mentioned Diwdn i Wall and at Siyalkot (though 
printed apparently at Gujranwalah) in [1876°*] seems to differ 
considerably from the mathnawi described by Ivanow. It is 
divided into six jilds and begins Md zi-hufr u din hamah 
bi-gdhashtah im. The third jild opens with the words given by 
Ivanow as the beginning of the third wazn. The King’s College 
MS. no. 14 (Browne Suppt. 1446) is described as “ A collection of 
five Persian tracts on Hindu religion, etc., viz. (1) Kayan top-hi 
in verse ; (2) Rdm Gita ; (3) MisbahLl-Huda ; (4) Arjun Gild ; 

1 In the colophon of tho Top-khilnah MS. of the Mathnawi i Wait Bam 
(Sprenger no. 564) he is called Swamx Wall Ram ‘urf Baba Banwall-Das. 
Other forms in which his names and designations occur are BanwalI-.Das 
al-mutakhallis Si-Wall munshi i Sultan Ddrd-Shukoh (colophon of B.M. MS. 
Rieu ii 855a), Banwall Ram muialchallis ha- Wall (editor’s preface to the 
1868 edition of the diwdn). Wall Ram Gosa’In Dara-Shukoh! (Asafiyah i p. 240), 
etc. A ntbd‘1 which is quoted in the editor’s preface but which does not occur in 
the body of the 1868 edition of the diwdn contains the words Ism i bad-an-am 
nist ba-juz Banimlt Dar shi^r takhallus-am Wali,ai Wall. 



452 


n. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, 

(5) Discussion between Dara Shukuh. and Baba Dal all by Malt 
Ram, except No. 4, which is by Abu’I-faclI ”, 

The Matknawi i Wall Ram ma'ruf bah Gkashmak. i ‘irfan 
published at [Lucknow] in 1875°* and at Rawalpindi in [1890°f] 
begins Ai shud.ah makhfl ba-hamdl i zulmr and consists of only 
a few pages {ten in the Lucknow edition). 

Rajawalij a short account of the Hindu rajahs of Delhi 
from Jud’hijditir to the invasion of ^ihab (Mu s izz) al-BIn M. b. 
Sam followed by a tabulated list of the subsequent Muslim rulers 
to Shah-Jahan (usually with continuations to later rulers such 
as Muhammad Shah and ‘Alamglr II) : Berlin 14 (80) (earlier 
than a.h. 1154/1741-2), 2 EiM 205 (n.d.), 206 (?){kte 18th 
cent.), Bloehet i 551 (18th cent.), 552 (1) and (2) (two slightly 
different recensions. Late 18th cent.), Kieu ii 855a (a.h. 1208/ 
1793), 9166 (circ. a.d. 1850), 925a (a.d. 1849), Lindeslana 
p. 127 no. 451 (circ. a.d. 1840), A§afiyah i p. 240 nos. 519, 778, 
Bodleian 170 (n.d.), Browne Suppt, 644 (King's 198), 1458 [?] 
(Corpus 115 2 ), Leyden iv p. 223 no. 1968, Mehren p. 18 no. 47. 

[Gul % ra‘na (Bankipur viii p. 133) ; other sources mentioned 
above.] 

621, Ray Bindraban , 3 son of Ray Bihara-Mal, 4 was Dhedn 
to Shah-'Alam Bahadur-Shah for a time before his accession. 5 

1 This Is a Sanskrit word meaning “ a line of kings ”, "" a royal dynasty or 

genealogy ”, Rieu mentions (vol. ill, p. 0106} that according to Sujan Ray 
YKk ulamt al-iaimnkh, p. 7, 11, 1-2] the Rfijiiwall was written originally in 
Hindi by Miifr Bidyad’har and was translated into Persian by Ribu Ram {Rieu 
writes ifibahn Ram], a disciple of Wall Ram {Nu&fcbah. i JtiijawuU kih Mixr 
JBidy&d’har asc'mii i rujaha ha-khaU i Hindumt mmMah u an m Kahn Ram 
kkulamh i mund-an i Gum’ In Wall-Rain ba-Hhdmt i ntarijh&wth ba-f&rM 
dar-dwardah). , : dyd;.-R Mi- ■■ (ddyRAM-'X'yR,;'. 

2 Pertseh ascribes the work to M. Khalil Allah, 

3 Bindraban Dm Bahadur-Shahl is what Khaf! Khan calls him (voh ii, 
p. 211 ult.). 

4 According to the Tadhkimi al-umand (B..M. MB. Add. 16,703, fob 134, 
cited by Rieui p. 2286} Bihara-Mal, Bmxm tv I>ara-tUjukoh, received the title 
of Ray in Shah- Jahan’s 20th regnal year and died in the 26th year. 

5 This is stated by a former owner of the B.M. MS, Add. 2.1,786 (Luhb at* 
tamrikh i Hind =* Rieu i 2296} in a note tinted a.h. 1H6/ 1736-7. Cf. Khafi 
Khan ii p. 211 ult.,-212 1 , where the word Muiamddl is used, not I Rutin, 


453 


JVL HISTORY OF INDIA : (d) GENERAL 

An inscription found at Elgandal Port (in the Haidarabad 
State) seems to show that be was at one time Governor of that 
fort, “an important outpost, on the north-east frontier of the 
Qutb-Shahl kingdom " (see Annual report of the Director-General 
of Archaeology in India, 1920-1, p. 39). During the siege of 
Brjapur in 1095/1684 he was dismissed from the army by 
Aurangzeb on the ground that he was implicated in Shah- 
‘Alam’s secret communication with the enemy (see Khafi Khan 
ii p. 321). 

Lubb al-tawarikh i Hind, , or, as in some MSS., 
Luhb al-tawarikh simply, a concise history of India from Shihab 
al-Dln (Mu‘izz al-Din) M. b. Sam (a.h. 572/1176-7) to a.h. 1101/ 
1689-90, abridged mainly from Firishtah as far as a.h. 1000/ 
1591—2, in. ten fasls ((1) Delhi, (2) The Deccan, (3) Gujrat, 
(4) Malwah, (5) Khandesh. (6) Bengal, (7) Jaunpur, (8) Sind, 
(9) Multan, (10) Kashmir) : Rieu i 2286 (late 17th cent.), 
2296 (a.h. 1119/1707), 2296 (a.h. 1149/1737), 2296 (18th cent.), 
2296 (19th cent.), iii 9076 (a.h. 1196/1782), 9076 (extracts), 
9656 (extracts. Circ. a.d. 1850), Ethd 358 (a.h. 1110/1698), 
359 (a.h. 1131/1719), 360 (a.h. 1156/1743), 361 (extract), 
LO. D.P. 715 (a.h. 1148/1735), Mehren 48 (a.h. 1144/1731), 
Bloehet i 543 (late 18th cent.), Ivanow 161 (late 18th cent.), 
Bmdesiana p. 127 no. 430 (circ. a.d. 1820), A§afiyah iii p. 108 
no. 1067 (date given as a.h. 1019 [!]), Bodleian 245 (defective 
at both ends), Eton 176, Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental 
College Magazine , vol. ii no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 46). 

Description and 2| pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii 168-73. 

622. MunshI 1 Sujan 2 Ray Bhandari, 3 or Sujan Singli D’hlr, 4 

1 Mundu al-manfisht [sic] is the title prefixed to Sujan Bay’s name in the 
colophon of the 1.0. MS. D.P. 637a. This is evidently the title which. Bieu 
quotes in a corrupt fonn. 

* Sujan, a Hindi word of Sanskrit origin meaning “well-informed, wise, 
intelligent ”, is probably the correct form of this author’s name, though the 
Ewy. Id, appears, for some unexplained reason, to prefer the form Sanjan, 
which occurs in some of the colophons. Bieu points out that no less than three 
Sujan Sing’lis are mentioned in the Tadhkirat al-umara, ’ (cf. McCathir al-umara' 
ii pp. 291, 452). [For notes 3 and 4 see p. 454.] 



454 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


whose name is mentioned in the text of some MSS. 1 of the Khulasat 
al-tawdnkh and in some of the copyists’ colophons, tells us that 
he was born at Batalah 2 ( Kh. al-t. p. 7I 20 ) and that from his 
youth up he had been a munsfu in the employ of officials ( Kh . al-t ., 
preface). In the colophons of the B.M. MS. Add. 5559 (cf. Rieu i 
p. 230a) and the I.O. MS. 637a it is said that he was well-versed 
in the Hindi, Persian and Sanskrit hilum. The latter colophon 
(perhaps also the former) says that he was nadir al-'asr wa-l- 
dauran in calligraphy, mimshfgari and ha-hamah si fat (!). Another 
work of his, the Khulasat al~inshd\ was completed, according to 
Rieu, in ‘Alamglrs 35th year, a.h. 1102 -3 (cf. n. 1 on this page, 
where the date is given as 1105, perhaps by a misprint). Extracts 
from it are preserved in the British Museum (see Rieu iii 
p. 1017a). The Khulasat al-makdtib , “ a rich collection of 
specimens of refined prose-style intermixed with verses, on all 
possible topics, by Suj an Singh or Sujan Rai Munshi of Paty&ia 
[sic] ” (Ethe 2109), was written in ‘Alamgir's 42nd year, a.h. 1110 
(see Oriental College Magazine, vol. x no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1934) pp. 66-7). 

Khulasat al-tawankh , written in two years and 
completed in 1107/1695-6, Aurangzeb’s fortieth regnal year, 
a history of India from the earliest times to Aurangzehs 

•-This caste-title is a. Hindi -word, meaning ' - • steward, 
treasurer”, la the corrupt colophon quoted from by itieu it. appears as 
“ BHZA.RX 

* Cf. J.RAS. 1893, p. 211, where the following statements are made in a 
letter from Qacli Ta$arldoq Husain, of Batnlah : “ . . . tinjiin Singh, was a 
dhlr khatri . •. Amb%..hw.;Writhigs''.theie is also a book called KhahLsat ptej 
al-Insha, in which he describes the art of polite writing. This was written' in 
1105 llijri. Home people also call him Siijiln Rdi, hut in both Looks he signs 
himself [afej Sujan Singh Dhfr. . . . Hie above information is derived from 
Ms hooks, for the inhabitants of Batalu of the dhir caste know nothing about 
him.” 

1 According to Kieu lie “designates himself as NujAu Singh Iiliir “ in the 
preface as given in the Ji.M. MS, Or. 1924 (Rieu iii p. DOHap Cf. Ivunow 
Curzon 32. 

3 The largest town in the Gurdaspur .District of the Can jab. Several of the 
eoloplions describe Hujati .Rfiy as a resident of Batalah. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 


455 


accession 1 * * * : R.A.S. P. 66 — Morley 53 (probably copied from 
a MS. written in 1130/1717), P. 67 = Morley 54 (a.h. 1223/ 
1808), P. 68 = Morley 55 (a.h. 1239/1823), Ivanow 162 (a.h. 
1140/1728), 163 (late 12th cent, h.), Cnrzon 32 (1194 Fasti/ 1787), 
33 (defective at both ends. Early 19th cent.), Bodleian 2354 
(to end of Hindu Rajahs only. a.h. 1150/1737), 246 (a.d. 
1816), MS. Pers. d. 28 (“recent 5 ’), Rieu hi 9076 (a.h. 1161/ 
1748), 9076 (circ. a.d. 1850), 908a (to Buhlul Lodi only. 
a.h. 1237/1821), i 230a (a.h. 1188/1774), 231a (a.h. 1164/1751), 
231a (a.d. 1767), 2316 (late 18th cent.), iii 10146 etc. (extracts 
only. Giro, a.d, 1850), landesiana p. 217 no. 159 (circ. a.d. 
1750), no. 122 (a.h. 1215/1800-1), no. 371 (circ. a.d. 1800), 
no. 821 (a.h. 1.229/1814), Edinburgh 201 (a.h. 1175/1761), 
Blochet i 544 (a.h. 1180/1766-7), 545 (a.h. 1182/1768-9), 546 
(with another preface containing the title Tadhhimt 
Defective at end. 18th cent.), 547 (late 18th cent.), 548 (late 
18th cent.), Aumer 237 (n.d.), 238 (Akbar to Aurangzeb only. 
a.d. 1792), MM 362 (a.h. 1216/1802), 363 (a.d. 1854), 364 
(fragment only, to end of Hindu Rajahs. N.d.), ii 3012 (18th 
cent.}, 1.0. D.P. 637a (18th cent.), Calcutta Madrasah 128 (defec- 
tive. Circ. a.d. 1800), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (4 copies dated 
a.h. 1224/1809-10 etc. three of them containing a continuation, 
JDmmmah i Kh. al-t ., by Jai Kishan Das Mihrah, dealing with 
Aurangzeb’s reign and one an anonymous further continuation 
from Aurangzeb’s death to a.h. 1158/1745. See Oriental 
College Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) pp. 46-8), 

* Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 954 (10) (a.h. 1226/1811), Berlin 
472 (a.h, 1227/1812), BanMpur vii 540 (a.h. 1234/1819), Suppt. 
1762 (a.h. 1231/1816), VoUers 984, 985 (a.d. 1842), A§aSyah i 
p, 238 nos. 515 and 648, iii p. 102 no. 1062 (a.h. 1263/1847), 
Browne Pers. Cat. 84 (breaks off in the history of Multan, 
which is inserted in Babur’s reign), Suppt. 436 (King’s 156), 

1 The first volume of the Siyar al-muta,’ a kkkh irln is little more than a 

verbal transcript of the Khulasat al-tawankh. According to £ Abd al- 

Muqtadir the Kh, al-t. contains little that is not found in Firishtah {sc. 

to the death of Akbar). It enters into minute details concerning the contest 

between Aurangzeb and his brothers. 



456 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


Madras 128, Bosen Institut 16 (breaks off in. Humayurfs reign), 
XJpsala Zettersteen 401. 

Edition ; The Khulasatu-t~Tawarikh by Sujan Rai Bhmulari 
edited by M. Zafar Hasan . . Delhi 1918* (540 pp.). The 
editions of the Muqaddimah to the Siyar a l-mvta ‘ a khkh irin 
(fox which see p. 638 infra) can also be regarded as editions of 
th e EJiMlasat aldawRnkh.hl 

Translation of the topographical and statistical account of the 
subahs (omitting the last, Kabul) : The India of .4 urangzih 
(i topography , statistics , ami roads) compared with the India of 
Akbar with extracts from the KhuIasatu-t~Tawarikh and the 
Chahar Gulshan translated and annotated by Jadimath Sarkar , 
Calcutta 1901°*, pp. 1-122 [corresponding to pp. 28-83'. in 
Zafar Hasan’s edition]. . . 

Descriptions: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 
pp. 5-12 (including a translation of the account of Delhi, If pp.), 
(£) The Khaldsat [sic]-at-Taiodnkh, or Essence of History ; being 
the description and history of India as told by a Hindu two hundred 
years ago. Tty H. Beveridge (in JRAS. 1894 pp. 733-68), (3) The 
India of Aurangzib . . . by Jadumth Sarkar, Calcutta 1901 , 
pp. xi-xv. 

Free .Urdu translation (or, in places, adaptation *) of the 
earlier part (less than one-third of the whole), which desk 
mainly with the geography of India and the Hindu Rajahs of 
Delhi 1 2 * * : Arayish i makfil begun in 1219/1804 and com- 
pleted in 1220/1805 by Mir Sher ‘All AfsGs " Ja'fari b. 8. ‘All 
Muzaffar Khan, an Urdu poet, who was Head Munshl in the 
Hindustani department at the College of Fort William, and who 
died at Calcutta in 1809 (see Spronger p. 198, Saksoia History 
of Urdu literature pp. 244-5) : I.O. 2048 Blumlmrdt 39 (a MB. 
from the College of Fort William which does not contain 
“AfsosV 5 preface and introduction). 

1 The translator lias both added and subtracted, especially 'in the 'accounts 

of the subahs. 

z In his preface the translator expressed his intention of translating the. 

part relating to the Muhammadan rulers, but there seems to he no evidence 

that he ever carried out this intention. 



457 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Editions of the Arayish i mahfil : Calcutta 1808°*, 1848°*, 
1863°, Lahore 1867*, Lucknow 1870*. 

English translation : The Araish-i-Mahfil ; or, The ornament 
of the assembly, literally translated from the Oordoo by Major 1 
Henry Court . . ., Allahabad 1871°*, Calcutta 1882°*. 

Extracts from the Arayish i mahfil : (X) [The general descrip- 
tion of India, its spring and rainy season, fruits, flowers, animals, 
Hindu learning, ascetics, army, women] Muntakhabdt-i-Hindi , 
or Selections in Hindustani ..... By John Slialcespear . . . vol. i 
(London 1817°*} pp. 79-134, (2) [The description of the subahsj 
ibid . vol. ii (London 1818°*) pp. 3-188. 

Translations of extracts from the Arayish i mahfil (1) [The 
Hindu “sciences” (French)] Quelques ligms sur les sciences des 
Indfans extraites de VAraich-i-mahfil . » . et traduites de Vhindo- 
stanipar M. [J. H. S. V.} Garcin de Tossy (in the Journal asiatique 
[1st series] tome ix (Paris 1826*) pp. 97-115). (2) [On the fruits 
and flowers of India (French)] Quelques Ugnes sur les fruits et 
les flours de VHindostan, extraites de VAratch % Mahfil ou Statis- 
lique et Mstoire de VHindostan, . ..et traduites . . par M. Gramm 
de Tossy (in the Journal asiatique [1st series] tome xi (Paris 
1827*) pp. 94-105). (3) [Most of the general description of India, 
its spring and rainy season, elephants, carriages and palanquins, 
inhabitants, army, women, and of the geographical description 
of the subahs (French)] Histoire de la litteraiure hindoui [so] et 
hindoustani [so] par M. [J. H. S. V.] Gar chide Tassy [First edition], 
tome ii (Paris 1847°*) pp. 310-411. (4) [Most of the general 
description of India, its spring and rainy season, carriages and 
palanquins, inhabitants, army, women (but not the descrip- 
tion of the subahs , which is now omitted)] Histoire de la litteraiure 
hindouie et hindouManie par M. [J. H. S. V,] Garcin de Tassy . . . 
seconds edition , tome i (Paris 1870°*) pp. 125-36. (5) [History 

of the Pandavas (French)] Histoire du regne des Pandavas dans 
Vllindoustan, trade he du texts hindoustani de V Armch-i Mahfil 
. , , par M, Gabbe [Francois Marie] Bertrand (in the J ournal 

1 Major is a Christian name of the translator’s, not a military title. At the 
date of publication M. H, Court was a lieutenant in the Bengal Cavalry. 



458 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

asiatique, 3 P serie, tome xlv (Paris 1842°*) pp. 71-107. (8) [The 

Hindu Rajahs from Parikshit to the Muslim conquest (French)] 
Bistoire des rois de VHindoustan apres les Pandavas, traduite . . . 
par M. Table [F. M.] Bertrand (in the Journal asiatique, 4? 
serie, tome iii (Paris 1844*°) pp. 104-23, 229-57, 354-77. 
(7) [Ten of the fourteen chapters or sections contained in Shakes- 
pears Mmitakhabdt-i-Hzndi, vol. i (only), those on the fruits, 
flowers, crocodile, etc., Hindu sciences and women being omitted] 
Ardyish i mahfil [these words printed in the Arabic character] 
or Assemblage of ornament. Ten sections of a description of India, 
being the most interesting portion of J. Slmkespead s MwntaMmbat - 
i-Hindi . . . Translated . . , and accompanied with notes, ex- 
planatory and grammatical , by N. L. Benmohel , Dublin 18473 

Descriptions of the Ardyish i mahfil : (1) Bistoire de la Uttem - 
ture hvndoid ei hindoustani par M. Qarcm de Tassy , [first edition], 
tome i (Paris 1839*), pp. 31-2, second© ed., tome i (Paris 1870*) 
pp. 124-5, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 6-7, 
( 3 ) H. Beveridge Kkaldsat-[sic] at-Tawdrikh . . . {in JR AS. 
1894) pp. 734, 747-8, 750-2. 

[Kkuldsat cd-tawarikh pp. 6 U 12 (for many years mnnshl to 
officials), 7 1 20 (Batalah his birthplace), 86 penult, (saw certain 
women in the neighbourhood of Kabul), 35 ia (visit to the gardens 
at Pinjaur) ; colophons of certain MSB. : H. Beveridge The 
Khaktscdfsic] at-Tawdrikh . . . (in JR A 8. 1894) pp. 737, 763-4 ; 
Jadunath Sarkar The India of Aurangzib, Calcutta 1901, p. xi : 
Ency. 1st under Sand j an [,sic] Ray (M. Shaft).] 

623. Jagjlwan Das, son of Manohar Das, Gwjrati entered 
the Imperial sendee as harkdrah in 1105/1693-4 and from that 
time kept a record of current events. In 1119/1707-8 he received 
a Ichiiat from Bahadur Shah at Lahore, where he had been for 
two years in the Intelligence Department. 

Muniakhah al-tawdrikhf a sketch of Indian history 
written in 1120/1708-9 and, apart from the chapter dealing with 
Bahadur Shah, based apparently on the Lubb d-inwdrikh of 
Bindraban (see p. 453 supra): Bleu i 232 a (a.h. 1144/1731), 

1 MnntaVhab i iau&rikh in I.O. 451". 



HISTORY OF INDIA (a) GENERAL 


459 


2316 (a.h. 1257/1842), Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pers. A. iv 23 
(a.i-l 1231/1816, said to have been transcribed from a fair copy 
of the author’s dated a.h. 1131/1719), I.O. 4517 (a.h. 1240/ 
1825). 

[MimtaMab al-tawankh, preface (cf. Rieu i pp. 2316-232a).] 

624. The j r ear 1118/1706-7 is twice mentioned as the current 
year in a 

Dastur al-amal beginning Fihrist i tawdnkh i Rajahd i 
DiJiU wa~(jJtairah and containing chronological records down to 
Farrukhsiyar's 2nd year, a.h. 1126/1714, with lists of Shah- 
Jahan’s and Aurangzeb’s amirs, their titles etc. : Ivanow 381 
(a.h. 1271/1854—5), Rieuiii 9896 (transcribed from the preceding 
MS.). 

625. M. Hadl, a convert from Hinduism, entered the imperial 
service in Aurangzeb’s time. In the second year of Bahadur 
Shah’s reign he received the title of Kamwar Khan at the 
recommendation of Prince Raff al-Shan, Bahadur Shah’s second 
son, and was appointed Mir-Sdman to Raff al-Shan’s third son, 
M. Ibrahim. He is the author of a history of the Indian Tlmurids 
brought down to a.i-i. 1137/1724-5 and entitled TadhHrat al- 
s aldfin i Chaghatd (see p. 517 infra). 

Haft gulshan i Muhammad-ShaM (or Haft gulshan 
i Haiti, as the author calls the work in the preface to his TadhJcirai 
al-saldtm i Chaghatd), a general history of India to a.h. 1132/ 
1719-20 divided into seven gulshans ((1) Delhi to the time of 
Babur, Jaunpur, Malwah, (2) Gujrat, Khandesh, (3) Bengal, 
(4) the Deccan, (5) Sind, Multan, (6) Kashmir, (7) Indian saints) 
and based mainly on Firishtah and Bindraban’s Lubb al-tawankh 
(see p, 453 supra) : Eth6 394 (a later edition finished in 1136/ 
1723. Autograph), Lindesiana p. 169 no. 871 (a.h. 1207-6/ 
1792-1 (so)), Berlin 494 (a.h. 1209/1794), Edinburgh 202 
(lacks Gulshan vii. Late 18th cent,), Rieu iii 908a (18th cent.), 
BanMpur vii 541 (19th cent.). 

English translation of some extracts by Sadasuk’h Lai : 
BJffi. MS. Add. 30,782 foil. 3-60. 



460 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Description : Elliot, and Dowson History of India viii pp. 13-16 
(with a translated extract of 1 page). 

[Haft gulshan, preface (see Rieu iii 908a, Elliot and Dowson 
viii pp. 13-14), TadhUrat al-saldtm i Ckaghatd, vol ii (in the 
account of Bahadur Shah’s reign. See Banklpur vii p. 15. where 
the words are quoted) : M. Ba khsh “ Ashob ” Life of Muhammad 
Shah (Rieu iii 943-5) fob 44 (ef. Rieu iii 945a), where Kara war 
Khan is said to have been originally a Hindu named Ohandldas.] 

626. £ Abd Allah ££ Yaqin a descendant of Mir Shah Mansur 
Barlas, and consequent!) 7 - described in the Safrnah i Kkmtshgu 
as a Mughul of Turam origin, is said to have lived the life of a 
darwish and to have spent his time in the coffee-shops of Rhali- 
jahanabad (see the Banklpur catalogue viii p. 106). According 
to the same authority he wrote a diwdn. 

Tankh i Thabit, a metrical history of the Muhammadan 
dynasties of India written in 1133/1720-1, in the reign of Muham- 
mad Shah, at the suggestion of Thabit-Qadam Khan : Blochet 
iii 1928 (12th regnal year [of M. Shah ? a.h. 1142/1729-30]), 
I.O. D.P. 614 (18th year of M. Shah [a.h. 1149/1736]), Rieu ii 
8246 (28th year of M. Shah [a.h. 1158/1745]). 

[Autobiographical statements at the end of the TuriJch i 
Thabit ; Hmrtlshah bahdr (Sprenger p. 130) ; Safina It i Khmiskgu 
(Banklpur viii p. 106).] 

627. M. Hashim Khafi 1 ( M. al-l , iii p. 2 3 } entitled (muHgUd) hi - ) 
Hashim ‘All Khan (M. al-L i p. 2 1 ) and afterwards Khafi Khan 

1 So spelt in the. printed text, but KInvafi according to Rieu iii p, 23H& 
(cf. Ma'dthir al-ttmard' iii p. 680 and note 1 on p. 461 infra). However spelt, 
this nisbak doubtless indicates a family connexion with Khw af or Khaf. a 
town and district in Khurasan. The idea (stated by Morley, R.A.S. Cat. 
p. 100, without mention, of any authority but evidently of earlier origin, since 
Elliot refers to it) that the title Khafi Khan contains an allusion to the u clandes- 
tine” composition of the Muniakhab ablubdb in the period when historical 
writing was forbidden by Aurangzeb is contrary to Khafi Khan's own state- 
ments concerning the composition of his work and has long been discredited, 
having been disputed by Sir H. Elliot, who died in 1853, and still more emphatic- 
ally by W. Nassau Lees in the JRAS. for 1S68. 



461 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA. : (a) GENERAL 

Nizam-al-Mulkl (M. al-l. ip.2 1 , iii p. 2 3 ' 4 ) was tbe son of an 
official 1 in the service of Prince Murad-Bakhsh, Shah-Jaban’s 
youngest son. 2 

He makes no precise statement concerning the date of his 
birth, but in one passage (M. al-l. i p. 739) he mentions that at 
the time of writing (i li-ghayat i Ml) seventy-four years had 
passed since the death of Sa‘d Allah Khan (Jumada ii a.h. 1066/ 
April 1656) and fifty-two since he himself had reached the age 
of discretion (hadd i tanuz). 3 H. Beveridge in the Ency. Isl. 
assumes (with a query) that the age of discretion was fourteen 
years and infers, doubtless with substantial correctness, that 
KhafI Khan was born about a.h. 1074 (i.e. 1140 — 66). 

The place of his birth is unknown, but his connexion with the 
Deccan dates at least from an early period in his life. Thus he 
tells us (M, al-l. ii p. 5;55 18 ~ 19 ) that he attended the funeral of the 

1 By name .Khwajah Mir Khwafi according to Elliot History of India vii 
p. 207 {“ His father, Khwaja Mir* also a historian [? C.A.S.], was an officer of 
high rank in the service of Murad Bakhsh ”) and p. 208, where it is stated that 
“ not only does Ghulain ’All Shah style our autlior Muhammad Hashim the 
son of Khwaja Mir Khw4fi, hut he himself, gives his father’s name as Mir 
Khwafi”. Unfortunately Elliot does not say where KhafI Khan mentions his 
father by name nor does he even specify the work in which t! Ghulain ’All 
Shah” ( — GhuIilm-’Ali “ Azad ” ?] speaks of him. Neither Mir Khwafi nor 
Khwajah Mir KhwafI seems to occur in the indexes to the Calcutta edition 
of the Muntakhab al-luhab. P.S. At the beginning of the anonymous history 
ISanklpur vii no. 590 (cf. p. 642 infra) KhafI Khan is called Muhammad 
Uufihim ibn Khwajah Mir muharrir i tdrtkh kill Khwafi al-asl az zumrah % 
namak-panvardn i Sahib-Qiran i Thani Shah- Johan Badshah u u u pidarash 
rafiq i Sultan Murad-Ba khsh budand. The words are quoted in Banklpur 
vii p. 

2 . . . iciilid i marhum kih az naukaran i mu'tamad i ru-shinas i Murad-Ba khsh 
u id ruz i fardgh i imqaddamah dar pay i qal‘ah nisfutstdh dar fikr i rnanstibah 
i kamand bastan u firud dwardan i Aqa-yi khwud ba-sar burdah bud u ba-fikr 
% naukari i ‘Alamgir na-pardakht (M. al-l. ii 155 = E. & I), viip. 266). He was 
with Murad-Ba khsh at the Battle of Samogafb and was severely wounded 
(M. al-l. ii 27 7 ‘ 9 = E. & I), vii p. 223). He subsequently asked for and eventu- 
ally obtained a mansab from Shah-'Alam (M. ad-1, ii pp. 554-5). 

3 Az-an mt kih az zaman i qadim li-ghayat i hdl az ruy i tavmnMi dn-cMh ba- 
mutfda’ah dar amadah u dar muddat i panjah u du sal kih musawwid i auraq 
ba-badd i tamiz amad nmshahadah mi numayad Mch zalim khwud ‘dqibat ba- 
&hair r.n-ga&hkih . . .u aulad i Sa'd Allah Khan li-ghayat i Jidl kih haftcid u 
ehahdr ml az zaman i unfat i vet hamah i dqibat~mahmud . . . 



462 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

saint Sh. Burhan 1 [Burhanpuri], who died according to him 2 
in the 22nd year of Aurangzeb's reign [i.e. a.h. 1089/1078]. 
With another saint of Burhanpur, Mir Naslr al-Dln HursiwI, 
he was in close relation as a disciple (M. al-l. ii p. 558 penult.). 
His teacher (ustad) was a certain Mir Saiyid Muhammad, whom 
he describes as a well-known scholar and an incomparable 
mathematician (; riyaM-dan ) contemporary with Jahangir (M. al-l. 
i p. 308), but it is not clear who this person was or where he 
lived. 

He was attached 3 to the unsuccessful expedition sent by 
Aurangzeh [in 1093/1682] under the command of Shihab al-Dln 
Khan against the fort of Bamsej 4 (M. al-l. ii p. 282 X1 ). In the 
days -when Aurangzeh was resident in the Deccan, 5 KhafI Khan 
noticed that from the year 1097/1685-6 onwards the Deccan 
was free from any sign of pestilence (ivaba. M. al-l. i p. 287 16 ' 18 ). 

Bor a time he was residing with ‘Abd al-Ilazzaq Khan Lari 6 

1 For Sh. B urban see Elbe 1897, Jvanow 1278, etc. 

2 Rieu (iii 10916) gives an earlier date, a.H. 1083/1672-3, for the* death of 
this saint on the authority either of the Mi-rut nl-'uhm or the liiyatl al-aul'oja 
or both. 

3 Muftarrir i satednih az junilah i mutn'aiyinah i Cm fauj bud. 

4 Mentioned by Tieffenthaler, who spells the name Ram Sedj, in his list 
of forts in the province of Aurangabad (see his Geographic dr VJmioustan, 
Berlin 1786 (forming Tome i of Bernoulli’s Description historiqvc ct gcotjmphique. 
de Vlnde.) p. 479 and Sarkar The India of Aurangzib p. Ixxxvii no. 114 (mis- 
printed 144) and p. 163 no. 114), 

5 Aurangzeh was in the Deccan from 1092/1681 to the eral of his reign 
(1118/1707). 

8 ‘Abd al-Razzaq Lari was in the service of Abu '1-Hasan Qatb-Khuh and 
fought bravely against Aurangzeb’s troops at the time of the final attack 
on Golconda in 1687, when he was severely wounded. After resisting Aurang- 
zeb’s overtures for a time he entered the Imperial service in the 36th regnal 
year [a.h. 1103/1691-2], received the title of Khan and was appointed Faujdar 
of the Adil-Shafu Kotikan (in the neighbourhood of Goa), from which he was 
subsequently transferred to the Faujdan of Rahiri. Kb it f i KMn chronicles 
these appointments under the year 1 103/1 891 -2. gph-Nawaz Khan,, who in 
this matter is less likely to be correct than KhafI Khan, places the appoint, 
ment to RahM in the 86th year and that to the Adil-Shaht Kosikan in the 40th. 
See Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 330-6 | M. al-L ii pp. 300 2), 
etc., Ma'atkir al-umarCT ii pp. 818 - 21 . Beveridge’s trans. pp. 70-71, etc. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 463 

in a house adjacent to the fort built by ShivajI at Rahlri 1 
(M. al-l. ii p. 390 7-9 = E. & D. vii p. 341). This must have 
been within the period 1103-6/1691-5 (or thereabouts), since 
'Abd al-Razzaq Khan was appointed Faujdar of Rahlri in (or 
soon after) the former year (M. al-l. ii p. 405) and removed from 
that post in the latter ( M . al-l. ii p. 449). 

In 1105/1693-4 Khafi Khan went to Surat as 'Abd al-Razzaq 
Khan Lari’s authorised agent in order to convey from that 
port to Rahm property worth nearly two lakhs of rupees. On 
Ms way back he received and accepted an invitation to visit 
an English acquaintance of Abd al-Razzaq Khan’s at Bombay. 
His interesting account of that visit to Bombay (M. al-l ii 
pp. 424-7) is one of the passages translated by Dowson (E. & D. 
vii pp. 351-4). 

This was not his only visit to Surat. At the time when he 
wrote Ms history he had been there repeatedly (mukanar, 
M. al-l. i p. 469. Cf. ii p. 441), and once (in 1106/1694-5 appar- 
ently) he was present at a banquet given by Amanat Khan 
Khwafi, 2 the Mutasaddi of the town, to Sh. 'Abd al-Rahman 
Mufti on his return from a pilgrimage to the Hijaz ( M . al-l. 
ii p. 444). Another place with which he was connected was 
Baglanah, 3 in which he spent two years at some unspecified 
time (M. al-l. i p. 562). 

A few days after Aurangzeb’s death he was in the company 


1 “ The name was afterwards changed to Rai-garh. It lies due east of 

Jinjera.— See Grant Duff, vol. i, p. 190” (Elliot and Dowson vii p. 
288 n.). - 

2 i.e. Amanat Khan, i Th an! (Mir Husain) the third son of Amanat Khan 
MIrak Mu'in al-DIn Ahmad. For his life see Ma'athir al-umara,' i pp. 287-90, 
Beveridge’s trans. pp. 230-2. 

3 “ Between Surat and Nandurbar is an inhabited hilly region called Baglana. 
The country is cultivated and has a good climate . . . It has seven famous 
forts, of which Saler and Mulher* [Footnote *In the Nosari district of the 
Gaekwar’s dominions] are [the most] celebrated. The chiefs are of the elan 
of Rathor ” (Sarkar The India of Aurangzib p, 63, the above passage being a 
translation from Sujan Ray’s Khulasat ahiawdnMi). See also Ma'athir 
al-umara’ i pp. 413-15, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 352-4, where a much fuller 
aeeotmt is givenyV-jV 



464 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

■of M, Murad Khan (see p, 467 -.infra)-, who at that time was 
Waqi l ah-Nigar and Sawanih-Nigar of the province of Ahmad- 
abad and also Faujdar of the sarkar of T’hasrah 1 and Godrah. 3 
It must have been about this time that he was brought into 
contact with the leader of an Ismalll sect at Ahmadabad in 
connexion with the release of some prominent members of the 
sect who had been imprisoned by order of AurangzebA It was 
than that he obtained some Ismail! law-books with a view to 
investigating the names Ismaillyah and Chiragh-kush, by which 
the sect was known. 

He was present on the battle-field near Haidarahad where 
Prince Kam-Ba khsh was defeated on the 3rd of Dliu I-Qa'dah 
1120/13 January 1709 4 by Bahadur Shah’s forces (Jf. al-l. 
ii p. 624 10 ). In the early part of that Emperor's reign he was 
QaVah-dar at Chanpaner 5 in Gujrat {M. al-t i p. 77). 

1 So Mu'iithir al-umara iii 686 s . The printed text of Kli ilff Khan has the 
■corrupt reading T’hanesar [!]. 

2 Dar dn aiyam muharrir i aumq dar rafaqat i M. Murad Khan kih 

■waqTah-nigan % sawunify-nigan % tamuni subah i Afamaduh/Hd u faujd&ri i 
sarkar i T’hasrah it Godrah ddshtah bud (31. aid. ii p. 5B7 — E, & IX vli 
p. 388). ■ , ; 1 v 

3 M. al-l, iii p, 177 li seq. (Chundnckih dar muakhir i ‘tM i had rat i Kh uM- 
MaJc&n [i.e. Aurangzeb] kih haqiqat i an-ha hazard rami rhand mtjar plxhieS-yi 
an-ha ra hufon i hubs farmudah bfuhmd. Dar 1 mnal i subtih i Ibmhhn Khan 
muqtada-yi an jama’ ah m bah muharrir i auraq dar Ahmadabad mirfik&r 

i &n~M nf tad. u kutub ifiqh i cm-hft ra bard-yi tahqiq i Utfs i Im&TKyah u fhhwjh- 
.kttsh ba-dast dwardah mutala'ah numud), 

Ibrahim Khan was appointed Governor of Ahmadabad in sueemttm to Prince 
M. A‘zam (in the last year of AurangzGh’a reign according to Kh afl Kh an ii 
541 15 , but the Jla'athir al-umara' i 299 7 places this event in the 46th year, at 
least according to the printed text). He was superseded by Gh &ri al-Pin 
Khan Flcoz-Jang not long after Bahadur Shah’s accession (sec M. al-l, ii p. 8i8 B , 
Mahathir al-umara' ii p. 878 s , Beveridge's tram. p. 591). It is not dear whether 
the Isma’fli leader referred to here is identical with Mull* Jtvmn, an Isma'ilt 
mujtahid, whom Khafl Ivhan met on one occasion at Ahmadabad and questioned 
concerning the Isma'ills (if. al-l. i p, 593). 

4 See Eney. Id. under Bahadur Shah, Khafl Kh an place, 1 ? this battle in 
the year 1119, 

6 Katib i huruf dar atm'il i ‘ ahd i Khuld-Mamil SMh-Kll&m Bahadur dar 
an-ja la‘alluqah \ maU u qaVadan dadit. 



M. HISTOEY OP INDIA : (a) GENEEAL 465 

la 1121/1709-10 (having recently arrived in Ahmadabad 1 ) 
he was appointed by Ghazi al-Dm Khan Firoz-Jang, the Governor 
( Subah-dar ) of the province of Ahmadabad, to be Diwan and 
Mihmandar 2 to a distinguished visitor, Mirza M. Hashim, 3 
who had come, presumably from Persia, via Surat [to Ahmad- 
abad] on his way to Bahadur Shah’s court at Delhi. 

At the beginning of Farrukh-siyar’s reign (a.i-i. 1124 or 1125/ 
1713) Qillch Elian received the title of Nizam al-Mulk Bahadur 
Fath- Jang and the Governorship (subah-dan) of the Deccan, 
Apparently at this time he: appointed Khafi Khan to be his 
JMwdn , 4 In the following year, however, S. Husain ‘All Khan 
became Governor of the Deccan, and Nizam al-Mulk returned 
to Delhi. Khafi Khan next tells us (M. al-l. ii p. 798) in his 
account of the year 1131/1718-19 that after three distressful 
years he was appointed Amm, and Faujdar of the estates 
( mahall ) of Mustafa-abad, 5 which belonged to the Royal domains. 
From this new appointment he was dismissed after only a very 

1 Mttsamoid i auraq dar an aiyatn tazah warid i Alpnaddbad gardidah bud 
(M . al-l, ii p. 664 12 ). We have seen that he was in Ahmadabad in the governor- 
ship of Ibrahim Khan. 

2 u mu'ljarrir i sawanih ra diwdn u mihmandar az taraf i khwud sahhtah ba- 
abru-yi tamdm rcmdnah numud (M. al-l. ii p. 686 2 ~ 3 ) : muliarrir i sawanih rd 
■Ghazi al-Din Khan Bahadur Firoz-Jang az taraf i khwud mihmandar u diwdn 

i shdh-zadah muqarrar numudah ham-rah dddah budand (If. al-l. ii p. 678 8 - 9 * ), 
/Cf, Malathir al-umarcd iii p. 680 f Khwafi Khan sahib i tdrikh i AIuntaMub al- 
Inbub bih ba mufyarrir i in auraq mahahbat i tamam da Jit, u ittif&qan Khan % 
Firoz-Jang az Ahmadabad az taraf i khwud u -rd mihmandar i shah-zudah rrmqarrar 
kardah bud u shah-zddah dar rah kar-ha-yi diwdni i khwud ra, ba-u far mud ah. 

3 A great-grandson ( nabirah ) of the Persian Prime Minister Khalifah Sultan 
(Khalifat. S. ‘All b. Mir Raff al-Din. See Ma'dthir al-vfaara' iii pp. 109-10) 
and at three removes ( ba-sih mi si fall) a nawamh (daughter’s child) of Shah 
‘Abbas. Kor a biography of this person see Ma’afhir al-umara' iii pp. 677-83. 

* Dar aiyamt bih in ‘ djiz ra ba-baindl i na-dani az rah i lutf u qadr-dani 
diwani i sarbar i khwud dar subah-dari i Dakan muqarrar numudah bud (If, al-l. 

ii p. 748 14 ~ 1S ), /■■■" 

5 Az an-jumlah muharrir i sawanih bih bald, i kasdlah u iasdi 1 i sih sal kih az 

Dakan ba-hudur raftah dar rilcab budah ba-khidmat % anianat u faujdari i mahall 

i Mustafa-abad, kih ba-Jchalisah i pddshdhi ta‘dlluq daskt, ma'mur gardidah 

(If. al-l. ii p. 798 s ~ 6 * ). Mu^tafa-abad is evidently “ Mustafa-abad L urf Choprah ” 

(M. al-l. i p. 717 13 , ii p. 274 ult.), which was in KMndesh, 


Hb 


466 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

short time by S. Husain ‘‘All Khan, who took him with him 1 
on his march to Delhi [in 1131/1719]. 

In ‘Ramadan 1132/1720 he rode through Delhi to see the 
damage caused by an earthquake (M. al-l. ii p. 883 9 *'" 1 ). 
According to Beveridge (Ency. hi. under Kh/afl Khan} it 
was Muhammad Shah who conferred upon him the title Khafi 
Khan. No statement to this effect seems to occur in the printed 
text of the Mimtakhah al-lubab. 

In a Persian note at the end of the British Museum MS. Add. 
26,224 {a copy of vol. ii) it is. stated, (according to Hieu i p. '>:\r±h) 
that the author had written four or five leaves further wlie.n he 
died (probably therefore in, or not long after, 1144/1.731-2},! / 

More than once in the MimMfchah at-lubdh he takes, occasion 
to reflect on the evil consequences of oppression ( zulm, mardim- 
amtfy not only to the' oppressor but to 1m .descendants • • (the. 
sins of the fathers being visited upon the children) /and in one 
' passage (Ii pp. 676-7) he claims that he himself never stooped 
to .such, conduct. Even at a timer when peculation was rife in the 
Deccan of Aurangzeb-s days lie took care that matters should 
not go so far as to cause accusations of oppression. In or soon 
after Aurangzeb’s 32nd year there did indeed occur a regrettable 
incident, of which he declines to give particulars, but thereafter 
lie strove wholeheartedly- -bun with ineompl**te suc-i^s ■ t<* 
avoid imputations of Sioanrial irregular! ty.~ 

; I: u mafzfttan ra mvjMab numudah mufaiij ba-nart i . shady mrda itdtth 
girifh 'As an-jumlah nmfrurnr i sauvmifa ... { J1/. ol-/, ii p. <98* ■*]. C"£ ; 3L ttl-l. 
ii : p. 81 L®- 6 , where Khafi Khiln meat ions "that .lie 'watehin!' the. flight of .the 
:Marat.ha troops [at Delhi]. 

8 Al-hamdu. li-lldh Ink muwcv'id i. an sag . . . hnrtjiz rddi b< i-wn -hnn-asttn 
kih cfar zafidn-h : bn zui n mu u jar r ynrdu i />u-g<n lidnh. Kh udn m . . , !>/>.■ nzamnt 
ydd numudah iqr&r mi numayud l bid ■ j / • . > t 

i nafa i kajir-kbh khwud ra mn'iif mi~mi tUldJ u mnl i fat-hat * Khahl-Makun 
titular si y a i i kil i /» r > t < l , i i ugh t • t i> i f t it nr ft u :j/j sjhuduh n/m da 
an a i yarn Lam if/ liyut i tamum dndit kih b'u ba-'tu-yj nn-rumd kih dar laimuba 
guft-gug hn-znlm wunjarr gardud. JUrdnhn ha-mbah i rug dinkm ituij muynd- 
damat kih ha-tahnr i iufsll % an pardnkbtan purdah i rumiydki i khm id rii az 
miy&n Imr-diiigmi .ml ba-KhvMg i Mmtd : %hd:mmi'&drjih.u IS hi(tgdur' : dm-'dii tt 
jdn kudadah kih dar akl « lamrruj n talaf uumudan i mat i M umhmimn tubal y at 
*' nafs t shjim na numudah amnia har rfatml khwii.it kih az >>a<bndmi i zahiri i 


467 


M. HISTORY 03? INDIA : ( a ) GENERAL 

He was on friendly terms with his much younger 1 con- 
temporary and feilow-Khwafi, Samsarn al-Daulah Shah-Nawaz 
Khan, the author of the Ma'dtkir al-umara?? Another friend 
and at one time a colleague of his was his kinsman (bimdari) 
M. Murad Khan (for a time entitled Sa'adat Khan), who for two 
or three years was Aurangzeb’s Hdjib at Haidarabad, 3 and who 
died in 1120 (according to M. al-l, ii p. 661) or in 1122 (according 
to the Ma'athir al-umara? iii 687). 

In a preamble which occurs in the B.M. MS. Or. 176 (latter 
part of voL ii, Aurangzeb; arid his successors) but not in the 
printed text and which is summarised by liieu (i p. 2346), Kliafi 
Khan describes himself as having been successively attached to 
the train of three or four sovereigns and says that he had spent 
sixteen or seventeen years of his life on the composition of the 
MuniaMab ai-lubdb , especially on the last forty years of Aurang- 
zeb's reign. Of that period, owing to Aurangzeb’s prohibition 
of historical writing, he had found no previous record 4 except 

qabul i ‘ummdli Jdh sagbdni u khiik-rhard’i ba-maralib bihtar az-an-asl najdt 
yubad n dast u pay bisyar zad kih ba-diydnat-dari kusMdah khwud ra dar zabdn-hd 
as had-narni i a khdh u jarr i ‘ummal i bad-ma'dl mahfuz darad cJiun in f aid iumhci 
bu-fadl i Iluht wd-bastah out muyassar na-y-amad, 

1 Sam.-r.fim al-Daulah was born in 1111/1700. 

. 2 See JIudthir al-umam' iii p. 680 (Khwafi Khan sahib i tarikh i Muntakhab 
ctl-lubctb bill bd vmharnr i in auraq mahabbat % tamarn ddsht), 

3 See II. al-l. iii p. 412 (As un-kih mufrarrir i auraq dar khulmat i M. 
Murad Khan, kih biradar i kalan i Mirza Muhammad mi bashad az miiddat i 
madid rafuqat i ta'aiynndti bah ‘agidat u bandagi u iradai i khass dasht u M. 
Murcid Khan ra kih dar tin aiydm nmkhdiab bah Saladai Khan nmnudah budand 

: : mitddat i du sih sal hijdbat i Haidarabad ddsht u in 'dj-iz rd ziyadah as farzcmdan i 
khwud mi hhwdst. . .) Of. M. al-l. ii p. 200 — E. & D. vii p. 313 (Amma 
an-chih az zabdn i rdwiyan i thiqah masmul gardidah u ba.-sa.bab i ialaiyunal 
bftdan i bimdari i ghufran-panah M. Murad Khan kih as tarb iyai-ydftahd-yi 
liuddr bud u bar aqival i u iHimad i hill Z ddsht u khwud dar safar i Ram-darrah u 
■ hijdbat i Haidarabad mu-diahadah nmnudah bald i taliqiq i ihhtiluj i aqwdl az 
budi u kam ba-zabdn i qalam mi dihad. M. Murad Khan was the son of Murshid- 
Quli Khan M. Husain and was not a brother of KhafI Khan (as Dowson’s 
translation suggests). For a biography of him see Ma’athir al-umara' iii 
pp, 682-92. ■ 'h'RRinMH.-RKhKbyMRRdyK-id- 

4 This statement must be regarded as untruthful, if Prof. Sri Ram Sharma 
is correct in his belief (published in the JRAS. 1936 pp. 279-83) that Khsifi 
Khan’s account of Aurangzeb’s reign is largely borrowed from a history of 
that reign “by Abu ’1-Fadl Ma'muri”. See pp. 594-5 infra. 


468 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, 

Musta'idd Khan’s account of the Deccan conquests, but he 
had tried to compile a truthful narrative from the official records, 
the reports of trustworthy persons and his personal experiences. 

Muntakhab al~!ubab, a history of India from the 
Muhammadan conquest “ to the beginning of Muhammad 
Shah’s I4th year”, a.h. 1144/1731 / divided into three volumes 
((1) perhaps never completed except in the rough, 3 from the 
Muhammadan conquest to the end of the Lodi dynasty, (2) the 
Timurids to Muhammad Shah, 3 the detailed narrative closing 
with a.h. 1137/1724 4 and being followed by a chapter on events, 
especially in Persia, from the eighth to the thirteenth year of 
Muhammad Shah, (3) the local dynasties (“ the kings of the 
various subahs of India, with the exception of those of Delhi 
and Akbarabad”) abridged from Kirkbtah, Nur al-Haqq and 
others but perhaps never continued beyond the Deccan 
dynasties 6 ) : Ivanow 173 (very defective, but apparently old. 

1 li’fjhayat i shunt* i sanaJi i chahardah hah tnljrtr i nntjmnli az Hvmuili i l ah>! 
i Muhammad Shah Badshah parddkhtuh . . . (M, al-t. it p. 978). According 
to Nassau Lees {JRAS. 1868 p. 488} the MSS. differ considerably. . . no 
two copies that I have met with — and I have compared live apparently very 
good MSS. — are exactly alike, while some present such dissimilarities as almost 
to warrant the supposition that they are distinct, works, some passages being 
quite accurate, and others again entirely dissimilar,’* 

2 In a preamble preserved in the B.M. >1S. Or. 176 {the lath r pari of vol. ii : 
see Eieu i 2346) the author says that vol. i had been completed in the rough 
but not yet in a fair copy. The only recorded manuscript of this volume is 
the fragment dealing with the Lodis which Bleu has described {i p. 235a), 

8 According to the preamble already referred to the author spout sixteen 
or seventeen years of his life on the composition of his work, especially cm the 
last forty years of Aurangzeb’s reign. Of that period, an awmmt of that 
sovereign’s prohibition, he had found no previous record except Muau'idd 
Khan’s account of the Deccan conquests. According to Prof. Bri Ham tSfaarmn, 
however, the account of Aarangzeb’s reign is copied almost word for wont 
from a history of that reign “by Abu T-Fa# Ma'mQrl " (-w J HA- S’. Hl.HU 
pp. 279-83 and pp. 594-5 infra). 7 ■yhA.p /BThrATB 7;-: s 

i At the beginning of vol. ii the. year 113371720-1 (in the printed text 
erroneously a.h. 1130) is referred to as the date of composition {see Rieu i 
233u lilt,), ;; 7 ■ 7 ;//-: 

5 The author did not intend to confine himself to 1 h<- L><>ce;m» ns is clear 
from the words “ skuru i az £ha$h nuhah i Italian mmudah '' riii p, 2 :1 ), but 
only Deccan history is contained in such of the few recorded MHS, of this 
volume as have been adequately described. 



469 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( a ) GENERAL 

a.h. 1146/1733-4: (?)), 169 (vol. ii only. a.ii. 1191/1777), 170 
(vol. ii, defective. Late 18tli cent.), 171 (vol. ii. Late 18th cent.), 
172 (vol. ii, pt. 2 (from Aurangzeb’s 32nd year), a.h. 1194/1780), 
1st Suppt. 763 (Vol. Ill (not vol. i as stated in the catalogue). 
Deccan dynasties only. Urdlbiliisht. 1313 Ilahi (sic, but. the Ilahi 
era, which starts in 963/1556, has not yet readied 1313)), Rieu 

i 2326 (vol. ii. a.h. 1196/1782), 234a (vol. ii. a.d. 1821), 234a 
(vol. ii, part = Calcutta ed. i p. 1— ii p. 177. 18th cent.), 
234a (vol. ii, part=Calcutta ed. ip. 2— ii p. 127. 18th cent,), 234a 
(vol, ii, part — Calcutta ed. ii pp. 492-978. a.h. 1224/1809), 
2346 (vol. ii, part = pt. ii of the Calcutta ed. a.d. 1823), 2346 
(Vol. I, part (the Lodis) and vol. ii, part (Babur to Aurangzeb’s 
tenth year, but lacking the later part of Akbar’s reign and the 
whole of Jahangirs). 18th cent.), 2356 (Vol. Ill, first part (the 
Deccan dynasties). a.h. 1237/1822), hi 10496 (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), Lindesiana p. 175 no. 822 (circ. a.d. 1780), 
Ethd 396 (vol. ii. Late 18th cent,), 397 (vol. ii. a.ii. 1225/1810), 
398 (vol. ii. a.h. 1239/1823), 399 (vol. ii. Modem), 400-1 (vol. ii 
N.d,), 402 (vol. ii, part of 2nd half (Aurangzeb’s 4th year to 
accession of Farrukh-siyar). N.d.), 403 (vol. ii, part (Farrukh- 
siyar to M. Shah)), 404 (vol. ii, extracts from 1st half. a.d. 1806), 
405 (vol. ii, selections), 406 (vol. ii, extracts), 407 (Vol. Ill, 
small portion (86 foils. Bahmanis to Nizam Shah (d. 867/1463)), 

ii 3013 (vol. ii, defective), I.O. 3936 (Azam Shah to the end), 
Blochet i 549 (vol. ii. 18th cent.), Caefani 2 (belonged to 
Jonathan Scott), Asaflyah i p. 254 no. 216 (Vol. Ill), no, 403 
(Vol. III. a.h. 1204/1789-90), iii p. 92 nos. 1367 (an abridg- 
ment of Vol. Ill ?), 1172 (an abridgment of Vol. III. a.h. 
1269/1851-3), Rehatsek p. 91 no. 37 (“all the four volumes” 
[sic], a.h. 1207/1793), no. 38 (an abridgment ?. N.d.), Brelvi & 
Dhabhar p. 63 no. 4 (Vol. III. a.h. 1214/1799-1800), Bodleian 

259 (vol. ii, extending to M, Shah’s 3rd year — 1133/1720-1), 

260 (vol. ii), 261 (vol. ii. a.d. 1842), Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pers, 
A. i 24-7 (“ recent ”}, R.A.S. P. 102-3 = Morley 98-9 (vol. ii, 
to Aurangzeb’s death), Browne Suppt. 1253 (vol. ii, part 
(Aurangzeb’s reign). N.d.), 1254 (vol. ii, part (from Aurangzeb’s 
11th year), a.h. 1237/1821-2, copied from an original dated 
a.h. 1183/1769-70), Browne Coll. H, 15 (13) (Vol. Ill, part 



4:70 ir. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(105 foil, only)), Banklpur vii 592 (vol ii. 19th cent,}, Berlin 
435 (vol. ii, extending to M. Shah’s 3rd year, a.h. 1133 1720-1), 
Majlis 275. 

Edition : (1) (of vol. ii 1 only) : The Munlakhnh al-bibdh of 
KM ft Khan. Edited by Mmdavi Kahir al-D'm Ahmed [and 
Ghtilam Qaclir], 2 pts. Calcutta 1860 -74 * (Bibliotheca Indica). 
(2) (of vol. iii (Deccan dynasties only)) : Mu nta khab-al-luba b 
by Khqfi Khun . . . volume iii. Edited foj Sir WohrJey Haig. 
Calcutta 1909-25* (Bibliotheca Indica). 

Translations of extracts: (1) [by W. Erskiue, dated 1811] 
an extract extending from Shah-Jahfm’s accession to a.h. 1067.' 
1656-7 : B.M. MS. Add. 26,613-14, (2) [by W. Erskiue] a 

transcript of the preceding, with another extract [also translated 
by Erskine ?] extending from a.h. 1070/1659-60 to a.h. 1 1 30 
1718 : B.M. MS. Add. 26,615-16. (3) [by Captain A. Gordon, 

dated Nagpur 1821] an extract extending from the beginning 
of vol. ii to Maliabat Khan's capture of Jahangir : B.M. MS. 
Add. 26,617 and (another copy) 26,618 -19. (4) [by J. Dowson] 
extracts nearly all relating to Auratigzeb : Elliot and Dowson 
History of India vii pp. 211-533. 

Descriptions : (1) W. Nassau Lees Materials for the history of 
India for the six hundred years of Mohammadan rule (hi JR AS . 
1868 pp. 414-77) pp. 465-9, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of 
India vii pp. 207-10. 

[Autobiographical statements (nearly all of these are referred 
to above) : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 207 H ; 
Rieu i 232ft, 234ft, 235 ft; Ency. I si under Kh*afi Khan 
(Beveridge).] 

628. Lai Ram, son of Ray Dfilah Ram h. Rav Kunjarnan 
Khuld-MakanI, once held Mfmgl Patau, in the Deccan, as 
a jdyir (; T . al-II. fob 22a). He was in the service of Muhammad 
Shah and wrote his Tuhfai, al-Hind in the 18th year of tlmt 
sovereign’s reign, a.h. 1148/1735-6,-'' • 

1 This printed edition ignores the existence of vol. i ami, dividing vol, ii 
into two parts (hissah), calls them part i ant! pari ii of the Muntnkhab alduitab. 



471 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Tuhfat aUHind) a history and topography of India to the 
time of Earrukh-siyar (reigned 1124/1713-1131/1719) in four 
sections (fad), the third containing an account of the early 
kings of Persia and the Greek philosophers, the fourth miscel- 
laneous historical anecdotes, and a Khatimah : Edinburgh 
203 (a.h. 1182/1768), Rieu i 236 (lacking Khatimah. 18th cent.), 

629. Yahya Khan was Mir MunsKi to the Emperor Farrukh- 
siyar (reigned 1124/1713-1131/1719). 

Tadhkirat al-muluk 3 a general history of India to 
a.h. 1149/1736-7, "based chiefly on the Tabaqat i AJcbarl (see 
p. 433 su-pra) : Ethd 409 (a.h. 1212/1797). 

630. Rustam ‘All b. M. Khalil Shahabadi was serving in the 
army of BajI Rao at the taking of Malwah in 1150/1737-8, 
He then went to Blidpal and lived under the patronage of the 
Nawwab Yar-Muhammad Khan. 

Tarikh i Hindi > a general history of India to a.h. 1153/ 
1740-1, completed in 1154/1741-2, and divided into a muqaddi- 
mah, ten tabaqahs and a khatimah, (on contemporary or nearly 
.contemp. shaikhs, ‘ ulamd ’ and poets), much space being devoted 
to Muhammad Shah 1 : Rieu iii 909a (a.h. 1264/1848), 10576 
(extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850). 

Translated extracts : B.M. MS. Add. 30,780 foil. 118-160. 

Description and 27 pp. of translated extracts (on M. Shah’s 
reign) : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 40-69. 

631. Bay Chaturman 2 Kayat’h 3 Saksenah, 4 sumamed 

1 “ Altogether a useful compilation, as it is not copied verbatim from known 
authors, and in the latter part of it the author writes of many matters which 
came under his own observation or those of his friends ” (Elliot and Dowson 
viii p. 41). ; ■ 

* This name has been variously written by different cataloguers — Chatarman 
(Rieu and others), Catnrman. (Ethe in the Bodleian catalogue, where the long 
vowel in the first syllable is evidently a slip or a misprint), Chaturman (Edinburgh 
catalogue (Ethe ?)}, Chhatar Man [sic] (Edwards, following Sarkar in respect 
of the (incorrect) long vowel in the last syllable) . 

3 s= Kayast’h, the name of the writer caste among the Hindus. 

4 The name of a subdivision of the Kayast’h caste. 



472 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Ray-zadah, (Ray Chaturman, qawn Ivayat’h Saksenah, laqah Ray- 
zadah, as he calls himself in the preface) completed his Chahar 
gulskan in 1173/1759-60, a date which he indicates by a metrical 
chronogram. 1 According to the colophon of his grandson 
(nabirah), the redactor, which occurs in most of the manuscripts, 
the author died one week after finishing the work. 

Chahar gulshan, or Akhbar al-nawadir, a history 
and topography of India to a.h. 1173/1759-60 in four gulshmis 
((1) the subahs (provinces) of Hindustan, (2) the stibahs of the 
Deccan, (3) itineraries from Delhi to various parts of India. 
(4) Muslim and Hindu saints) edited by the author's grandson, 
Chandar-bhan MunshI Kayaili Saksenah, sumamed Ray-zadah; ' 
who added a preface dated 1204/1789-90 : Bodleian 261 
(A.H. 1203/1789 2 ), I.O. 3779 (18th cent.), 3944 (a.h. 1221/ 
1807), D.P. 627 (early 19th cent.), 3935 (a.d. 1895), 3880 
(ajq. 1895 ?), Lindesiana p. 130 no. 448 (circ. a.d. 1800), 
Edinburgh 410, Kieu iii 909 b (19th cent.), Bankipur viz 542 
(19th cent.), Berlin 476 (1), A§aSyah i p. 236 no. 350 (a.h. 1299/ 
1881-2), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (Gulshan i and pt. of Gulshan 
ii. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1926), p. 48). 

English translation of the topographical and statistical 
portions, i.e. parts of Gulshan i, most of Gulskmi ii and all of 
Gulskan iii ; The India of Aurangzib (« topography , statistics, and 
roads ) compared with the. India of Akhar with extracts from the 
Khulasatu-t-Tawarikh and the Chahar Gulshan translated mid 
annotated by Jadunath Sarhar, Calcutta 1901°*, pp, 123-78. 

Descriptions: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India' v iii 
pp. 255-6, (2) J. Sarkar The India of Aurangzib, Calcutta 1901, 
pp. xv— xxv, 

632. Dastur al-amal (?) (beg. Ba-mhjab % taimrM % 

1 Quoted in the Bodleian catalogue as follows : 

ZiAil guftam hi~gu tankh rmtdiaii * Nida anmd Ghaiurnum nik gaUhfin 

Bumd Mm i tu dar tankh da&nl * Ham az majmiah dmd latikJi ha§il . 

2 This copy apparently lacks the editor’s preface, though if contains ins 

colophon. . ;V ; ;- v 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 478 

Hinduwi), a history of India from the earliest times to a.h. 1179 / 
1765 with chronological, statistical etc. notices largely in 
tabular form : Berlin 473 (a.h. 1179/1766), 474 (transcript 
of the preceding MS.). 

633. Anand-rnp, a Brahman born at Changulnat’h 1 near 
Narnaul, spent some years in the service of Janoji 2 Bhonsla 
and Slta-Kam. Having gone from Nagpur in the suite of Nasir 
al-Mulk Nasir-Jang, he wrote his Mizdn i dmisk at Ilahabad 
(Allahabad) in 1182/1768-9. 

Mizan i dan ish , a brief sketch of Indian history : Rieu 
iii 910 (a.d. 1851). 

634. For the Farhat al-nazinn, a history, mainly of India, 

completed in 1184/1770-1 by M. Aslam Parasruri, see pp. 140-1 
supra , and for the Hadiqat al-safa’ completed in the same year 
by Yusuf f AlI Khan see p. 140 supra. \ 

635. Nawwab 3 Mahabbat Khan 4 b. Fai<J- c Ata Khan was a 
descendant of Diler Khan Dawud-zay (d. 1094/1683), a Rohilla 
genera! in Aurangzeb’s service, whose elder brother, Bahadur 
Khan, founded Shahjahanpur. 

Akhbdr i Mahahbat^ a general history of India to a.h. 1186/ 
1772, giving special attention to the author’s ancestors and to 
Shahjahanpur and Bengal 5 : Rieu iii 911a (a.d. 1850), 10525 
(extracts only), I.O. 3926 (probably a.d. 1878). 

1 So Rieu. 

2 Rieu writes KhalujI Bhonsla, but presumably Janoji, the second Maha- 
rajah of Nagpur (1749-72), is meant. 

3 So Elliot. 

4 This Nawwab Mahabbat Khan is to be distinguished from Hafiz Rabmat 
Khan’s eldest son Nawwab Mahabbat Khan “ Mahahbat ”, who died in 
1223/1808 and is the author of an Urdu dvwdn (see 1.0. Catalogue of Hindustani 
MSS. nos. 161-2) and a Pushtu grammar and vocabulary written in. Persian 
and entitled liiycul al-ma\iabhat (see Elbe 2452-4). 

3 “ In too abridged a form to be. mueh use, except towards the end, where 
the author expands the narrative, giving an unusually minute account of the 
Durrani invasions, and some of the transactions of Shah ’Alam’s reign ” 
(Elliot and Dowson viii 376-7). In earlier reigns also he gives special attention 
to Afghan exploits. 



474 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Extracts translated by Munshl Sadasuk'h : B.M. MS. Add. 
30,782, foil. 309-415. 

Description and 14 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii 376-393. 

636. Jugal Kishor compiled for Sir Elijah Impey (Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court at Calcutta 1774-83, d. 1 Oct. 
1809 x ) 

(Tarlkh i Jugal Kishor% an unimportant: 2 history of 
India from the death of bldll to the date of composition : Kieu 
iii 10296 (foil 386-42. Extracts only), 10516 (extracts only). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 300. 

637. A resident of the district of Sanbhal and Bada'Cm in 
Rohelk’hand wrote in 1194/1780, when Xajaf Khan 3 was 
master of Delhi and the Jilt territories and Faid Allah Khun 
was the reigning Rohilla chief, 

A sketch of Indian history from Akbar to a;h. 1194/ 
1780 written as a supplement to "Abd al-Haqq Dihlawfs Dhikr 
al-muluk (see p. 441 supra), with special attention to the Rohillas : 
Rieu iii 1007a ( 1.9th cent.). 

638. For the Siyar al-mata' a khkh iriti of S. (thulam-Husain 
Khan . Tabataba’I, -which is a history of India from Aumngzeb's 
death in 1118/1707 to a.h. 1195/1780-1, but to which the 
author subsequently added; . a \Muqaddirmh consisting of Sujan 
Ray's KJmldsal al-iawankh with slight alterations and which 
thus became in effect a general history of India, see pp. 635-9 
infra. 

639. Grhuiam-Basit Amet'hawL 1 having lost his estate in 

1 See But'klaml Dirtiomry of Indian biography p. 2 1 A a ml the tistori.es of 
India dealing with tin* British period. 

2 It is of no value, at least in the passages which I have examined ” (EHint 
and Dowson viii p. 200). 

3 Xawwab J)hu 4-Faqar al-DauIah Mirza Xajaf Khiin. a Persian who rose 
to be S&bah-dar of Allahabad and subsequently WaHH Mufiaq to SJjah-'Aiam, 
died in 1196/1782. 

4 Amet'hl is a small, place in the Sultanpur District of Oudh. 



475 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Oudh and tried unsuccessfully to enter the service of the Tlmurids, 
became munsM, to General Giles Stibhert (Commander-in-Chief 
of the Bengal Army 1777-9 and 1783-5), who took him to 
Calcutta. At the latter’s request he wrote the Tdnkh i mamdlik 
i Hind. 

( Tdnkh i mamdlik i Hind\ a short history of India 
to a.h. 1196/1781-2 (the date of composition) based mainly 
on Firishtah: Rieu i 237 (18th cent.), ii 798a (history of 
Malabar only. a.h. 1197/1783), iii 1051 b (extracts only), Suppt. 
83 ii (chapter on Gujrat only. 19th cent.), Rehatsek p. 76 
no. 15 (a.h. 1240 1 /1824— 5), Eth6 2835 (only the preface and 
the latter half of the history. Transcribed from the preceding 
MS. a.h. 1296/1879). 

Description and a short translated extract : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii pp. 200-3. 

640. Har-Charan-Das b. Udai Ray b. Mukund Ray b. 
Sagar-Mal, a native of Meerut, went to Delhi soon after Nadir 
Shah’s invasion [a.h. 1151/1739] and some years later entered 
the service of Nawwab Qasim ‘All Khan b. Qasim Khan, who 
was father-in-law and Khdn-sdmdn to Najm al-Daulah M. 
Ishaq Khan. 2 In 1167/1753-4 Qasim c AlI Khan moved from 
Delhi to Faidabad (Fyzabad) but died immediately afterwards, 
and Har-Charan-Das, who had accompanied him, remained 
there in the service of his late master’s descendants. For many 
years he received an allowance from Nawwab Shuja s al-Daulah 
of Oudh, In 1199/17 84—5 , when he wrote the preface of the 
Chaliar gulzcir i Shujali, he had reached an advanced age. 3 

1 Kahnmn Singh, whom Rehatsek gives as the author, was presumably 
the copyist and a.h. 1240 the date of transcription not, as Rehatsek supposed, 
the date of completion by the author. 

a ie. Mu’taman al-Daulah M. Ishaq Khan, who was Ba JchsM i Ch aharuni in 
the reigns of M, Shall and Ahmad Shall and who died in 1163/1750. A sister 
of his was married to Shuja/ al-Daulah of Ondh. See Ma'aitiir al-umara’ iii 
pp. 774-6. 

3 Eighty years according to his own statement, but this seems to be only; 
a rough approximation, since he was in his twentieth year in 1143/1730-1, 
when his grandfather, Dlwan Mukund Ray, died at Meerut teee Rieu i p. 912a). 



476 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Chahar gulzar i Shuja% a history of India to a . u . 1201 / 
1786-7, dedicated to Shuja ■ alDanlah and divided into five 
ehamans ((1) Brahma, Mates etc., (2) the Balya Yuga.} (3) the 
I retd Yuga, (4) the Dwapar Yaga, (5) the Kali Yuga , this fifth 
ehaman being subdivided into two saf kalis, of which the first 
treats, in twelve qisms, of the Hindu Rajahs from Jud'hishtir 
to the Muslim conquest, and the second, in nine qisms, of the 
Muslim sovereigns, the ninth qism containing the Iffitmy of 
the Tlmnrids from Humayun to Shah-*Alam and including a 
discursive but valuable account of the author's own times) ; 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (autograph ? Bee Oriental College 
Magazine vol. ii no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 48), Rieu iii 
912 a (preface and chapters from the latter part of the last qlsm 
only. 19th cent.). / 

Extracts translated by MunshT Sadasuk’h Lai : B.M. MS, Add. 
30,782. foil. 113-205. 

Description and 23 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii pp. 204-31. 

[Autobiographical statements in the preface and elsewhere 
(see Elliot and Dowson viii pp. 204-6, Rieu iii 92).] 

641. Lachbmi Naxayan “ Shafiq 5 5 AurangahSdi was bom at 
Aurangabad in 1158/1745. His father, Ray Manaa-Ram, for 
many years held liigh office in the Nizam's dominions and in 
1204/1789-90 was {had perhaps long been) DmnnB Lnchhmi 
Narayan entered the service of ‘ All- Ja ii . son of Niz/im-'Ali 
Khan 1 2 3 * * * * 8 (Rieu i p. 326u, iii p. 1083a, apparently from the NataHj 

1 The Yuga* are the four ages into which the Hindus divide the hi.-tt.ry of 
the world. The first three are legendary, the fourth, the Kali Yuga, is that 
now in progress. 

2 In th e Haqiqal-ha-iji Flindurtan, written in 1204/1780-90, Laehhrttl Narayan 

describes his father as Dtwdn, According to the Kala'ij aUifkur , m quoted 

by Rieu (iii 1083a), MunsS-Rum held for nearly forty years " the office of 

Sadr of the sis Kubahs of the Deccan ”, It is apparently on the same authority 

that Rieu says in another place (i p, 327uj that he “filled f*.»r nearly forty 

years the office of Kshkar of the Deccan 

8 Niza.m-\AiI Khan was Niprn from a.h. 1175/1761 to a.u, 1218 '1803. 



477 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

al-afkar). The date of his death does not seem to he recorded, 1 
but it was not before 1214/1799, the date of the Bisat al-ghana’im. 
He received instruction in Persian from “ Azad ” Bilgrami 
(Nishtar i Hshq, Sprenger p. 645), whom he calls his fir (Gul i 
m e na , Banklpur viii p. 128). He wrote poetry both in Persian 
and Urdu, and called himself at first “ Sahib 55 but afterwards, 
at “ Azad’s ■* request, " Shafiq.” 2 3 In addition to the Haqiqat-hd 
i Hindustan he wrote three tadhkirahs, the Ghamanistdn i shiiara’ 
(a,d.T781. Urdu poets. Edition: Aurangabad 1928. See 
B.S.O.S. v/4 (1930) p. 927), the Gul i ratnd {am. 1182/1768-9. 
Indian poets. Banklpur viii 701, I.O. 3692-3, Rieu iii 9725, 
Rehatsek: p, 161) and the Sham i ghariban ( a.h. 1182/1768-9. 
Poets who visited India. No copies recorded), the Tanmiq % 
shigarf ( a.h, 1200/1786. A history of the Deccan. Ethe 447, 
448. Cf. Rieu ii 8595), the Mahathir i Asafi (a.h. 1204/1793. 
A history of the Nizams. Eth4 468, Ivanow 196, Rieu iii 1039a), 
the Bisat akghana'im (a.h. 1214/1799, A history of the 
Marathas. Rieu i 328-9, Asaflyah i p. 220, Ethe ii 3018, Rehatsek 
p. 73), a description of Haidarabad (a.h. 1214/1799. Rieu i 
327a) and a historical work entitled Khulasat al-Hind (Asafiyah 
i p. 238, where the precise subject is not stated). 

(1) Haqlqat-hd-yi Hindustan 3 (a chronogram = 1204/ 
1789-90), a historical and topographical account of India written 
for the benefit of the author’s munificent patron, Captain William 
Patrick (so Rieu, but perhaps Kirkpatrick 4 should he read) 
and divided into four maqdhlis ((1) revenue returns based on 
some drawn up by the author’s grandfather, brought down 
from various dates to the FaslI year 1139, and signed by Nizam 
ai-Mulk, (2) account of the suhahs of Hindustan, (3) account of 
the mbahs of the Deccan, (4) sketch of the Muslim rulers of 

1 The Xatd'ij al-afkdr (as quoted fay Rieu iii 1083a) says merely that he 
died in the early part of the 13th century. 

2 According to T. Grahatne Bailey { B.S.O.S . v/4 (1930) p. 927) he used the 
MkhaUus “ gjjafiq ” in his Persian and “ Safaib ” in his Rekhtah (i.e. Urdu) 
poetry. 

3 Hindustan, not Hindustan, which would give the wrong date, 

* For William Kirkpatrick, who translated a selection of TIpu’s letters, see 
Buckland’s Dictumary of Indian biography. 



478 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

India from Mibizz al-Dhi b. Sam to ‘Ali-Gauhar (Hhiih-'Alam)) : 
Rieu i 2386 (a.h. 1224/1809), 238a (a.ii. 3283 1800), iii 913a 
(a.d. 1851), Ivanow 179 (a.h. 1288/1871), Bankipur vii 543 
(19th. cent,), Ethd 426. 

(2) Khulasat al-Hind : Asatiyah i p. 238 no. 705 (where 
the precise subject is not stated). 

[Gul i nr nil (Bankipur viii p. 131) ; Nlskfar i ‘ishq 
(•• Shafiq’s 55 biography summarised in Bprenger p. 645) ; 
NataHj al-afhar (information summarised in Rien iii 1088a); 
Rieu i 327a, iii 1083a ; Nizami Badayuru Qamt Is al-nwnhllnr 
(in Urdu) ii p. 167.] / / 

642. Munshl Hiram [?] or Haniram [?]. son of D'hamrani, 
son of D’hanraj, was Qcmimgo of the pargamh of Unfuu (i.e. 
Unao in Oudlt). It was after 1207/1792 that he compiled from 
various Sanskrit and Persian sources his 

Rdj-sdhdwali) a history of the Hindu Rajahs and the 
Muhammadan rulers of India to a.h. 1194/1780 in Shah- - A i;t fibs 
reign together with statistical tables of the subahs of Hindustan : 
Elbe 208. /A ,-. ’ / 

643. Sarup Chand Iv'iiatii compiled in 1209 1701 5 for Sir 
John Shore (afterwards Baron Teiunmmirh, GoO'rnnr-WuwruI 

1793-8) ;A: ■ // ■. A : ; ; : // : 

Sahlh al-akhbdr 3 a general history of India to the 
author's time : Rieu iii 103.1a (extracts only). 

Description and a tram-luted extract (l. 1 . p.) ; Klliot and 
Dowson History of India viii pp./ 313-5. 

644. A*azz al-DIn Muhammad wrote in 1218 1,803 { for 
Major William Yule (the father of Sir Henry Yule) his 

Mukhtasar i Yul 3 a sketch of the Delhi Snimn> and the 
Tlmfirids, said by Rieu to be merely a transcript of the Tdnkli 
% Ilaqql (see p. 441 supra) with a meagre continuation : Rieu i 
2386 (early 1 9th cent.). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 


479 


645. Mirza Maslta, 1 a descendant of Ilah-wirdI Khan Jahan- 
gir!, wrote in the time of Shah- ‘Ham (reigned a.h. 1173/1759— 
1221/1806) for the instruction of his son Karim Allah Khan, 
called Mirza Kallu, his 

Intikhab al-tawdnkh , a mere sketch of Indian history 
in an introduction, two books ( (1) Northern India, (2) the Deccan) 
and a conclusion : Rieu iii 1052a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 33-1-5 
(the only MS. known to Elliot was in one of the Royal Libraries 
at Lucknow). 

646. Harnam Sing’h “ Nam! ” b. Giirdas Sing’h, a Saraswat 
Brahman, of Brahnumabad in the province of Lahore, resided 
near Lucknow. His father was Nd'ib to ‘Ain al-Dln Khan, 
Governor of Bareli a.h. 1195/1781—11 99 /1 7 84—5 and afterwards 
of Gorak'hpur, and Harnam Sing’h himself was in his service 
from childhood. 

Tarikh i sa c ddat i jawid , a general history of India 

to a.h. 1220/1805-6, written in 1221/1806 7, dedicated to Sa'adat 

‘All Khan, the Nawwab Wazir of Oudh, and divided into four 
fads ((1) Early Rajahs, (2) Kings of Delhi to Shall-' Alam, (3) 
Amirs and Rajahs of Asaf al-Daulah’s time, etc., (4) the Seven 
Climates, etc.), useful for biographical details of Indian nobles : 
Rieu iii 913u (defective at end. Che. a.d. 1850). 

Extracts translated by Mimshi Sadasuk'h : B.M. MS. Add. 
30,786, foil 1-81. 

Description and 14 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii 33G-354. 

647. Rav Amar Sing’h “ Khwush-dil ” tells us in the prose 
preface 2 to his Razmistan that he was born and bred at Ghazipur 
but had been resident for some years at Benares. In the poem 
itself he speaks of his being appointed Mutiski to Alexander 

1 Elliot writes Maslta, but sec Rieu iii 1052a and KvlUydt i Ghdlib, Luck- 
now 1924-5, p. 43 T ~ 8 . 

2 This preface occurs in I.O. 4019 but not in I.O. 3975. 



480 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Duncan. 1 The Qamus al-mashaJnr states on unspecified authority 
that he was the son of Jiwan Ram Kayast’h, that his [his 
father's ? 2 j original home (asli watan) was Karrali Miimkpfir, 
that in the time of Shuja c al-Daulah [a.h. 1169/1750-1180/1775] 
he [his father 1 2 ] was Nazim and Hakim, i aid of Ghazlpur, 
that on completing his education lie entered the service of 
Maha-rajali Chaifc 5 Sing’ll of Benares (reigned a.h. 1185-95), 
that subsequently lie was appointed Nazim 4 of ‘Aligarh by the 
East India Company, that he wrote a Tdrtkh i far win-raved y an 
i Hind, and that he died in 1225/1810. 5 

(1) Zubdat al-akhhar-, an abridgment of Sujan Ray’s 
Khuldsat al-tawdrikh (see p. 454 supra) continued to a.h. .1221/ 
1806-7 : Rieu iii 1052a foil. 170-94 (extracts only). 

Translated extracts: B.3L MS, Add. 30,781 foil. CD-69. 

! Description : Elliot and '.Dowson History of India viii pp, 374-5. 

(2) Razmistan (or Bazrn i khayal 8 ?), a versified sketch 

1 A. Dunam died at sea in 1210/1795-6. He was a brother of the bet tor known 
Jonathan Duncan, Resident and Superintendent at Benares 17sS, Governor 
of Bombay 1795-181 1 (see Buckland’a Dictionary of Indian biography). 

8 These statements concerning the aslt tmfaw and the appointment at Ghazi- 
pur seem to have been accidentally transferred from the father to the son. 

3 The Qamus ul-mashaMr writes Ajit, 

4 It may be doubted whether this is the correct technical term, According 
to ElHot and Dowson “ He seems to have been employed by the British Govern- 
ment in the Revenue Department ’*. 

5 In view of the similarity of names and the connexion with Benares and 
■‘Aligarh it seems likely that he is the same person as u Khuahgti f m], Mnnshiy 
Ammar [«i«] Singh Bandrsy [sic] ”, of whom there is a notice in the Riy&d aU 
■wifaq (Sprenger p. 167) as well as in Beale’s Oriental biographical dictionary, 
p. 70, and the Qamus al-masMMr (the Miyad td-wifatj king apparently the 
original source). “ Khiishgii, Ahmshiy Ammar Singh Banhrsv held a govern- 
ment appointment hi the Coe] [i.e. Rol=~- ‘Aligarh] district. He compiled a 
■short history of Akbar’s palace and of the Taj of Agra and pub the Sahara 
Danish into verse and called it Tarjamrth i Iinhur i d&nLfh ”, . , {riprenger 
p. 167, where the last title is printed in the Arabic character], 

6 Razmistan is the title given to the work in the author’s prose dttd^hnh 
(in I.O. 4019), but Rieu in describing extracts evidently from the same work 
calls it Bazm i Mayal . The extracts described by Rieu seem to include the 
.dibachah (since it is in the dMchah that the author says that he was bom 
at Gbazipur, a fact mentioned by Rieu), and it seems possible that the author 
changed, the title. On the title-page of 1.0. 3975 it is called Shah-narmh % Hind, 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 481 

of Indian history, chiefly the British period, to a.h. 1210/1795-6, 
dedicated to Jonathan Duncan, Resident at Benares 1788-95, 
and completed in 1211/1796-7 1 : 1.0. 3975 (a.d. 1896), 4019 
(a.d. 1892), Rieu iii 10176 foil. 34-46, 52-57 (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850). 

[Razmistan , preface etc. ; Nizami Badayuni Qdmus al-mashahir 
(in Urdu) i p. 104 ; probably also Riydd al-wifaq (Sprenger 
p. 167) and Beale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 70.] 

648. A certain Kanji-Mal wrote 

A chronological list of the Hindu Rajahs from 
Jud’hishtir to Pit’hora and of the Muhammadan rulers from 
Shihab al-Dln Ghorl to the accession of Akbar Shah in 1221/ 
1806 : Rieu iii 9176 (a.h. 1225/1810). 

649. Daulat Ray Kayat’h Saksenah composed in 1225/1810 

Chahar (Char) chaman, a general history of India ; 
Rieu iii 10586 (description only). 

650. Munshi Sadasuk’h “ Niyaz ” Dihlawi was employed at 
the close of the 18th century in some official capacity under 
Government at Chunar. At the age of 65 he left Delhi for 
Uahabad, where after ten years spent in literary work, including 
the composition of Persian, Urdu and Bhaka verse, he began 
his history. In addition to this work he wrote also the Tanbih 
al-ghafilin (cf. Rieu iii 918a), on Hindu tribes and sects, and 
the ‘Aja’ib al-Hind (cf. ibid. 10306) on remarkable places etc. 
in India. 

Muntakhab al-tawarlkh , composed in 1234/1818-19, 
a general history of India to 1233/1817-18, valuable for the 
reign of Shah-AIam and later times : Rieu iii 914a (complete. 
a.d. 1849), 10216 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10526 (extracts 
only). 

1 In order to console himself for the death of his patron, A. Duncan, the 
author read ancient and modem histories and then conceived the Idea of telling 
in verse the story of some events in the aneient and modern history of India. 
He wrote an account of the war of Lord Cornwallis against Tipu Sultan, 
prefixed to it some account of the sultans of Hindustan and called the poem 
Razmistan. 



482 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC*. 

Extracts translated by Munshl Sadasuk’h Lai : B.M. MS, 
Add. 30,786, foil. 82-291. 

Description and 4 pp. of translated extracts; Elliot and 
Dawson History of India viii 403-411, 

[Elliot and Dawson viii 403-5; Bieu iii 914a,] 

651. Nur-M«Lainmad b. Mirza M. KhurasanI completed 
in 1240/1824-5 and dedicated to Sira j al-Umara’ 'Azim-Jfih, 
Nawwab of the Carnatic, 

Siraj a!~tawari kh, a vast general history with special 
reference to India : Etb6 ii 3009 (autograph hrouillon). 

652. A large work on the political and natural history of 
India projected by ‘Azlm-Jah, Nawwab of the Carnatic (i.e. M. 
‘All Khan Bahadur Siraj al-Umara’, who was installed on 
3 Eeb. 1820 and died on 12 Nov. 1825), was entrusted by him 
to the superintendence of Mania wl M. Sibghat Allah entitled 
‘Azmi-Nawaz Khan Bahadur Mufamad-Jang ‘Umdat al-‘UIama ! 
Mufti Badr al-DauIah, who has already been mentioned (pp. 
222-3 supra ) as the author of a Ddstdn i gham written in 1250/ 
1834-5. Of the collaborators selected by Maulawl »P>|$|at 
Allah for the various parts the most prominent was Rida 
Sahib known as Hakim Baqir Husain Khan Bahadur, who 
devoted himself particularly to the history of the Carnatic from 
the time of Sa‘d Allah Khan to that of Wala-Jah (this portion 
of the history does not occur in the only recorded manuscript). 
After Rida Sahib’s death S. Murtada (i.e. no doubt “ Binish *\ 
author of the tadhkirah , Ishdrdt i Binish, mentioned below in 
the subsection Biography ; Poets) undertook to supply other 
portions of the political history, but the work was interrupted 
by the Nawwab’s death and remained unfinished. Both Maulawl 
Sibghat Allah and S. Murtada were still alive in 1859, the latter 
as teacher in the Madrasah [at Arcot presumably]. 

( Aszm al-iawdrtkhf a history, mainly of India, planned to 

1 An English note on a fly-leaf ascribes to the work the general title of 
SirQj altautirikh (ef. § 651 tupra), but, according to Ethe, no such title is 
mentioned in the Persian text. 



483 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (a) GENERAL 

consist of seven maqalahs and five muqaddimahs , but differently 
divided in the only recorded manuscript, which is evidently 
incomplete, lacking, for example, the Carnatic and Mysore 
history (which was to be the subject of Maqalah vii) : EtM 430 
(consisting of (1) a general introduction on the value of historio- 
graphy, the sources for the Hindu period and an outline of pre- 
Muhammadan Indian history, (2) history of the Creation, the 
Patriarchs, the Hindu rajahs and the rise of Islam in India, 

(3) [called Maqalah iii] the Gliaznawids, (4) [called Maqalah iv] 
the Delhi Sultans to ‘Ala’ al-Dm f Khali it (5) [called Maqalah v] 
the Delhi Sultans from Buhlul Lodi, (6) [called Maqalah vi] the 
Indian Tlmurids to Muhammad Shah. These are followed by a 
portion called J dmi c al-askyd 5 or Hasht chaman on natural history) . 

653. Kishan-Dayal K’hatri, of Delhi, completed in 1826 his 
Ashraf al-tawanlch, which he wrote for presentation to Rajah 
Chandu Lai <{ Shadan ”. x Peshkar at Haidarabad. 

Ashraf al-tawan kh , an enormous compilation in seven 
books ((I) epitome of the &iva-Purana etc,, (2) translation 
of the Ramayana, (3) translation of the Bhagamta-Purdna, 

(4) Hindu saints, (5) epitome of the Mahabharata, history of 
the Hindu Rajahs, the Muhammadan kings of Ghazni and 
Delhi to Akbar II, (6) the revenues of Hindustan and Persia, 
(7) account of the seven climates etc.) : Rieu iii 1026b (foil. 
48-70. Extracts only. Circ. a,:d. 1850), 10426 (foil. 147-152. 
Account of the K’hatrl caste only. Circ. a.d. 1850), cf. 10526, 
[Elliot knew of only two MSS., both in the possession of the 
author’s family.] 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 411-2. 

654. S. Ahmad Khan b. S. Muttaqi Khan, or Sir 2 Saiyid, 3 

1 He was the author of ditmns both in Persian and Urdu. The former will 
be mentioned in the section of this book devoted to Poetry. He died on 
19 April 1845 (see Garcin de Tassv iii 90-92, Buckiand J Dictionary of Indian 
biography, and the authorities mentioned on p. 252, n. 1, supra). 

2 This is the English title prefixed to the name of a knight. Sir Saiyid was 
created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India in 1882. 

3 An old transliteration “ Syed ” still survives in India side by side with 
other i ransli r orations. 



484 U. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

as he is commonly called by the Muhammadans of India, was 
bom at Delhi on 17 October, 1817. His maternal grandfather, 
Khwajah Farid al-Dln Ahmad, 1 was Prime Minister to Akbar II. 
Entering the East India Co/s service, lie was appointed Sarishtah- 
dar (Record-keeper) of the Sadr Amin's 2 3 Court at Delhi in 1837, 
Na'ib Munshl “or deputy reader 5 ’ in the office of the Com- 
missioner of Agrah in 1839, Mumif or Sub-Judge at Main purl 
in 1841, at Fathpur-Sikrl in 1842 and at Delhi in 3846. s Subse- 
quently he was Sadr Amm at Rohtak (1850) and Bijnaur (1855), 
Principal Sadr Amin 4 at Muradabad (1858), Ghazlpur f 1862), 
and ‘Aligarh (1804), and Judge of the Small Cause Court at 
Benares (1867). He retired in 1876, settled at ‘Aligarh, died 
there on 27 March 1898 and is buried at the side of the mosque 
of the ‘Aligarh Muslim University. He was a Member of the 
Legislative Council of the North-West Provinces and from 1878 
to 1882 a Member of the Viceroy’s Council. In 1882 lie was 
made a K.C.S.X. A 

Sir Saiyid Ahmad’s fame, however, rests not on his official 
career but on the distinguished services which he rendered to 
education and the spread of enlightenment among the Muham- 
madans of India. Unlike his bitter opponents 5 among the 
orthodox, who regarded modem knowledge as useless and 
dangerous to faith, he believed education of the European 
type to be the only means of raising the status of India's Muham- 
madans and enabling them to play their part worthily in the his- 
tory of their country. In 1858 lie opened a school at Muradabad 
for the study of modern history, in 1864 lie founded the Transla- 
tion Society of Ghazlpur (which afterwards became the Scientific 

1 See Qamus nl-maxhulrir i pp. 236-7. 

3 “ A subordinate judge (lower than mdr-aHa ; — the oilier; has been 
abolished) ” (Plaits). Sadder Ameers was the old spelling, 

3 The dates given by the different authorities are not in nil eases quite 
the same. V- . 

* The vernacular equivalent seems to be Sadr A'tA ot$adr al-Sudur, 

5 An interesting account of tho campaign of vituperation, menace and 
slander directed against him will be found in * s Half’s ” HaytU i jtiudd, pt. ii 
pp. 266-312. A series of fatwm denouncing him is given at the end of Maulawl 
Imdad aAAli’s Imdad al-S/dg, Cawnpore 1873*. 



M. HISTORY OP IMGDIA : (a) GENERAL 485 

Society of ‘Aligarh) for the translation of English hooks into 
Urdu, in 1870 he started a monthly periodical entitled TahdMb 
al-akklaq (English title : Tim Mohammedan social reformer) 
and formed a “ Committee for the better diffusion and advance- 
ment of learning among the Mohammedans of India Finally 
in 1875 came the opening of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental 
College at Aligarh (now the ‘Aligarh Muslim University), of 
which he was the chief promoter and which is the most widely 
known of the memorials which he left behind him. 

Sir Saiyid’s labours had lasting effects in several different 
directions. They profoundly influenced Indian Muslim educa- 
tion. They stimulated the growth of a modernist or liberalising 
school of religious thought among educated Indian Muham- 
madans. They contributed to the promotion of friendly relations 
between Europeans and Indians. 1 They changed the course of 
Urdu prose style. According to T. Grahame Bailey Sir S. Ahmad 
“ exercised more influence upon Urdu than perhaps any other 
single man in the nineteenth century ... He wrote good, flowing 
and. simple Urdu, discarding the florid style of his predecessors 
in journalism. . . . Ultimately, so far as prose went, he won a 
complete victory, and no one now thinks of writing in the style 
of Surur when he has before him as a model the forceful and 
straightforward writing of Sir Sayyid”. 

In the latter part of his life S. Ahmad was the leading 
personality among the Muhammadans of India. He was un- 
doubtedly the greatest man produced by Indian Islam in the 
nineteenth century. 

Sir Saiyid’s numerous works 2 were nearly all in Urdu. Among 
them w r ere Athdr al-sanadtd (on the archaeology of Delhi. Delhi 
1847°*, Delhi 1853-4°, Lucknow 1876*. French translation: 
Description des monuments de Dehli en 1852, d’apres le texte 
hindmstani de Saiyid Ahmad Khan, par M. \J. Hi] Garcin de 
Tassy (in, and offprinted from, the Journal asiatique 1860-1), 

1 It may be mentioned in this connexion that at the time of the Mutiny 
S. Ahmad showed much courage and resource in saving the lives of Europeans 
and that he defied the prejudice against eating with Christians and defended 
the practice in his Risalah i fa‘am i ahl i kitab published in 1285/1868-9. 

2 For a list of these works see “ Hall’s ” Hay at i jawid, pt. 2, appendix 2. 



NNMIiiBaMMIP' 


486 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Tabyln al-kcdam ft tafsir al-Taumh iva-'l-lnjil * aid millat al- 
lslam ( The Mohomedan comment ary on the Holy Bible. Urdu 
and English.. Pts. i (Introduction) and ii (Genesis), Ghazlpur 
1862°. Pt. iii (St. Matthew) is described by Graham (p. 71) 
as “ now in the press ” 1 ), Tafsir al-Qudan (an Urdu translation 
and commentary. Vols. i and ii, ‘Aligarh 1880°. Vol. vi 
1309/1891-2, 2 Part of the series entitled Tasdmf i Afamdtyah. 
Six volumes (to the end of Surah xvii) were published and a 
seventh (to Surah xxi, completing about half of the work) 
was ready for the press when Sir Saiyid died), Ibtdl i ghuldmi, 
on the evils of the slave trade, Agrah 1893,* SJrat i Family ah. 
a life of his maternal grandfather, Agrah 1896*. 

Among the works of which English translations 3 have appeared 
are The loyal Mohammedans of India (on the Muhammadans who 
remained loyal to the Government, saved the lives of Europeans 
and rendered other services at the time of the Mutiny), 1860-1 
(see Graham pp. 58-69, where some extracts are given but 
where the place of publication is not mentioned, and Oriental 
College Magazine xiii no. 2 p. 13, where it is said that this 
publication was issued in parts as a sort of periodical in Urdu 
and English), A series of essays on the life of Mohammed aad 
subjects subsidiary thereto , vol. i, London 1870* 4 * 6 , Ueemd pO,: 
Dr. Hunted s Indian Musalmansf Benares 1872*, The muses of 
ike Indian revolt. Written [in 1858] . . . in Urdoo . . . and trans- 
lated . . . by his two 'European friends [Auckland Colvin and 
G. P. I. Graham], Benares 1873*, On the present state of Indian 1 
politics, Allahabad 1888*. 

1 According to the B.il. catalogue only pts. i and ii were published. 

; 2 See llayai i jamd, pt. 5, appendix 2, p. 3, where 1296-1309 Is given as 
the date of the publication of the Tafittr . 

3 It is not necessarily to be assumed that these works were ever published 
in the original Urdu. 

* Only one volume seems to have been published. The Urdu title seems 
to have been Khutabai i Ahmadujah -. me $. M. ‘AM Allah’s article in the 

Oriental College Magazine vol. xiii no. 2 p. IS, where no date or place of publica- 
tion is mentioned and where it is not stated whether the work appeared in 
Urdu as well as in English. 

6 A reply to W. W. Hunter’s The Mian. Mmahmm : are they bound in 
cmucience to rebel against, the Queen ? (London 1871*), 



487 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Collections of his lectures and speeches were published under 
the titles Lahcharon lea majmu'ah (Lahore 1890*), Majmu'ah 
i lakchar-ha (Sad’haurah 1892*) and TahdMb al-akkldq (speeches 
delivered from 1287/1870 to 1293/1876. Yol. II published at 
Lahore in 1896*). A collection of his letters compiled by his 
grandson, S, Ross Masood, has been published under the title 
Khutut i Sar Saiyid (2nd ed., Badayuh [1931]). 

He was editor of the Tarikh i Firoz-Shaki (of Barani) published 
at Calcutta (Bibliotheca Indica) in 1860-2, of the TuzuJc i 
Jahdngin printed at his own presses at Ghazlpur and ‘Aligarh 
in 1863-4 and of the A’in i Akban published by Nawal KishSr 
at Lucknow in 1869. 

Jam i Jam , written for R. N. C. (afterwards Sir Robert) 
Hamilton, Commissioner of Agrah, 1 and completed in Safar 
1255/1839, tabulated information (viz. title, father’s name, 
mother’s name, race (Lod’hl, Chaghatay etc.), date of birth, 
place of accession, date of accession, poetical chronogram, if 
any, for that date, length of reign, length of life, date of death, 
poetical chronogram, if any, for that date, posthumous title, 
if any, place of burial, observations) concerning the Muham- 
madan sovereigns of Delhi from the time of Timur, who comes 
first followed by Nusrat Shah, to that of the last Tlmurid, 
Bahadur Shah : Rieu i 2846 (a.d. 1839), Lindesiana p. Ill 
no. 416 (a.h. 1258/1842), Bankipur vii 595 (a.h. 1266/1849-50), 
596, Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. {DTbachah only. See Oriental 
College Magazine, vol. iii/1 (Nov. 1926) p. 66), I.O. 4030 (tran- 
scribed apparently from a Delhi edition of 1268). 

Editions : Akbarabad [i.e. Agrah, not Delhi, as stated in the 
B.M. Catalogue] 1840°, Delhi 1268/1851-2 (from which the 
I.O. MS. mentioned above was apparently transcribed). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vui pp. 430-1. 

[His genealogy in the preface to the Jam i Jam and in the 
Khutabdt i AJirmdiyaJi (and also in Hay at ijdwul Pt. 2, appendix 
1) ; Garcia de Tassy Histoire de la Utterature Mndouie et hindou- 
sianie , seconde ed., tome iii (Paris 1871), pp. 37-41; Beale 


1 See Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography . 



488 


i; 


l 


n. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Oriental biographical dictionary under Sayyad Ahmad ; Safar- 
ndmah i Panjab [an Urdu account of S. Ahmad's visit to the 
Panjab in 1884], by S. Iqbal ‘All, ‘Aligarh 1884 ; G. F. I. Graham 
The life and work of Syed Ahmed Khan , Edinburgh and London 
1885 (portrait- frontispiece) ; G. F. I. Graham Reviews on Syed 
Ahmed Khan's life and work , ‘Aligarh 1886 ; Hay at i jawld 
[a detailed Urdu biography], by Altaf Husain “ Hall ”, Cawnpore 
1901 (portrait frontispiece) ; G. Zairian Mashdhir absharq [in 
Arabic], pt. ii (Cairo 1903), pp. 67-74 (Portrait p. 67) ; Hayat 
i Sar Saif id Ahmad [an Urdu translation by M. Faruq of Zaidan’s 
notice], ‘Aligarh 1903 ; Buekland Dictionary of Indian biography 
p. 7 ; Ency. Isl. under Ahmed Khan (Blumhardt) ; Nizami 
BadayunI Qdmus al-mashahir [in Urdu], I pp. 315-16 ; Bam 
Babu Saksena A history of Urdu literature, Allahabad 1927, 
pp. 269-72 ; Sir Saiyid Ahmed Khan. By H. G. Mawlinmn (in 
Islamic culture, iv/3 (July 1930) pp, 389-96) ; T. Grahame 
Bailey A history of Urdu literature pp. 85-6 ; Ummwin said M 
ek musannif aur mufakkir, by S, M. £ Abd Allah (in the Oriental 
College Magazine, vol. xiii, no, 2 (Lahore, Feb, 1937) pp. 3-25, 
no. 4 (August 1937) pp. 20-31, in progress.] 

655. In 1262/1846 was composed 

Tarikh i Hindustan : ‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 11 
(defective at end). 

656. It was in 1264/1848 that M. Bida “Najm” Tabataba 1 
(for whom see p. 148 supra) completed his 

Akhbdrdt i Hind (chronogram), a general history of India 
to a.h. 1261 '1848 dedicated to Sir H. Elliot, forming vol y of 
the authors historical encyclopaedia Bahr al-z akhkkd r and con- 
sisting largely of matter abridged from vol iii iMnjnttC ah 
miduJc , see p. 148 supra)Mid vol. iy fMafatlh al-ri'tiait, sec p. 523 
infra) but with considerable additions 2 : Bleu iii 9146 (eire. aj>, 

1 TabatabS, not Tabataba'i, sec-ms to be the form until by the author himself. 

% It “ includes a full and minute account- of the period of -hnion of 
the Moghul empire” and “ is chiefly based, for the last sixty yean, on oral 
information received by the author from his father and unde, and on his 
personal recollections. The copious details . ife contains on the rise, progress, 
and decline of the native states of India, down to the latest period, arc 
nowhere else to ho found in a connected form ” (Bieu). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (a) GENERAL 489 

1848), 10146 ii (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10186 v 
(extracts only. a.d. 1849). 

Account of the work by the author with full statement of 
contents : Rieu iii 1053a. 

Description with 3f pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii 436-440. 

657. Mir Khwurshed ‘All “ Khwurshed ”, commonly called 
Saiyid Shah c Ali, b. S. Dastgir “ Dastgir ” translated into Persian 
under the title Tarikh i Hind (the first part only (?) of) an English 
work entitled apparently Epitome of the History of Hindoostan , 
in which according to the preface the author proposed to give 
the history of India from the time of Mahmud Ghaznawl to the 
British conquest. 

Tarikh i Hind. Edition : Madias 1267/1851°* (extending 
to the year a.d. 1289). 

658. Hakim Jawahir La‘l Akbarabadi, a physician by pro- 
fession, was editor of the Urdu newspaper Alchbdr al-nawdh 
wa-nuzhat al-arwah which was published at Agrah and which, 
according to Garcin de Tassy, at first contained good literary 
and scientific articles but after 1851 became less interesting and 
more exclusively devoted to the news of the day. He edited 
also the Etawah newspaper published in English, Hindi and Urdu 
editions entitled respectively People's Friend, Prajdhit and 
Muhibb i rd'ayd. 

His works include (1) Makkzan al-tawdnkh, an Urdu transla- 
tion of the Zubdat ai-iawdrilch (an abridgment of the Siyar al- 
mutd a Mkh irin ■), Agrah 1853*, (2) Muntakhah al-tawdrikh, an 
abridgment of the Makhzan al-tawdrikh, Agrah 1855*, (3) 
Mddimydt (in Urdu) on minerals and their uses, Agrah 1855*, 
(4) Sakunlald ndiaha, an Urdu translation from the Sanskrit 
of Kalidasa, Agrah 1873*, (5) a Persian translation of M5tl 
Lai’s Urdu Pand-ndmah i MshiMrdn, Agrah 1854°. 

Tarikh i Hind J a history of India from the earliest times 
to the Second Burmese War in 1852, translated by Jawahir Lai 
from an Urdu original (also by J. L. ?). Edition : Agrah 1855°*. 



490 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

[Garcin de Tassy ii 91-2.] 

659. Ghauth Muhammad Khan succeeded his father 'Abd al- 
Ghafur Khan as Nawwab of Jaorah (a state of 508 square miles 
in Malwah, Central India) in 1825 at the age of two. During 
the Mutiny of 1857 he rendered important services to the 
Government of India. He established koticafis in the tnljslls. 
where criminal cases were heard, and opened a hospital and a 
court of Muhammadan law. He died in 1865. 

Majmcf al-salatln 3 Si tabulated lists of the emperors of 
Hindustan and the sovereigns of England, with statistical 
accounts of the provinces of India " (pp. 69). Editions : 3!drah 
1272/1856°, place? 1279/1862-3 1 * (Asafiyah i p, 252 no, 257), 
place ? 1286/1869-70 (Asafiyah 1 p. 25*2 no. 872). 

[Central India State Gazetteer Series Western States (Mdlwd) 
Gazetteer. Vol. V. — Part A, Text. Compiled by Capt. C. E. Lrnrd , 
Bombay 1908, pp. 184-5.] 

660. Mlrza 3Sfa§r Allah Khan " Fida 1 ! ,1 ,” entitled Nawwab 
Daulat-Yar-Jang Bahadur, was the son of M. Husain Khwusli- 
nawls Isfahan!. A year or two after leaving- Persia for the 
purpose of travel he conceived the desire of doing some work 
which should be both a present to his countrymen and a service 
to the language of his ancestors. He decided, therefore, to 
write a history of India. For some years he hesitated m under- 
take unaided so difficult a task and he was moreover occupied 
with the duties of tutor to Mir Mahbub ‘All Khan 3 {bah 
drnuzgdn u ham-nieliim i Batnhtyuu > mild Xamcub Fath-Jany 
Nizam al-Uaulah Nizam al-Mulk Asaf-Jdh Mir Mahhdb 'All 
Khan Bahadur nam-zad budam }. 

1 The Asafiyah catalogue gives the author as Muhta§fcam abDatilah ‘Absi 
al-Oiiafur Khan. but this seems to be an error. 

* For his IHwan i rjhazaliyat (Bombay 1310) and his JMxmn i qtmYid (Horn bay 
1310 likewise) see Harrassowifcsc’s Bileher-Kiitalog 430 (1831) nos. 499 and 500 
and Asafiyah i p. 730 no. 133. 

s Nigain of Hnidarabad, bom I860, $ucce<‘ded 186 9, invested with full 
powers 4 Feb. 1884, died 2011. b-; '■ 



491 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (a) GENERAL 

Early in 1301/1883 lie began the Dastan i turk-tazan i Hind 
and he completed it towards the end of 1303/1886. 1 According 
to the Asafiyah catalogue, i p. 730 no. 133, he died in 1314/ 
1896-7. 

Dastan i turk-tazan i Hind , a history of the Muham- 
madan rulers of India from M. b. Qasim’s invasion to the death 
of Bahadur Shah in 1862, based mainly on English sources and 
written in “ pure Persian ”. 2 Edition : Bombay 3 1309 /1892* 4 
(5 vols.}. y 

661. Kunwar Durga-Parshad ££ Mihr” Sandill, the son of 
Rajah D’hanpat Ray, was born in 1846. In 1867 he succeeded 
his father as raw, and in 1884 he was appointed an Honorary 
Magistrate of Sandilah. He was stilt living in 1897. In addition 
to the GuUstdn i Hind he wrote a history of Oudh, Bustdn i 
Awad’h, which w r as published at Lucknow in 1892°*, and a 
tadkkirah of poetesses, Hadiqah i ‘ishrat, published at Sandilah 
in [1894°*]. . A/ ;//;// 

Gulistan i Hind (alternatively, in the 1889 edition, The 
Universal History of India in commemoration of the Queen’s 
Jubilee 1887 ) in four daftars ((i) Hindu Rajahs, (ii) the Muham- 
madan period, (iii) the British period to 1877, (iv) the author 
and his ancestors) written in 6 months after the Jubilee darbdr 
at Hardoi. Editions : Lucknow 1889°, Sandilah 1897°*. 

[Gulistan i Hind (Sandilah 1897) pp. 23 etc. (portrait at 
beginning of book) ; Bustdn i Awad’h, pp. 213 etc. ; Hardoi 

1 This is stated on the unnumbered leaf prefixed to the author’s portrait 
in the 1309 edition. 

2 The fifth volume is consequently a glossary. 

* According to a statement on the leaf prefixed to the author’s portrait the 
work was published by Messrs. Jehangier B. Marzban & Co.. Bombay. In 
the Bombay quarterly catalogue for the 1st quarter of 1893 the Dattaprasad 
Press, Bombay, is given as the place of printing. According to the title- 
page the work was printed Aar chap-ihanah i Mianagl i Ncaowab i namah-nigar 
% fta-nigarani i Ickimdashan. 

* This is the date of publication by Messrs, J. B. Marzban according to the 
statement mentioned in the previous note. 



492 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

District Gazetteer pp. 71, 85 : Portrait in An illustrated historical 
album of the Rajas and Taaluqdars of Oudh compiled and 
illustrated by Darogah Haji Abbas All, Allahabad 1880*. 
no. 90.] 

662. Mlrza Muhammad b. M. Raff, entitled Malik al-kuttab, 
Shiraz! was born at Shiraz in 1269/1852-3. In 1285 he settled 
in Bombay and there he founded the bookselling and publishing 
business in connexion with which he was best kn <: >\v n . In 1600 
1882-3 the title of Malik al-kuttdb was conferred on him by the 
Persian Government and in 1317/1899-1900 that of Khan Sahib 
by the Government of India. 

His works include (1) Ilcsvr alAmeankh ' wa~8iyar al-a’imnmh 
(see p. 210 supra), (2) Mir’ at al-zmmn (see p. 432 supra), (3) 
Tdrikh i Inglistmi (see p. 429 supra), (4) Tarikk i qadlm Yumn 
(see p. 429 supra), (5) Alf nahdr , ** anecdotes and reflections on 
various subjects ” (Edwards), Bombay 1313/1896°, (6) Aydt 
al-wilayah , a defence of the claims of ‘Ail and the 12 Imams to 
the Caliphate, Bombay [1898°], (7) Miftdh al-rizq, on the mutual 
relations of employers and employed, Bombay 1315 1898', 
(8) Kashf al-muTuh. or MuntaJchahdt i Muhammad! , an account 
of various arts, Bombay 1311/1894°, (9) TadhJArv.i al-khamatin. 
notices of Islamic poetesses, Bombay 1806/1889/ (10) Tuhjat 
al-Maivatln , on the hygiene of married women, Bombay 1325/ 
1907°. :■/./ ; Y'.. 

Among the books published by him was the Tadhkirah of 
Daulat-Shah (Bombay 1887°). 

Zlnat al-zaman fl tankh Hindustan mausum bah 
Taj aUatvdrjfch mi-sulaht al-siyar. 1 Edition : place? 1310/ 
1892-3 (see Asaflyah iii p. 104 no. 1036). 

[Prag Narayan Bhargava SaJufah i zarrin (in Urdu), Lucknow 
1902, Bombay section p. 97.] 


1 The A Kafir a h catalogue gives no particulars whh-h would show whether 
this work deals with the history of India in general or with a special 
period. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OP DELHI 493 
663. Appendix 

(1) Kanz i mahfuzj- a history in nine raudahs subdivided 
into halifahs by “Mirza Mahdi Samad b. ‘Ali ’1-Hadi ''Alim ad-din 
Muhammad Mahdi ” [sic] : Eton 178. 

(2) Nasab al-ansdby a general history of India : Lindesiana 
p. 201 no. 881 (a.h. 1210/1795). 

(3) Tadhkirat aTmuluk, a brief review of Indian dynasties 
to 1208/1793-4, apparently different from Ethe 409 : Ivanow 
180 (mid 19th cent.). 

(4) Tadhkirat al-saldtin , by Abu ’1-Qasim Nur- 

Muhammad : Lindesiana p. 109 no. 419 (circ. a.d. 1770). 

(5) Tarikh i Kar-rtamah [?], metrical narratives relating 
inter alia to M. b. Sam, Qutb al-Dln Aibak and Iltutmish 1 2 : 
Eehatsek p. 131 no. 16 (inadequately described). 

(6) Tarikh i salatin i Dikii, manzum (1 identical with 
the preceding) : A§aSyah i p. 226 no. 673. 

M. HISTORY OE INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OF DELHI 

(See also § 693 nos. (5) and (6)) 

664. In consequence of the disturbed state of Khurasan 
Hasan Nizami 3 left his native place Nishapur and went first to 
Ghazni and then to Delhi. Encouraged by the Sadr Sharaf 
al-Mulk and other friends to produce a literary work he obeyed 
a royal command recently issued and began in 602/1205-6 to 

1 Apparently different from the Kanz al-maifuz of which the second 
volume, a history of India to 1150/1737-8, is described in Elliot and Dowson 
viii pp. 37-9 (the only MS. known to Elliot belonged to Sa‘Id al-Dln 
Ahmad Khan of Muradabad and lacked the first volume. Cf. Rieu iii 
10506 ix). 

2 Possibly this and no. 6 may be copies, or parts, of “ £ I$amI’s ” Futuh 
al-salafin (see p. 433 supra). 

3 In the Raudat al-safa ’ i p. 7 and in H.Kh. ii p. 92 he is called Sadr al-Dln 
M. b. Hasan al-Nizaml. On the title-page of the B.M. MS, Add. 24,951 his 
name is written Taj al-Dln Hasan b. Nizami. In the preface he calls himself 
Hasan i Nizami (cf. the extract quoted in JR AS. 1S6S p. 435). 



494 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


write a record of the glorious deeds of Sultan Muizz al-Dfn 
M. b. Sam (assassinated at Ghazni in Sha'han 002), 

(Tdj al-mdatjtir\ a verbose, rhetorical and uninformative 
account, in prose and verse, of the Indian wars of Mu'izz al-Dln, 
Qutb al-Dln Aibak (who reigned a.h. 002 I2064)n7 1210 and 
to whom the work is chiefly devoted) and Iltutmidi. extending 
(in most copies) from Mu'izz al/Dlns conquest of Ajmer in 587 •' 
1191 to Nasir al-Dln Mahmud's appointment as Governor of 
Lahore in 614/1217 1 * * * : II. Kh. ii p, 92 no. 2o5L Faid Allah 
Efendi 1402 « Tauer 530 (a.h. 694 ■■1295). Eieu i 239c (a.h. 711/ 
1312), 240a (a.h. 818, 1416), 24.0a (16th cent,), 2406 (a.h. 1034 ' 
1625), iii 1014a (extracts only. Circ, a.d. 1850), 1045a (extracts 
with a- summary of the -work), Aya SMyah 28476 ~ Tuuer 587 
(a.h. 716/1316-47), 2991 = Tauer 539 (a.h. 750*1349), 2847a 
= Tauer 540 (a.h. 795/1392-3), Laia Isma‘U 299 Tauer 538 
(a.h. 740/1340), Berlin 478 (defective, about ;i of the work. 
a.h. 755/1354), Bioehet i 554 (a.h. 781/1379), 555 (defective 
at end. Early 15th cent.), 556 (a.h. 870 ■ 1405). Fltigel ii 951 
(a.h. 859/1455), Fatih 4204 =- Tauer 541 (a.h. 867 1462-3), 
Gotha 29 (a.h. 915/153.0), 30 (n.d.), Dorn 307 (a.h. 980 1572 3), 
Mustafa Efendi 601 — Tauer 542 (10th. Tdth cent.), Bodleian 
MS.*" Pers. e. 29 (a.h. 1034/1024-5), Majlis 220 (a.h. 1041/' 
1631-2), Ivanow 110 (18th cent.), Ahmad Thalith 2637 -- 
Tauer 543, Browne Suppt. 224 (King’s 68), Eth«§ 209 (tolerably 
old), 210 (n.d.), Asaflyah i p. 220 no. 288, Salemaim-Bosen 
p. 12 no, 578. 

Translation of extracts (“all that is of the remotest historical 
interest in the work' 5 ) : Elliot and Dawson History nf India 
ii pp. 204-43. 

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstull (Icndtidtsttul tin Lrbens- 
heschreibungcn grosser ramie niischtrr Ilerrsrhvr iv pp. 172-82, 

1 At this point the author concludes bv saying that, if his lift* is spared, 

lie will continue the work in the same manner. That he actually did so seems 

probable from the fact that, according to H. M. Elliot {History of India ii p. 210) 

Nawwab TJiyiV al-Dln of .Delhi possessed a MS. dated 770/l:)?7-S, in which, 

though imperfect at the end, the narrative was carried down tn a.h. 020/1228-0. 
The MS. was used by Elliot, whose extracts extend to that year. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (b) SULTANS OP DELHI 495 

(3) W. Nassau Lees Materials for the history of India ... (in the 
JR AS . 1868) pp. 433-38, (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India 
ii 204-12. 

[Taj al-ma'dthir, preface ; Elliot and Dowson History of India 
ii pp. 207-8 ; Rieu i 239 ; Ency. I si. under Nizami (Berthels).] 

665. Amir 1 Khusrau 2 Dihlawl was born in 651/1253 3 at 
Patiyall, 4 an old town now in the Etah District of the United 
Provinces. His father, whom he calls Saif i Shamsi and whom 
Eirishtah calls Amir Saif al-Din Mahmud, was a Turk 5 in the 
employ of Shams al-Din Xltutmish 6 (reigned a.h. 607/1210- 
633/1235) and his successors : his mother was a daughter of 
Timid al-Mulk, a high official in Balban’s reign (see Barani 
pp. 114-17, Wahid Mirza pp. 29-31). 

Even at the age of eight, he tells us, he was already composing 
poetry ( Dibdcjmh i Tuhfat al-sighar, Wahid Mirza p. 21). He 
was still a mere boy when Balban came to the throne in 664/ 
1265. In this reign he attached himself successively to three 
high officials, namely (1) ‘Ala’ al-Din Kishlu Khan. Balban’s 
nephew and Bar-bak or Chamberlain (. Dibdchah i Ghurrat al- 
kamal, Wahid Mirza p. 38), (2) Nasir al-Din Bughra Khan, 

1 According to Firishtah (Lucknow 1865) ii p. 402 penult., it was in Jalal 
al-Din Khalji’s reign that Khusrau became an amir (mdnand i birddar u pidar 
uz umard gardid). Daulat-Shah implies that it was in ‘Ala’ al-Din’s reign. 

2 According to Firishtah his original name (nam i asli) was Abu ’1-Hasan. 

3 This date seems to have been inferred from several statements made by 
Khusrau concerning his age at different times. Thus it appears from the 
preface to the Ghurrat al-kamal that he was 34 years old in 685 and 43 in 693. 
Towards the end of the Qiran al-m‘dain (Lucknow 1885, p. 174 penult.) he says 
that he was 36 in Ramadan 688. 

4 Khusrau describes India as his maulid (in the Null sipihr : see Wahid 

Mirza p. 17 n. 3) but does not specify the actual place of his birth. Bada’uni, 
however, in one of the places where he mentions Patiyall (Muri.akhab al- 
taujdrikh ii p. 43 14-15 ) describes it as a qasahah on the bank of the Ganges and 
the maulid it manshcC i Mir Khusrau. (Bada’unl himself had a connexion 
with Patiyall, since he was at one time in the service of Husain Khan, Jagirdar 
of that place.) Cf. Sajinat al-auliya' p. 98. 4 

5 Khusrau calls himself an Indian Turk (Turk i Hindustani ) in the Dibdcdiah 
i Ghurrat al-kamal (ef. "Wahid Mirza p. 34). 

e Jahdn ba-quwwat i ii mi-girift Iltuimish kih bar-kashidali Khudavash ei- 
qabdah i qudrat (Dibaclmh i Ghurrat al-kamal, quoted by Wahid Mirza). 



496 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


Balban’s younger son. wlio was Governor of Samanali and whom 
he accompanied on Balban’s expedition against Lak’lmautl in 
the 14th year of the reign (Wahid Mirza pp. 41-3), (3) Kusrat 
al-Dm. Sultan Muhammad. Balban’s elder son, the Governor of 
Multan, with whom he remained 1 for five years 3 until 683/ 
1284-5, when he was killed in battle against the Mongols (Khusrau 
himself was taken prisoner but escaped 3 ). In 685/1286 or 686/ 
1287 Balban was succeeded by Mulzz al-Din Kal-QuMd, ' the 
son of Kasir al-Din Bughra Khun. Khusrau. was invited to 
court, but, fearing the hostilitypof the.power^ 
abDin, he declined and became a pmtmt: of. Hatim: ■ Khan;,: whom 
he accompanied to Oudh when Kai-Quhad went to meet 
his father Bughra Khan. Hatim Khan was then appointed 
Governor of Oudh and Khusrau remained with him there 
unwillingly for a time. On his return to Delhi he wrote the 
Qi-rdn al-sa'dain (completed in Ramadan 688/' 1 289) at the 
king’s request to commemorate his meeting with his father in 
O.udh. Klmsruu’s Asp~?iamak } a vmitknam included in the 
GJntrrat al-haiml, was dedicated to Hatim Khan (cf, Baram. 

In the; reign of Jala! al-Din Firoz Shah Ehaljl (a.h. 689/1290" 
695/1295) Khusrau veas appointed Muslmf-ddr and was given 
an annual stipend of 1200 tankxks.; (Baranl;:pp, . 197-8). Baranf 
calls him Malik al-nudama i majUs i saltan (p. 2000. munr inns 
him second in his list of nine mdumn i mnjlis i suUaD (p. 1 99 -j 
and says that ever}’’ day he produced new ghxizals m the mltfm’s 
majlis and that he received many presents {inllnt) from the 
sultan, who was enamoured (tfuftah) of his tjhr.nh (p. 1 99" % 
Four victories of this king : are described in the; MiftMkMifiUukk 
which was completed in Jumadii if 690/1291. 

‘Ala al-Din M. Khali Kh aljl reigned from 605 1 295 fo 71 5/ 1315. 
Khusrau accompanied him on his expedition against [hittuur 
(in 702 or 703; and narrated his victories from 605 to III in 

3 According to 1* nisi] t ah (Lucknow LWi, ij p. -jo;’ 5 - he held the office of 
U whaf-dar, Ida Friend Amir i.fa m Diiilawl Wing Dawat-Me, 

a JDib&rhah i Ghurmt al-kam&l, Barant p. 67, ■ Wafeid Mima p, . , ! K>. 

3 Dibanftahi Ghurrat al-kamal, Baram p. 110, Waljld MlroL pp. (Kt-iL 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (6) SULTANS OF DELHI 497 

the prose work Khazd’in al-futuh completed in the latter year. 
The mathnawi Duwal Ham Klia&ir Khan belongs also to this 
reign, since it was originally completed in 715 and ended with 
Ivhidr Khan’s marriage. 1 All the five poems of Khusrau 5 s 
Khamsah are dedicated to ‘Ala 5 al-Din. According to Baranl 
(p. 366 17 ~ 18 ) Khusran received from ‘Ala 5 al-Din a stipend 
( mawajib ) of only 1000 tankahs and was not honoured at court 
as his merits deserved. 2 

The early part of the reign of Qutb al-Din Mubarak Shah 
Khaiji (a.h. 716/1316-720/1320) is the subject of the Nuh 
sipihr completed in Jumada i 718/1318. 

The accession of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (reigned 720/1320- 
725/1325) and the events which led to it were celebrated by 
Khusrau in the Tughluq-namah. When the king led his expedition 
into Bengal (in 724/1324 according to Firishtah) Khusrau accom- 
panied him and so was absent from Delhi when his r pir Nizam 
al-Din Auliya 5 died. A few months later, in 725/1325, 3 * Khusrau 
himself died and was buried in a tomb adjacent to that of 
Nizam al-Din Auliya 5 . Ho had lived to see the first few months 
of the reign of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq, whose entrance into 
Delhi after his accession is the subject of a poem in the Nihdyat 
di-hamal. ;,- : , 

Khusrau is considered the greatest of India’s Persian poets. 
He is also counted as a saint. Tradition credits him with original 
contributions to the art of music, and it is said that even to-day 
he is recognised by Indian qawwdls as their master (see "Wahid 
Mirza p. 239). 

According to Firishtah Khusrau wrote 92 books ( nawad u du 

1 In Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq’s reign Khusrau added a continuation telling 
of Khidr Khan’s estrangement from his father ‘Ala’ al-Din, his confinement 
In the fortress of Gwalior, his blinding by Malik Kaffir and finally Ms murder 
at the hands of his brother Mubarak Shah. 

2 u Sultan ‘ Ala ’ al-Din in-chimin nddirah % §hu‘ar&'%fu^£d^yi -safaf -ii jeh.aia$, 

r&hamin yak hazar tanlcah mawajib dadi u dar pish i Jehwud mubajjal u mvkarram 
na-gardanidf. . 

3 The day and month are variously given, e.g. 29 Dh a ’1-Qa‘dah (Firishtah), 

IS Shawwal (Safinat al-avliy dj, 18 Itabt ii (Sprenger p. 466, from the A dab 

al-talibin). 



498 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Utah dar silk i nazm kashidah). If this is correct, a large part 
of his work has perished, but- what remains is of considerable 
extent. Still preserved are 

(1) five dhcans, viz. (a) Tuhfat al-sighar, poems of adolescence 
(from the age of fifteen, or sixteen, 1 to nineteen), (h) 
Wasat al-hayat, poems of middle life (from the age of 
nineteen, twenty, or twenty-four, 1 to thirty-two, or thirty- 
four 1 * ), (c) Ghurral al-hmml, poems of maturity (from the 
age of thirty-four to forty-three) collected (originally) 
in 693 but poems of a later date are included , (d) BaqTyah 
i naqiyah, completed not earlier than 715, since it contains 
an elegy on Sultan ‘Ala 5 al-Dln, (e) Nihdyat al-kmml , 
which includes at least one poem written in 725 (Edition : 
Delhi 1332/1914*). 

There are in existence a number of MSS. bearing the 
title Dvwan i Khmrau and containing several different 
selections, mainly ghazah, from the first four of these 
dnvdns (e.g. Rieu ii 6106, 614b-6l5a). One such selection, 
ostensibly made by the poet himself, has been published 
under the title Kulllydt i ‘miasir 2 i dawdrnn ■ i Khusmu 
by Nawal Ivishor ([Cawnpore 1871*, 1874°, 1886°] Cawn- 
pore 1916J (4th ed.}). It. contains 21 gnsdiul (pp. 0-37). 
923 ghazah alphabetically arranged (pp. 37-456}, a few 
7iniqa(ta c dt etc. (pp. 456-60) and ruhd'lydt (pp. 460-0). 
These 923 ghazah may be all, or nearly all, that occur in 
the four dnvdns , but it is incorrect to say, as Rieu, Edwards 
and Arberry have done, that this volume contains the 
four dlumts collected into a single diimn. The < pm id 
included in this selection are, . for example, fewer than 
those in the TuJjfat al-rngJiur, which contains 33, or .■ in 
the Wasat al-haydt , which contains. 58. 

(2) a Khammh modelled on “Nizami's" and comprising 

1 The ages mentioned in the different M>SK. are not - tin- same. 

- The use of this word is due to a fanciful comparison of the four dhmm 

to the four elements, earth (Tuhfnt etl-fighar), water (Wami nUhnijat), air 

( Qhurrat aULamal) and fire (Baqujah i nnqhjah.), in respect of a progress from 

coarseness to fineness, from lowness to highness etc. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (6) SULTANS OF DELHI 499 

(a) Matlaf al-anwar, completed in 698 (Editions : Delhi 
1293/1876°*, Lucknow 1303/1884°) 1 , ( b ) SMrin u Khusrau , 
completed in Rajab 698 2 , (c) Majnun Laila, completed 
likewise in 698 (Editions : [Calcutta] 1811°*, Calcutta 
1828°* (in Classic selections from some of the most esteemed 
Persian writers, vol. i), Lucknow 1286/1869*, 1870°, 
[1899°], ‘Aligarh 1335/1917*), (d) Aimak i Sikandari, 
completed in 699 (Edition : ‘Aligarh 191 8f (? 1917)), 
(e) Hasht bihisht, completed in 701 (Editions : Lucknow 
1290/1873* ‘Aligarh 1336/1918*). 

(3) j Rasa'll al-i'jaz, or, as it is often called, Pjdz i Khusrawi , 
a treatise on elegant prose composition in five risdlahs, 
the first four completed in 682, the last in 719, with 
numerous specimen documents and letters, mainly of 
Kkusrau’s own writing (MSS. Ethe 1219 etc. Editions : 
Lucknow 1865° (vol. i only), 1876° (5 vols., of which I.O. 
has the first two only). 

In addition to these may be mentioned the Afdal alfawa’id, 
a collection of Nizam al-Dln Auliya’s sayings in four parts, of 
which the first w r as presented to the saint in 719 (Edition : 
Delhi 1887°). 

Popularly ascribed to Khusrau are (1) the Qissah i ckahar 
danvish, best known through Mir Amman’s Urdu translation 
Bdgh u hahdr (see Rieuii 762 etc.), (2) a metrical Persian-Hindi 
glossary known from its opening words as Khdliq-Bdn, (3) a 
number of Hindi verses and conundrums. For further mforma- 
tion concerning these see Wahid Mirza, pp. 149-50, 227-32. 

(1) Qiran al~sctdain> written in 3 months and completed 
in Ramadan 688/1289, a mathnawi on the meeting of Sultan 
Mu'izz al-Din Kai-Qubad and his father Nasir al-Dln Bughra 
Khan in 688/1289 on the banks of the Sarju in Oudh : H.Kh. 
iv p. 510 no. 9399, Sprenger 329, Eth6 1186 (5) (a.h. 866-7/1462 

1 The statement of Wahid Mirza (op. cit. p. 195) that an edition (date 
unspecified) was lithographed at ‘Aligarh seems to be without foundation. 

2 The statement of Wahid Mirza (op. cit. p. 197) that “ The poem has been 
lithographed in Aligarh ” seems to be without foundation. 



500 


ir. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

or thereabouts), 1208 (a.h, 907/1502 ?), 1188 (11) (a.h. 938/1520-7), 
1187 (10) (a.h. 1008/1599), 1209 (a.h. 1072.1(562), .1210 (a.h. 
1096/1685), 1211 (a.h. 1135/1723), 1212-14 (3 undated copies), 
2880, 1.0. D.P. 1253 (a.h. 1177/1763-4), Ross & Browne 108 
(IStli cent.), Hakim-oghlii ‘All Pasha 661 (a.h. 903,1497. Bee 
Duda Ferkdd mid Sehinn p. 186), Bioehefc iii 1534 (slightly 
defective. Late 15th cent.), 1520 (circ. a.d. 1560), Mashhad iii 
p. 188 no. 90 (a.h. 912/1506-7), Aya §ufiyah 3912 (a.h. 917/ 
1511. See Duda Ferhdd und Sehmn p. 188), Rieu ii 6165 (Hand:, 
a.h. 921/1515. Pictures), 6116 (a.h. 923/1517), 617a. (a.h. 1000/ 
1591), 617a (three 18th-cent. copies), Suppt. 256 (16th cent. 
Pictures), iii 10456 (analysis only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Dorn 386 
(a.h. 923-4/1517-18), 387, 388 (a.h. 974/1566-7), 393 (superb 
copy), Lindesiana p. 180 no. 71 (circ. a.d. 1560), no. 89 (circ, 
a.d. 1750), no. 256 (circ. a.d. 1760), Yildiz Koshkii 473 (2nd half 
of 16th cent. See Edhem and Stchoukine pp. 38-9), Ivanow 563 
(defective, 16tli-17th cent.), 564 (a.h. 1100/1688-9 '?), 565 
(a.h. 1170/1756-7), 2nd Suppt. 980 (defective. Mid 19th cent.), 
Bflhar 315 (a.h. 1030/1621), Lahore Punjab Univ. Lib. (two 
copies, one dated a.h. 1098/1686 the other undated. Bee Oriental 
College Magazine vol, iii no. 3 (May 1927) p. 73), Bodleian 773 
(a.h. 1102/1691 ?), 774 (a.ii. i 16)9 ( 755), 773 (n.d.). Peshawar 
1789 (a.h. 1108/1696-7), 1833, Berlin 833 (fairly old). Browne 
Suppt. 921 (fairly old. Corpus 97), 920 (n.d. Corpus 14), Pm. 
Cat. 254 (n.d.), 340 ii (p. xxxviii. Defective at end), Bankipur 
i 130 (a.h. 1246 ?), ‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. : ! >d Asafiyah ii 
p. 1484 no. 177, Edinburgh 291, Eton 132. Leyden ii p, 116 
no. 663, Madras, Nur i ‘Uthmanlyah 3780 (n.d. See Duda 
FerMd und Behtrm p. 190), Rehateek p. 157. 

Editions : [Lucknow,] 1261/1845°* (with a marginal com- 
mentary by Qudrat Ahmad), Cawnpore 3871/, 1302/1885// 
(on the title-page, evidently unaltered from that of the previous 
edition, are the dates 1287/1870), [phrin, 1886'*]. ‘Aligarh 
1938/ (ed. S. Hasan Barni. Silsilah i K'dligat i Khnmm). 

Abstracts : (1) The Kirdn-tis-Sa\iain of Mir Khumiu.—By 
B. B. Cowell (in the Journal of the A -untie Soektg <f Bengal, 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OF DELHI 501 

N.S., vol. xxix (1860) pp. 225-39), (2) Elliot and Dowson History 
of India iii pp. 524-34. 

Descriptions : (1) M. Habib Hazrat Amir Khusrau pp. 46-52, 
(2) Wahid Mlrza The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 174-6. 

Commentaries : (1) Shark i Qiran al-sa l dain or, according to 
Sprenger Nur aVain shark Qiran al-sa'dain, written in 1014/ 
1605-6 and dedicated to the author’s father, Shaikh *'Abd al- 
Haqq (for whom see p. 440 supra), by Nur-Muhammad, called (al- 
■mad‘u bi-) Nur al-Haqq Dihlawi (for whom see p. 441 supra ) : 
Sprenger 330, Rieu ii 617b (a.h. 1136/1723), Ivanow Curzon 220 
(a.h. 1207/1793), 1.0. D.P. 1239 (18th cent.), Lahore Panjab Univ. 
Lib. (2 copies. See Oriental College Magazine vol. iiino. 3 (May 1927) 
p, 73), (2) Shark i Qiran al-sa‘dain (written in 1135/1722-3 ? x ) by 
Khair Allah Muhandis Dihlawi : Ivanow Curzon 221 (lacuna in 
middle, a.h. 1207/1793), 222 (same lacuna, a.h. 1248/1833), 
Ivanow 566 = Sprenger 471 (very incomplete at end. 19th 
cent.), (3) Shark i Qiran al-sa‘dain by £ Abd al-Rasul Qasim of 
Garah (about forty miles E. of Lucknow) : Sprenger p. 471 
(Top-khanah). 

(2) Miftah al-futuh, Fath-nmnah , or Faih al-futuh, a mathnawl 
on four victories of Jalal al-Dln Flroz Ivhalji, completed in 
Jumada ii 690/1291 and forming part of the third dm an, the 
Ghurrat al-kamdl : H.Kh. vi p. 27 no. 12584, EtM 1186 (11) 
(a.h. 866-7/1462 or "thereabouts), 1188 (14) (a.h. 933/1526-7), 
1187 (13) (defective, a.h. 1008/1599), 1190 (4), 1192, BanMpur 
i p. 180 (15th cent.), Hakim-oghlu ‘All Pasha 661 (a.h. 903/1497. 
See H. Wh Dud a Ferhad mid Schirin p. 187), 651 (n.d. See Duda 
p. 190), Aya Sufiyah 3912 (a.h. 917/1511. See Duda op. cit. 
p. 188), Rieu ii 611a vi (a.h. 923/1517), 614a (17th cent.), iii 
1012a ii (a. d. 1849), Dorn 386 (a.h. 924/1518), Bodleian 754-5, 
and doubtless in other MSS. of the Ghurrat al-kamdl, for which 
see the section of this work devoted to poetry. 

Edition : Oriental College Magazine vol. xii no. 3 (Lahore, 

3 Ivanow Curzon 221 claims to be the transcript of an autograph dated 1185 
(a date (or a statement) which Ivanow regards as “rather suspicious”). 



502 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

May 1936) pp. 58-70, no. 4 (Aug. 1936) pp. 93-108, vol. xiii 
no. 1 (Nov. 1936) pp. 59-70, no. 2 (Feb. 1937) pp. 73-80 (Editor 
Ya-Sln Khan Niyaz!) . 

Abstract : Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 536-44. 

Description : Wahid Mlrza The life and works of Amir Khusmu 
pp. 176-7. 

(3) Khaza’in al-futuh s as the author calls it, or Turikh 
i c Ald% as it is sometimes called, an ornate prose account of t he 
victories of ‘Ala’ al-Dln Klialjl completed in 711/1.311-12: 
Aijaiiyah i p. 122 no. 178 (Aurangzeb’s 3rd year -= a.h. 1070 
1659-60), Brelvi and Dhabhar p. 76 no. 4 (1) (? Author not 
stated, a.h. 1147/1734-5), Rieu i 2405 (18th cent,), iii 
(a.h. 1253/1838), 10456 (abstract only. Eire. a.d. 1850), Browne 
Suppt. 427 (a.h. 1200/1785-6. King’s 158), Madras. 

Edition : The Khazaiml Fuiith of Hazrat Amir Kkmru f.v/c] 
of Delhi. Persian text . Edited by Eyed Moinul Hag . . 
‘Aligarh 1927* (Publications of the Sultania Historical Society 
[of the ‘Aligarh Muslim University]). 

Translation (with omissions) : The campaigns of ‘AhVidd- 
Dm Khilji being the Khazainul [sic] Fatah [Mr] ... of Hazrat 
Amir Khusrau . . . translated ... by Muhammad Habib, Bombay 
(Madras printed) 1931 f (For numerous corrections of this 
translation see a series of articles (in Urdu) entitled Angrezl 
tarjamah ■?' Khazain al-futuh i Amur Khusmu by Ihltlx M. 
Mahmud SheranI in the Oriental College MagaAne. vnl. xii no. t 
(Lahore, Nov. 1935) pp. 81-96, no. 2 (Feb. 1936) pp. 3-80, no. 3 
(May 1936) pp. 3-51, no. 4 (Aug, 1936) pp, 3-15). 

Description and abstract : Elliot and Dowson History of 
India iii pp. 67-92.. 

Description : Wahid M Irza The life mid works of A mir Khusrau 
pp. 222-5. 

(4) Duwal Rani Khadir 1 Khan , or Mmishur i fhfihi, or 
‘Ashtqah, or ‘Ishqryah or Khadir- Khan 7, a mathmim completed 

. 1 The spelling Khidr does not suit the metre of this poem. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OF DELHI 503 

in Dhu ’1-Qa‘dah 715/1316 on the love-story of Khidr Khan, 
Sultan ‘Ala’ al-Din Khaljfs son, and the daughter of 
Rajah Karn of Nahrwalah, with a continuation of 319 lines 
written at some time subsequent to Mubarak Shah’s death and 
telling of Khidr Khan’s estrangement from his father, his 
confinement in the fortress of Gwalior, his blinding by Malik 
Kafur and his murder: H.Kh. iii p, 142 no. 4723 (Khadir 
Khan Duwal-Rdm), Sprenger 328, Haklm-oghlu ‘All Pasha 661 
(a.h, 903/1497. See H. W. Duda FerJiad und Schirin p. 187), 
Aya Sufiyah 3912 (a.h. 917/1511. See Duda op. cit. p. 187), 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (3 copies, one dated a.h. 917 /151L 
See Oriental College Magazine vol. iii no. 3 (May 1927) p. 73), 
Rieu ii 612a (a.h. 923/1517), 6176 (a.h. 982/1574. 3 Pictures), 
6175 (early 16th cent. 6 Pictures), 618a (17th cent.), 817 a (a.h. 
1004/1596. Pictures), iii 10456 (analysis only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
Dom 386 (a.h. 923-4/1517-18), 387, 393 (superb copy), 398 
(a.h. 983/1575), 397 (a.h. 987/1579-80), Eth6 1188 (12) (a.h. 933/ 
1527-7), 1187 (11) (a.h. 1008/1599), 1215 (17th cent.), 1216 
(a.h. 1220/1806), 1217 (fragment. 17th and 18th cent.), Blochet 
iii 1520 (circ. a.d. 1560), 1530 (late 16th cent.), 1531 (a.h. 1010/ 
1602), 1532 (mid 17th cent.), 1533 (mid 18th cent.), 1537 (late 
17th cent.), Lindesiana p. 180 no. 49 (a.h. 989/1581. Pictures), 
Yildiz Koshkii 473 (2nd half of 16th cent. See Edhem and 
Stchoukine pp. 38-9), Aumer 65 (a.h. 995/1587), Bankipfir i 131 
(a.h. 995/1587), A§afiyah ii p. 1488 no. 141 (not later than 
a.h. 999/1590-1), p. 1486 no. 156 (a.h. 1065/1654-5), 236 
(Aurangzeb’s 23rd year), Bodleian 777 (a.h. 1012/1604), 778 
(a.h. 1064/1654), 779 (n.d. Pictures), Buhar 315 (a.h. 1030/ 
1621), Ivanow 567 (a.h. 1100/1688-9), 568 (early 17th cent.), 
Browne Suppt. 965 (n.d.), 966 (a.h. 1112/1700-1), 967 (tran- 
scribed from an A.S.B. MS.), 968 (n.d.), 969 (n.d. Christ’s), 
Madras, R.A.S. P. 282, Rehatsek p. 155 no. 101. 

Edition : Dawal-Ranl [so] Khidr Khan, ‘Aligarh 1336/1917+ 
(edited by Rashid Ahmad). 

Abstract : Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 544-57. 

Descriptions : (1) M. Habib Hazrat Amir Khusrau pp. 53-66 a 
(2) Wahid Mirza The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 177-81. 



504 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(5) Null sipihr 3 completed on 30 Jumada ii 718 (according 
to Elliot History of India iii 557), a mathnam describing the court 
of Qutb al-Dln Mubarak Shah : H.Kh* vi p. 411 no. 14127, 
Hakim-ogMu ‘Ali Pasha 6G1 (a.h. 903/1407. See Duda Fcrhad 
mid Sckirin p. 187), Ay a Sufiyah 3912 (a.h. 917/1511. See Duda 
Ferhadimd Schmn p. 187), Majlis 455 {? beginning differs from 
the usual, a.h. 923/1517), Bieu ii 61 2u (a.h. 923/1517). iii 30456 
(analysis only. Circ. a.d. 1850). Born 386 (AJt.;923-4/15I7*18) J 
387, Ethd 1188 (13) (a.h. 933/1526-7), 1187 (12) (a.h. 1008/ 
1599), 1218 (n.d.), Blochet iii 1520 (circ. a.d. 15dm, Yildbs 
Koshkii 473 (16th cent. (2nd half). See Edhern and Stchouklne 
pp. 38-9), Buhar 315 (a.h. 1030/1620-1), Bodleian 776 (17th 
cent.), Eth£ 1218 (n.d.). 

Abstract : Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 557-68. 

Description : Wahid Mrrza The life and works of Amir Khusrau 
pp. 181-9. 

(6) Tughluq-namah 3 a matknawT on the victory of 
Ghiyath al-Dln Tughlucj over Khusrau Khan in 720/1320 : 
H.Kh. ii p. 321 no. 3112 (Ta'alluq-mmah [siyj), MS. in the 
possession of Nawwab Sadr-Yar-Jang Habib nl-Xkthman Khan 
Shirwanl, of BMkampur ('Aligarh District). ■ 

Edition: Haidarabad (Aurangabad printed) 1352./1933| 
(Silsilah i makhtutdt ifarisiyah, 1. Edited by S. Hariiiinl Far!-, 
dabadi). 

Descriptions : (1) Syed Hashimi The Tuyhluq-nanuih (in Islamic 
culture vii.i/2 (April 1934) pp. 301-12, viii 3 (July 1931) pp. 433 ■ 
24), (2) WahM Mirza The life and works of Amir Khmraujyp. 189- 
90, 245-53. 

[Autobiographical sketch at end of dibd^iali to film r rat al- 
kamal ; autobiographical statements in dlbdekah to Tvhfai al- 
sicjhar and in other works : Barani Tdrlkh i FTroz-KMIn pp, 87 
(— Elliot and Dowson iii p. 110), 1 X0 1 ~ s (-- E. Sc 3X iii p. 122), 
113 4 , 118 7 “« ; 183 4 <=- K. k D. iii j». 338/ J97 Ifi -- ( K. & D. 
iii p. 144), 198 ^ (-E. & D. ibid.), 199*. * * gW «, 359, 
366 1S-1S . Siyaral-auliyd’ pp. 301-5 ; Nafahdt al-um pp, 710-11 ; 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (6) SULTANS OP DELHI 505 

Daulat-Shah pp. 238-47 ; Majalis aVu shsha q pp. 256-60 ; 
Nqfd'is cd-maidtkir (Sprenger p. 49) ; TaqI Kashi (Sprenger p. 18) ; 
AMbdr al- aMiy ar pp. 99-101 ; Haftiqlim no. 391 ; Firishtah, Nawal 
Kishor [Lucknow] 1864, vol. ii pp. 402-3 (the tenth biography 
in Maqalah xii) ; But-khanah no. 30 ; Safinat al-auliya ? pp. 98- 
100 ; Mir' at al-asrar (Bankipur viii p. 61, fol. 450) ; Mir' at 
alrkhayal pp. 47-8 (Bodleian 374 no. 30) ; Matlub al-talibin 
(Ethe col. 324, 1. 10 from end) ; Dh iJcr i jami‘ i auliya? i Dihli ; 
Sawdii ‘ al-ammr (Ethe col. 334, 1. 32) ; Muntdkhah al-ash‘ar 
no. 189 ; Riydd (d-shu-am- ; Khizdnah i -dmimh no. 39 ; Atash- 
kodak no. 754 ; Khuldsat al-Jcaldm (Bankipur viii p. 141 no. 22, 
Bodleian 390 no. 23) ; Khuldsat al-afkar no. 89 ; MaMzan al- 
ghara’ib no. 668 ; Ahwal i Amir Khusmu (MS. Ethe 1222) ; 
Sprenger pp. 465-71 ; Khazinat al-asfiya? i pp. 339-42 ; Haft 
dsmdn pp. 63-75 ; Garcin de Tassy ii 204-9 ; Rieu i 240-1 ; 
8hi‘r al-Ajam (in Urdu), by Sbibll Nu'manI, vol. ii (pp. 85- 
156 in the Lucknow edition of 1341/1922-3) ; Haydt i Khusrau 
(in Urdu), by M. Sa £ id Ahmad Marahrawl, Amritsar (Lahore 
printed) 1909* ; Ency. IsL under Khnsrii isic\ : Hazrat Amir 
Khusmu of Delhi, by Mohammad Habib, Bombay 1927 ; The 
life and works of Amir Khusmu, by M. Wahid Mirza, Calcutta 
1935 (Panjab University Oriental Publications).] 

666. Diya’ al-DIn Barani must have been born in, or about, 
684/1285, since his age when he wrote a passage towards the end 
of the Tarikh i Firoz-ShaM (p. 573 7 ~ 8 ) was 74 and he tells us in 
the preface that he completed the work in 758/1357. He belonged 
to a distinguished family. His father, Mu’aiyid al-Mulk (T. i F. 
pp. 127 6 , 205 10 ), was in Jalal al-Dln Flroz-Shah KhaljI’s reign 
deputy ( nd’ib ) to Arkll 1 Khan (T.i F. p. 209 8 ), and in the first 
year of \Ala J al-Dln Khalil’s reign [a.h. 695-6] he was given the 
Niyabat and Khicajagi of Baxan 2 (T. i F. p. 248 s-9 ). His 
paternal uncle, Malik £ Ala s al-Mulk {T. i F. pp. 222 8 , 249 ult., 

1 Vocalisation unconfirmed. Arkli Khan, the Sultan’s second son, succeeded 
his elder brother in 691 as his father’s vicegerent (na'ib i ghaibat) at Kllok’hari 
(T. i F. p. 213 2-3 , Arabic history of Gujarat p. 760 7-8 ). 

2 Baran is now absorbed in the modern town of Bulandsbahr. 



506 


IL HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

336 15 ), was Kotwal of Delhi in ‘Ala’ al-Din Khalil’s reign (T. i F, 
pp. 240 14 ~ 13 , 250 3 , 255 t! “ u ) and was one of the king’s friends and 
counsellors (az mukhtassdn u rdy-zandn i Sultan ‘Aid' al-Din 
bud, T. i F. p. 255 8 “ 9 ). His maternal grandfather, Sipah-sfdar 
Husam al-Din (T. i F. p. 119 13 ), Wakll i Bar to Malik Biirbak, 
was appointed by Balban to the Shahutyt of Lak'lmauti (T. i F. 
p. 87). 

Diya s al-Din Barant found a patron in Sultan Muhammad i>. 
Tughluq 1 (reigned 725/1325-752/1351) and spent 17 years ami 
3 months (T. i F, p. 50i w ) at his court (muldzim i daryah, T:i F. 
p. 504 17 , muqarmb i dargdh, T. % F, p. 497 17 ), basking m hm 
favour and munificence (az itimndl i ivdftrah u mrfaqdt i muta- 
wdtirah i u zar-hd ydftaJi, T, i F. p. 504 18 ). He does not say 
that he held any official position, and it seems that he was a 
nadim (cf. Siyar al-aidiyd' p. 313 s ) rather than an official. 
According to the Siyar al-aidiyd ’ 312 penult., he was an enter- 
taining conversationalist and raconteur (u tmjma 4 al-lat/Tif tea- 
jawdmd al-hikdydt bud). 

In the reign of Flroz-Shah (752/1 351-790/1388) he suffered 
a change of fortune. His enemies procured his banishment 
from court (Dushmattan-am az had rat u az qurb i u mam dur 
anddkhtah and, T. i F. p. 125 4 "\ Cf. p. 557 1 ” : hn'd l naql 
i sultan i maghfur dar mahdlik i gundgun ujtddam etc.}, lie was 
unable to submit his history to the king, a lover of history 
(T. i F. p. 125 ,v<5 ). and he was in a state of misery and poverty 
(. T . i F. pp. 69 1 "- 1 -, H4 1 ’ 1 ' 17 , 125, 204 ult.--20 Ml -160- 1 
548 18 seq -). His last years were spent in devour retirement, 
during which he composed several literary works (Siyar al- 
auliyd- p. 313 81 "). He was buried 2 near to the grave of Nizam 
al-Din Auliya’ ( Siyar al-auUyd' p. 313 l7 " w ), having been a 
murid and a devoted adherent of that mat. 

According to the Siyar al-mdiyu ’ (p. 31S I,K ~) he was much 

1 Cf. T. i F. p. 407*~* i Man dar dunyd parimrdak u ttur.nimrdm i Suil/m 
Muhanmnd am « Hn-rhih az ikram u iVrm i ft yaftuh hudam mth pish man 
dtdah hudam nah ha'd azu ba-khwah mi binam. ■ ■ 

s The date of his death is not mentioned in the Siyar rd-ttuHya'. The Khaztnai 
at-mfiya,' gives the impossible date 738;. -f,.-/ 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OF DELHI 507 

in the society of the poets Khusrau (for whom see pp. 495-505 
supra ) and Hasan Dihlawi. From both of them he received oral 
information which he utilised in the Tarikh i Fvroz-ShdM (see, 
e.g., pp. 67 11 , 68 19 , 183 4 ). 

In addition to the Tarikh i Firoz-Shahl five works of his are 
mentioned in the Siyar al-auliya’, namely (1) Thand-yi Muham- 
madd sl'm, (2) Salat i kabir, (3) ‘ Indyat-ndmah i ilclhi, (4) Ma’dthir 
i saddt, (5) Hasrat-namah (dar tasawwuf, according to Rahman 
’All). Another work, the Akhhar i Barmakiym , translated 
from an Arabic original, completed in 755/1354 1 and dedicated 
to Firoz-Shah, is extant in several MSS. (e.g. Rieu i 3336, Ethe 
569, Bodleian 308). 

Tarikh i Firoz-Shahl, a history of the Sultans of Delhi 
from Balban a.h. 662/1263-4 (or rather 664/1265) to Firoz- 
Shah’s sixth year, a.h. 758/1357, forming a continuation of 
the Tabaqat i Ndsin : Blochet i 557 (defective at both ends. 
Mid 15th cent.), iv 2327 (17th cent.), Rieu iii 919 (defective at 
end and elsewhere. 15th cent.), 10'14a (extracts only. Giro. 
a.d. 1850), 1021a (similar extracts), 1023a (similar extracts), 
10456 (similar extracts), Buhar 61 (16th cent.), Banklpiir vii 
546 (from Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq to Fir5z-Shah. 16th cent.),; 
Ethd 211 (a.h. 1007/1599), Bodleian 173 (defective, a.h. 1009/ 
1600), 172 (a.h. 1197/1783), 174 (a.h. 1196/1782), Ivanow Curzon 
23 (early 18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 85 (defective and bad 
copy. Seal dated a.h. 1128/1716), Lindesiana p. 235 no. 823 
(a.h. 1230/1815), A§aflyah i p. 228 no. 259, Berlin 477 (defective). 

Edition : The TdnJch-i Feroz-sMM of Ziaa al-Din Barni 
Edited by Saiyid Ahmad Khdn under the superintendence of 
Captain W. Nassau Lees . . . and Mawlavi Kabir al-Din, Calcutta 
1860-2°* (Bibliotheca Indica). 

Translations of extracts : (1) Elliot and Dowson History of 
India iii pp. 97-268 (by J. Dowson), (2) Translations from the 
Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi, by the late Major A. R. Fuller . . . The 

1 According to the Bodleian catalogue. The date is not mentioned by Rieu 

or in the I.O. catalogue. 



508 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, 


Reign of 'AHiiddvn % Khilji (in the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, vol. xxxviii, pt. i (1869), pp. 181-220, vol. xxxix, 
pt. i (1870), pp. 1-51, (3) Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuzshdhi 
. . . The Reign of Mu' izz-uddin. — By P. Whalley (in the JASB.. 
vol. xl, pt. i (1871) pp. 185-216, (4 ) Translations from the Tarikh 
i Firuzshahi by Ziauddin of Baran ... The Reign of Sultan 
GMasuddin Tughlug Shah. — Translated by Auckland Colvin (in 
the JASB., vol. xl, pt. i (1871) pp. 217-47). 

Descriptions; (1) Materials for the history of India ... By 
Major W. Nassau Lees (in the JR AS. 1868) pp, 411-5, (E) 
Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 93 - 97. 

[Tdrikh i Firoz-ShdJu pp. 67 1W2 (= Elliot and Dowson iii 
p. 110), 68 15) , 69 10 " 12 , 87 1:? {= E. & D. iii p. 116), XU 1 - l5 ~ 17 , 
H9 12 - 13 , 123 pemilt-125, I27 4 ' 6 (== E. & D. iii p. 125), 168 1 ’ 1 
(= E. & D. iii p. 132), 183 3 - 4 (=E. & D. iii p. 138), 204 ult.- 
205 12 , 209 7 ' 10 , 222 8 , 240 14 ' 15 , 248 7 ' 0 (=E. & D. iii p. 161), 
249 nlt-250 3 (=E. & D. iii p. 162), 255 s &iq - (=E. & D. iii 
p. 166), 264 17seq - (= E. & D. iii pp. 169-71). S49 !l i: \ 350-4 
350 nit. -351 4 , 354 2 ' 5 , 354 14sw L 469°** 46 6-’", 467- 4 , 

497 17 , 504 17 seq- (= E. & D. iii pp. 252-3), 505 ult., 508 ls, " ;) - 
(= E. & D. p. 253), 509 1Useq - (= E. & D. pp. 254- 5), olO 1 - 5 ^ 
(=E, & D. pp. 259-60), 52 1 ! ' seq (= E. k D. iii pp. 262-3), 
529 (— E. & D. iii p. 265), 548 ISw * 554 7 “ s , 557 7 % 557 10sn *\ 
573 1 " 8 , 5S2 11 ” 12 , 602; Siyar al-auliyd’ pp. 312-13; Akhbdr al- 
a klty ar pp. 103-5; Riyad al-auliyd'; Khaztnai al-asjiya i pp. 
344-6 ; W, Nassau Lees in JR AS. 1868 pp. 441 5 ; bliiot and 
Dowson History of India iii pp. 93-6 ; Rieu i pp. 2 12, 333, 
iii 919; Rahman ‘All 97 ; Eney. I si. under .Bamnl.j 

667. Ffroz b. Rajab, better known as PirSz Shah Tughluft, 
succeeded his cousin, M. b. Tughluq, on 24 Muharmm 752/29 
March 1351. The wars of his reign were expeditions to Bengal. 
Orissa, Nagarkot and Tattah. His passion for building expressed 
itself in the foundation of a new Delhi named Rrozabad, in the 
refounding of Hisar Rrozah [i.e. Hisar, N.W. of Delhi] and 
Jaunpur [N.W. of Benares] and .in the .erection of towns, forts, 
mosques, colleges and other edifices. His rule was mild and he 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( b ) SULTANS OF DELHI 509 


prided himself on the abolition of torture and various im- 
posts. He died more than eighty years old in Ramadan 790/ 
'September 1888. 

Futuhat i Firoz-Shahl, a brief account by Firoz Shah of his 
own edicts and ordinances, the abuses and evil practices abolished 
by him, the buildings erected and the works of public utility 
carried out in his reign 1 : Rieu iii 920 (a.d. 1853). 

Edition : Delhi 1885f. 

Translation : Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 
374-88 (translated by J. Dowson from “ a unique copy belonging 
to Mr. E. Thomas ”). 

[Baran I TariJek i Firdz-ShaM pp. 527 -602 = Elliot and Dowson 
iii pp. 205-8 ; Shams i Siraj Tdrihh % Firdz-ShdM = E. & D. 
iii pp. 269-373 ; other histories of India ; Eney. I si. under 
Flruz Shah Tagjbtlak.] 

668. In 772/1370-1, the twentieth year of Firoz-Shah’s reign, 
an anonymous author completed his 

Slrat i Ftroz-Shdhi, a florid and eulogistic account of Firoz- 
Shah in four babs (182 foil.) : Bankipur vii 547 (a.h. 1002/ 
1593-4). 

Description with a translation of the prologue and epilogue : 
An aff roach to the Sirai-i-Fvroz Shalii. [By~] Prof. K. K. Basu . . . 
(in The Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, vol. xxii, 
pt. i (March 1936) pp. 13-21). 

Translation : An account of Firoz Shah Tughluq ( from Sirat-i- 
Firozshahi). By Prof. K. K. Basu (in J.B.O.R.S. vo'l. xxii (1936) 
pp. 96-107, 265-74, xxiii (1937) pp. 97-112, in progress ). 

669. Shams i Siraj [i.e. Shams al-Dln b. Siraj al-Dln] ‘Aflf 3 

1 This record was inscribed by Firuz-Shalrs order on. an octagonal cupola 
erected by him on the mosque of Flruzabad (see Tabctqat i Akbari i p. 239). 

- It appears that ‘Aflf was a hereditary surname in his family, since he 
appends it to the names ofhis grandfather, Shams i Shihab ‘Aflf ( T.iF . p. 39 11 ), 
and his great-grandfather, Malik Sa‘d al-Mulk Shihab ‘Aflf (p. 37 7 ~ 9 ). 



510 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

says ( T . i F. p. 310 14 " 1,: ) that he was twelve years old when Flroz- 
Shah after his return from Tattah (T. i F. p. 305 4 "} had two 
ancient stone columns (: mmidruhii-yi san/fin , i.e. Asoka pillars) 
removed from Toprah and Meerut to Delhi. Riou. placing the 
return from Tattah in the year 763/1 361-2, 1 infers that Shams 
i Siraj was born in 751/1350-1, but the words used by Shams i 
Siraj do not necessarily imply that the columns were removed 
immediately after the return from Tattah. His great-grand- 
father, Malik Sakl al-Mulk Shihab/Afif, was appointed;: 'Amah 
dar of Abohar [in the Itrozpur District] bv Sultan [Ghiyath 
al-Dln] Tughluq (T. i F. p. 37 7 ~ y ). 

His father was in the service of Firoz-Shah (ef. T. i F, pp. 130 
penult-131 2 , 145 !, ' I(I , 19G Il ~ 12 ), at one time a;s Shah- mn'l s i 
Khmcamm (T. i F. p. I27 1,; ), at another time in the l)b:7r'.v 
office. ( dar mahall i Mwan i wizdrat, p. 197 n " 13 ), and he was in 
the Sultan's suite on the expeditions to Jajnagar (pp. 163 14 , 
172 15 ) and NagarkSt (p. 186 12 ). 

Shams i Siraj thus grew up at the court of Firox-Shah and for 
many years used to accompany the officials of the Wazir's 
office to the audience chamber (T. i F. p. 103 1 - u : in mu'arnkh 
i da‘if . . . hill dar muddat i chihil sal an-Jiadrat rd diikih u bishtar 
sanawat pish i ta Md -gah i aid i harakdt bardbar i mMb i dlimn 
i wizdrat dar mahall i saldm raffah . Cf. p. 281 !MS ; dar-Sn t rhjam 
in mu'arrikhi darif , . . bar [dbar i] asftab i diirun i hi liiirizuml 
la-lmhn i farman i hadrat ijahdn-ddr dar mahall i saldm i id-raft ; 
285 12 " 13 : andar-fm aiydm hih in mdarrikk . . . dar mahall i 
satam pish i lakht mi-raft). He used to accompany the 'Sultan '• 
on his hunting expeditions [T. i F. p. 321 ult, 322 s ). His 
Tdnkh i Firdz-Shdhi was written subsequently to 'TimfiFs 
invasion of SOI '1398. 

The: Tdnkh i Fnrdz-Shdhi (a title which does not seem to occur 
in the work itself) was not the whole of the author's historical 
writing. He wrote also about the mandqib i Sultan \ (jhujCtth ul- 
Din ] Tughluq (T. i F. p. SC 11 " 1 - - Ik <fc I), iii p. 271), the mmuiqib 
i 8ul[dh Muhammad [Hu Tmjhlnq ] (T. i pp, 42 n n . 51” f ‘ 

1 This date does not seem to have the authority of the Tun^h i Fiwz-Shuhu 



511 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (6) SULTANS OF DELHI 

E. & D. iii pp. 274, 279), the mandqib i Sultan Muhammad [ibn 
Flroz ] (T. i F. pp. 148 ult.~149\ 428 4 = E. & D.’ iii pp. 307, 
371) and about the kharabl i Dihll owing to Mongol incursions 
after Firoz-Shah’s time (T. i F. p. 185 6 = E. & D. iii p. 317). 
These do not seem to be the titles of other works by the author. 
It is probable that they indicate parts of a large work now lost 
apart from the fragment known as the Tankh i Flroz-SMM. 

( Tarikh i Fir OZ- ShaM) , a life of Firoz-Shah Tnghluq (reigned 
a.h. 752/1351-790/1388) written subsequently to Timur’s in- 
vasion of 801/1398 (which is mentioned on p. 314) and divided 
into five qisms each subdivided into eighteen muqaddimahs : 
Edinburgh 204 (a.h. 1074/1663. Analysis), Ethd 212 (defective. 
a.h. 1092/1681 ?), 213 (lacunae. N.d.), Rieu i 2415 (breaks off 
in 9th muqaddimah of Qism v. 19th cent.), iii 921a (breaks off 
at same point, a.d. 1841), 10455 (extracts. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
Ivanow 111 (breaks off in 9th muqaddimah of Qism v. 19th cent.), 
112 (breaks off in same muqaddimah. Late 19th cent.), Asaflyah 
i p. 228. 

Edition : The Tarikh-i-Firoz ShaM, of Shams Siraj ’Afif, 
edited by Maulavi Vilayat Husain, Calcutta 1888-91°* (Biblio- 
theca Indiea, This edition breaks off in the 15th muqaddimah 
of Qism v). 

Epitome : Biography of Feeroz Shah, Emperor of Dehli, trans- 
lated from the Persian of Shums-i-Seraj, Ufeef, by Lieut. Henry 
Leiois [who used a MS, belonging to Nawwab Diya’ al-Din, of 
Loharu, and whose epitome ends in the 9th muqaddimah of 
Qism v, p. 439 in the Calcutta edition] (in the J ournal of the 
Archeological Society of Dehli [vol. i] 1849-50* pp. 1-38). 

Translation of extracts : Elliot and Dowson History of India 
iii pp. 271-373 (the translator was J. Dowson). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 269-71 . 

[Tarikh i Flroz- ShaM pp. 36 11-12 (= Elliot and Dowson iii 
p. 271), 37 7 ~° (= E. & D. iii p. 272), 39 11 " 17 (== E. & D. iii p. 273), 
42 11 - 18 (=* E. & D. iii p. 274), 51 5 " 6 (= E. & D. iii p. 279), 
105 1:Mfl , 127 10 (= E. & D. iii p. 300), 130 pennlt.-131 2 (— E. & D. 



£12 


H. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


iii p. 302), 131 14 ' 10 (= E. & D. iii p. 302), 145' M ' J (= K. & D. 
iii p. 30(3), 148 uIt-149 1 (= E. & I). iii p. 307), 163 u (~ E. & D. 
iii p 312), 1 72 1 '* (— E. & D. iii p. 315), 185*’ (= E. & D. iii 
p. 317), 186* 2 (= E. & D. iii p. 318), 296 11 " 12 , 107 ll ~ i;i {r= E. & IX 
iii p, 321), 281 0-11 (= E. & D. iii p. 343), 285 I;M: \ 310 u " l,i 
(— E. & D. iii p. 351), 321 uIt.-322 2 {== E. & 1). iii p. 353, n. 
1), 378 antepenult. (= E. & D. iii p. 364), 381 “ r> (= E. & D, 
iii p. 365), 42S 4 (== E. & D. iii p» 371); Elliot and Dowson 
History of India iii p. 269 ; Rieu i p. 242.] 

670. Yahya b. Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah Slhrmil 1 dedicated his 
Tdnkh i Mubdrak-ShaM to Mu‘izz al-Dln Abu d-Fath .Mubarak 
: Shah (of the Saiyid dynasty), who reigned from 824/1421 to 
837/1433. " 

. Tdnkh i Mubdrak-ShaM, a history of the Sultans of Delhi 
from Mu'izz al-Dln M. b. Sam to Sha‘ban 831/1428 with a later 
continuation ending abruptly in Rabf ii 838/1434, the first year 
of M. Shah b. Earld Shall (who reigned a.h. 837 ; 1 433-847/ 
1443) : Bodleian 175 (a.h. 957/1550), Rieu iii 1010a (19th cent.). 

Edition Tdnkh -i-Mubdrak Shdhl of Yahjd , . . m-Sihrindi 
. . . edited by . . . M* Bkhvyat Hosain . . Calcutta 1931* 
(Bibliotheca Indica). 

English' translation : The Tdrikh~i~M iiburahdtn hi by Ydhiyd 
[sic] bin Ahmad . , . Sirhindi translated . . . by K. K. Basil .... 
Baroda 1932* (Gaekwad’a Oriental Series). 

Description and 81 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and 
Dowson History of India w pp. 6-88 (the translator was 
J. Dowson). 

67. L Shaikh Eizq. Allah <f Mus&f&qi ” h. Su'd Allah Dihkwl, 

& paternal uncle of/Abd al-l|aqq Dildawi (for whom Best pp. 194- 5 

supra), was born in 897/1491-2, wandered about as a fa (fir 
meeting innumerable shaikhs and died on 20 Rabr i a.h. 989/1581.; 

1 So spelt in the Il.M. MB. rSIriridi in the Bodleian MS., aveordiug to Ethit) 

with ya' after the. mn. 



513 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA: ( 6 ) SULTANS OF DELHI 

He wrote poetry both in Hindi and Persian. As a Hindi poet 
he used the pen-name “ Raj an 

Waqi‘at i Mushtdqi, a disorderly collection of narratives 
and anecdotes relating to the times of the Lodis, of Babur, 
Humayun and Akbar, of the Surs, of Ghiyath al-Dln Khalji 
(of Mai wah), of Nasir al-Din Khalji and of Muzaffar Shah of 
Gujrat: Rieu ii 8206 (lacking circ. 12 foil, at end. 17tli cent.), 
iii 9216 (defective. Giro. a.d. 1850). 

English translation: B.M. MS. Add. 20,773, foil. 128-87. 

Description and 20 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India iv pp. 53A-57. 

[Phifer al-muluk ; Nur al-Haqq Zubdat al-tawdrikh ; Tdrikh i 
Khdn~i~J ahcinl (Rieu i p, 210) fol. 4 a; MaMizan i Afghani 
(Dorn History of the Afghans p. 3) ; Kalimdt al~sddi(fin no. 
Ill (see Bankipur viii p. 44) ; AJchbar al-a khv ar p. 174 ; s Abd al- 
Haqq Dihlawl Taifhkirah i musannif in i Dihli p. 20 (translated 
in Elliot and Dowson vi p. 489) ; Tabaqdt i iShah-J ahctni ; 
Riyad al-auliyd' ; Saivatf al-anwdr (Ethe. col. 331 ult.) ; Elliot 
and Dowson History of India iv 534-7 ; Rieu ii 821a ; Beale 
Oriental biographical dictionary, 2nd ed. p. 333 ; Rahman 
£ All G3.] 

672. ‘Abbas Khan b. Shaikh ‘All Sarwani was descended 
from a certain £ Abbas Khan, whose son, Hasnu Khan, married 
a sister of Sher Shah’s. He himself received a command of 500 
horse from Akbar, but, having soon lost it through the intrigues 
of his enemies, he resolved to “ return to the country of his 
fathers ”. The Khan i Khanan, however, {£ procured for him 
a clear 200 rupees a month, which he appears to have lost soon 
afterwards ” (Elliot and Dowson iv pp. 301-2). 

Tuhfah i Akbar-Shahl, better known by the description 
Tarileh i Hher-Shafn, written by order of Akbar probably soon 
after 987/1579, a valuable though prolix and tedious biography 
of Sher Shah and his descendants extant apparently in three 

h 1 



514 


II, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, 


recensions 1 (1) beginning HmwJl i tin Qtklir i bl-ekun and con- 
taining only the life of Sher Shah, (2) beginning Ear jins i hand 
and divided into three hubs ((a) Sher Khan, (b) Islam Khan, 
(c) relatives of Sher Khan who claimed sovereignty after Islam 
Khan), (3) beginning Ba l d az hand i izcuti, an edition revised 
and enlarged by Ibrahim Batanl, who brought the history down 
to a.h. 1021/1612 : EtM 219 (shorter recension, divided into 
three bdbs and beginning [Ear?] Jins i hand tmthmdyak (/) 
Khalig i bariyah m sazad. a.h, 1030/1621), Browne Sunpr. 2 In 
(a.h. 1097/1686), Bodleian. 176 (ending, “ as usual/'* with 8hr*r 
Shah’s death, a.h, 1191/1777), 377 '(beginning Btdd- az hand i 
Izadi . Revised and enlarged by Ibrahim Batanl, 2 who brought 
the history down to a.h. 1021/1812. Ends with a third duftar 3 
on shaikhs and sUfis), 178 (same recension, a.h. 1227/1812), 
Bieu i 2426 (ending with Sher Shah’s death, 18th cent.), ii 827 b 
(shorter recension, beginning Has jins i hand. a.h. 1215 /1801), 
iii 921a (ending with Sher Shah’s death, a.h, 1239/1824), 92 la 
(extracts. Circ. a.h. 1850), 921a (shorter recension, beginning 
Ear jins i hand. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

Description and 129 pp. of translated extracts (virtually an 
abridged translation of the whole work) : Elliot and Dowson 
History of India xv pp. 301-433 (the translator was E. C. Bay ley). 

Urdu translation completed in 1220/1805 by Maxhar ‘Alt 
Khan i£ Wila ” (for whom see (km-in dc Tasyv iii pp. 297-302, 
Saksena p. 19) : TarIH / Bh er- Sh dhi. Ethe 220 ■ ■ Bhimhardt 41. 

French translation from the Urdu : Ct> chi pit re de Vhwtrnre 
de VI tide musuhtmu\ ou Chroi<iq,u de Sdvr Beknh. Bid fan d 
JOeMi. TraJnite . , . par M. \J. II,] (Jure in de Tmsy t Paris 
18(55° (offprint from the Revue de V Orient f an mm IHHI). 

1 According to Elliot ami Dowson iv p. “ Oopim of fin* work vary very 
much, and, in >onu*, long passage* arc omitted In Home copies lafiparently 
those beginning liar Jims l huah the initial doxology in fnl!-.v,«.| by the rubric 
Tahaqah i nuvuhi tlar dhikr i aim'd i MtUjiuul i Shtr Shfih .v<m, which would 
suggest that th«* work h only part of a larger work. 

2 Of, Hicii i p. -2V2, 

3 So dafltv-H or other divisions are marked in the history which premies. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA I (6) SULTANS OF DELHI 515 

[Autobiographical statements in the Tuhfah i AJebar-Skdhl 
(for which see Elliot and Dowson iv pp. 801-2, Rieu i 242-3).] 

673. The Tarikh i Da'udi was written in the time of Jahangir, 
who is mentioned (see Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 
p. 462) as the reigning sovereign, by an author whose name 
does not occur in the preface, but who incidentally [on fol. 176 
in the B.M. MS. Or. 1701 (Rieu 922a)] calls himself £ Abd Allah. 

Tarikh i Da'udi , a desultory and almost dateless history of 
the Lodi and Sur dynasties (Buhlul, Sikandar, Ibrahim, Sher 
Shah, Islam Shah, M. £ Adil,Da 5 ud Shah) : I.O, D.P. 611 (not 
later than 1079/1669), Rieu i 243a (a.h. 1192/1778), iii 922a 
(19th cent.), Banklpur vii 548 (19th cent.), Blochet i 558 
(a.d. 1870), Lahore Pan jab Univ. Lib, (see Oriental College 
Magazine, y ol. ii, no. 4 (August 1926), p. 45). 

Description and 78 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India iv 434-513 (the translator was C. E. 
Mackenzie). 

674. Ahmad Yadgar, who describes himself 1 as an old servant 
of the Sur kings and who mentions 2 that his father was Wazir 
to Mlrza ‘Askar! (Babur’s third son) in the Gujrat campaign 
(i.e. in 942-3/1536-7), wrote his Tarikh i saldtm i Afdghinah at 
the suggestion of Abu T-Muzaffar Da/ud Shah [i.e. presumably 
Da iid Shah b. Sulaiman, the last of the Afghan kings of Bengal, 
who reigned from 980/1572 to 984/1576], It was not, however, 
until much later that the Tankh i saldtm i Afdghinah was com- 
pleted in its present form, since the Ma c din al-akhbdr i Ahmadi, 
which was written circ. 1023/1614-15 (see p. 124 supra), is 
several times mentioned as one of the sources. A still later 
date (a.h. 1095/1684) seems to be indicated by another passage 
(“ p. 895 of MS. 55 , where, according to Beveridge, a village in the 

1 In his preface. 

2 “ At p. 99 of the M8.” (i.e. the A.S.B. MS.) according to Beveridge, who 
in the article cited below quotes the passage (In da‘if az pidnr i ¥humd kih 
dar-an waql wazir % Mirza ‘ Aslcari bud shamdah budam). 



516 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

parganah of Kait’lial is said to have remained u desert for 160 
years since a punitive expedition against the Mundahars in 935), 
but this, if the text is not corrupt, must certainly have been 
added by a later writer than Ahmad Yadgfir. 

Tarikh i salatin i AfagMnaJh !l history of the Lodi and 
Sur dynasties ending with the death of Hemu and agreeing 
largely with the Tarikh i Da full and in the reign of Humayim 
verbatim with the Tabaqat i Akbari : Ruhar 62 (19th cent.), 
Ivanow 114 (late 19th cent.), Rieu iii 922 (extract only, Hhma- 
vun’s reign to a.h. 949. Transcribed circ. a,i>. 1850 from Ivanow 
114). 

Extracts translated by Ensign C. F. Mackenzie; B.SL MS. 
Add. 30774 foil. 1-24.0...' 

Description and 64 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowsoii History of India v pp. 1-66 (the translator of nearly 
all the passages was C. F. Mackenzie). 

Note on the circumstances and date of composition : Note mi 
the Ta’rikh Salatin Afdghinah . By //. Beveridge ... (in the 
JASB, N.S., voL xii, 1916, No. 5 } pp. 287-9). 

675. M. Kabir h. Shaikh Isma*!! Raziya (i) was the son of a 
daughter of Shaikh Khalil Allah Haqqang an Afghan saint of 
Rajglr (Rajagriha in the Patna District) who died in the Panjab 
In Akbars time. ' 

Afsdnah i shdhan ? 140 narratives and anecdotes concerning 
the Afghan (Lodi and Sur) Sultans of Delhi ; Rieu i 2436 (18th 
cent.). ' '■ 'AAiimrrkk-- 


I 




I 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 

67 C. For the (Tarikh i klidnaddn i Timuriyah), a history of 
Timur (foil. 7-134), his successors to Sultan Husain Mirza 
(foil 1 36-234), Babur (foil 238-73), Htuuayim (foil 278-95) 
and Akbar to the 22nd year of Ms reign, see pp. 298-9 supra,. 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 517 

677. In the reign of Shah-Jahan (a.i-i. 1037/1628-1068/1658) 
was written 

A short (78 /<?//.) history of Babur , Akbar and Shah - 
Jahan 3 preceded by an account of Timur (beg. Mahdmid i 
janvUah) : Bankipur vii 571 (ends abruptly in Shah JahanV 
eighth regnal year. 17th cent.). 

678. M. Bakhtawar Khan has already been mentioned (p. 132 
supra) as the ostensible author of the Mir at aValarn composed 
in 1078/1667. 

Tdrlkh i Hindi / a history of India from Babur to Aurangzcb : 
Princeton 468. 

679. For the Jawdhir al-lawcmJch of Salman Qazwlnf, a history 
of the Mughuls from Adam to a.h. 1037/1627 written in the 
reign of Aurangzeb (a.h* 1068/1658-1118/1707), see p. 298 
supra. 

680. Saiyid Mufaddal Khan has already been mentioned 
(p. 135 supra) as the author of a general history entitled Tanhh 
i Mufaddali , 

( Timur-namahi Mufaddali) , a short history of the Timurids 
to the reign of Farrukh-siyar (a.h. 1124/1713-1131/1719) : Rieu. 
iii 923?; (ends abruptly in F.’s reign. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10546 
(extracts only). . 

681. M. Had! entitled Kamwar Khan has already been men- 
tioned (pp. 459-60 supra) as the author of the Haft gulshan i 
Mukammatl- Shaki completed in, or soon after, 1132/1719-20 

Ta dh kirat al-saldtin i Chaghatd , a history of the house of 
Timur, especially its Indian branch, written after the Haft 
gulshan (see p. 459) 1 2 and divided into two volumes ((1) from the 

1 According to Martinovitch this work “ is not to be confused with Marat 
al-‘AIam [sic] ‘ The Mirror of the World a general history by the same 
author”. 

2 According to the preface of the later edition of the Haft gulshan (Ethe 394) 
the Tadhkirat al-saldtin i Chaghatd was begun in 1135/1722-3. 



518 II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY. ETC. 

origin of the Turks to the death of Jahangir. (2) from Sha h- Jahan’s 
accession to the sixth or (in one or two MBS.) the seventh year 
of Muhammad Shah, A.H.113T-8/1724-3) 1 : Eieu iii 921 (voi. i 
only. Autograph, a.h. 1133/1723). i 274 b (voi i. lacking Jahan- 
gir’s reign. 18th cent.), 275a (voi. i. 18th cent.), 275a (extracts 
from voi. i. 19th cent.), iii 1022a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
Glasgow (see JJi.A.S. 1906, p. 598. no. 5) (a.h. 1140, 1727), 
Bankipur vii 591 (vols, i-ii, ending with 8fch year of Bid. Shall, 
Yob i dated a.h. 1154/1741), Ethi 395 (large portion of voi. ih 
extending from a.h. 1039 '1830 to 1132/1719-20. hut with 
lacuna;. Not later than a.h, 1197/1783), I.O. B : .P/’59i (void, 
a.h. 1255/1839), I.O. 391.8 (voi. ii, extending to end of Jumiida i 
a.h. 1138/1724, the second month of 51, Shahs sixth regnal year. 
a.d. 1883), 4010 (extract from voi ii, viz, Bahadur Shah’s reign 
to 1 Sha f ban 1123/14 Sept. 1711 in the fifth and penultimate' year. 
Probably a.d. 1897 or 1898), 4074 (voi. ii, extending to beginning 
of M. Shah’s seventh year, but damaged and lacking the whole 
of Aurangzeb’s reign and most of Bahadur Shah's. 18th cent.), 
Bloehet i 605-6 (complete apparently. 18th cent.), 607 (end of 
voi i and beginning of voi ii. from Akbar to 29th year of Aiming- 
zeb. Late 18th cent.), 608 (voi. ii, lacking end of Aurangzeb’s 
reign and nearly all of Md, Shah's. 18th cent.), 609 (part of 
voi ii, from Bahadur Stall to beginning of Famikh-siyar s reign. 
Late 3Sth cent.), 61.0 (part of voi ii. from death of Aumngzeb 
to 6th year of Aid. Shrill. 18th cent.), 81 1 (part of voi ii. from 
death of Anrangzeb to 5th year of Aid. Shah. 1 6th cent Majlis 
244 (voi i. a.h. 3234/3818-19), Buhar" 77 (voi i. I9th cent.). 
•78 (voi ii, to 6th year of Aid, Shah, a.d, 1879). R.A.S. it 100 
Morley 96 (voi i), P. 101 ---- Atorloy 97 (voi. ii, to 7th year of 
Aid. Shall), Ivanow 168 (vols. i-ii). 

Descriptions : (1) IV. Nassau Lees J Infm'aS- f>c /*- hl-Jufj of 
India (JJi.A.S. 1868) pp. 469 -70. (2) Elliot ami Dow.-un 11 
of India viil 17-20 (with an extract of 1 p.), 

1 “ la the later years of the work it is little inure than t<-< -id >.f aj.jw.jut. 
aienta and promotions, with the concomitant presents ami offerings ** (Elliot 
and Dowooix viii p. is), w w-w ./.Vw - 'Jo. ^ ■ 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 519 

682. For Hajji Mir ML Salim’s Siisilat al-salafm [?], of which 
the first part is a history of the Mughul race from Adam onwards, 
Chingiz Khan, Timur etc., and especially of the Indian Tlmurids 
to Muhammad Shah (reigned a.h. 1181/1719-1161/1748) see 
p. 381 supra, '.-/.y 

683. Nizam al-Din M. Hadi b. M. Mahdi al-Husaini al-Safawi, 
known as Shah Mirza and Mirza Mahdi Khan Safawi 1 , composed 
the IHyci' aVuyun (see p. 54 supra) in 1114/1702-3 at Haidarabad 
and the Qaddyd i salMUn i Dakan (Eth6 446) in 1156/1743. 

Majmit ah i Mirzd-Mahdt-Khdnl (a chronogram — 1142/ 
1729-30), a brief sketch of the history of the Indian Tlmurids : 
Ivanow 167 (late 18th cent.), Asafiyah iii p. 102 no. 1257 (a.h. 
1235/1819-20), i p. 252 nos. 445 (a.h. 1247/1831-2), 641 (pos- 
sibly also p. 244 no. 655 ( Shdhdn i Hind by Mirza Mahdi Khan 
Isfahan!)), Bombay Univ. 157 (a.h. 1263/1847), Ethe 412, 413, 
444, 470 foil. 1776-1896. 

684. Dalpat Ray entitled (muMidtab) Rao Dalpat Sing’h 
was born at Ahmadabad, where his father, G-ulab Ray, was 
Mutasaddi. He made himself well acquainted with Arabic, 
Persian, Sanskrit, Prakrit and Bhak’ha (i.e. Hindi). For eight 
years he was in the service of Maharajah Jagat Sing’h of Udaipur 
(reigned 1147/1734-1165/1751), for whom he prepared a Hindi 
translation of the Diwdn of Hafiz. The invasion of Ahmad Shah 
Abdali in 1173 (or rather 1174/1760) compelled him to leave 
Delhi, where he was staying, for Jaipur. Here at the age of 
57 years he undertook by order of Maharajah Mad’hau Sing’h 
(d. 1181/1767-8) his 

Maldhat i maqdl 3 completed after the Maharajah’s death, 
a collection of historical anecdotes, the first part relating to the 
Tlmurids and their amirs in chronological order with some 
account of Jagat Sing’h and Mad’hau Sing’h, the second part 
miscellaneous under subject headings: Ivanow Gurzon 119 
(a.h. 1235/1819-20), Rieu iii 10056 (circ. a.d. 1850), 

1 Ethe’s identification of this person with the author of the TarlTch i Nadirl 
(for which see p. 322 supra) is of course incorrect. 


520 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

685. S. Sultan ‘All Husain! Mfisawl Safawl Ardabil! travelled 
eastward from. Ardabil, his native place, and settled at Lucknow 
in the time of ShujtV a-l-DauIah. In the second year of the reign 
of Sa'adat-'AIi, a.ii. 1213/1798, lie decided to write a history 
of India from the time of Timur to the death of Muhammad 
Shah. 

Met din al-scfadat, a detailed history of the Indian Tim urids 
and the Nawwabs of Outlh dedicated to Safadat ‘.All Khan 
and extending to his seventh year. A.ir. 1218/1803 -1 : Ivanow 
181 (lacking most of the KMtinmh (description of India)), 
Rieu iii 1052a (extracts only. Circs, a.d. 1850). 

English translation of the preface and table of contents : B.M. 
MS. Add. 30,781 foil. 30 -50. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 354. 

[ Ma‘din al-sa i * adat, preface (see Elliot and Dowson lor. cit.}.] 

686. Sufi San‘an b. Mirza Baba wrote the 

Tarikh al-salaftn, a short (34 folk) and negligible chronicle 
of Timur’s successors and the Indian Mughuls to Shalt-'Alam : 
Eihi 428 (a.ii. 1220/1806. Autograph ?). 

687. MaulawX Khair al-Din Muhammad Hahabadi was horn 
at Allahabad on 12 Safar 1165/31 Dee. 1751. Educated at 
Allahabad and Jaunpur, he became a teacher in a u>ndrmah 
of his own ( madrasah i Jtfnimd) at Allahabad, but when /..the : 
province of Allahabad was transferred by the K.Lfo. to Nawwah 
Bhuja" al-Daulah [after the Treaty of Benares in 1773 3 j, flu* 
Nawwab confiscated the stipends of the teachers of Allahabad, 
and Khair al-Din 3L sought employment with officials of the 
E.I.Co. Ho was attached to the staff of Captain W. Bruce in 
the operations which led to the capture of Gwalior in 1780. 
Subsequently he assisted James Anderson, British Resident in 
Smd’hiyahh camp, in his negotiations with the .Marat has, but 

1 The printed text of the Tntihkiml ul-'nlmnn (p. «>:»-) given the date U7f>, 

probably an error or misprint for ilsfi, though the <-onr<-H date is 1 187. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 521 

left Ms service in 1200/1785 on account of illness and returned 
to Allahabad. After a short period in the service of the Shah- 
zada.li Jahandar Shah, he went from his birthplace to Lucknow 
in 1202/1788 (Ri_eu iii 946a) or 1206/1791-2 (Rieu iii 10286) 
at the request of Asaf al-Daulah. Then for some years he taught 
at Allahabad and Benares. In 1 209 / 1 7 94-5 the practice of 
appointing British judges and registrars was introduced, and 
he served under two successive judges at Jaunpur, the second ' 
being A. Welland. It was at Jaunpur that he spent the years 
of his retirement. He died about 1827. 

At the end of his Tadhicirat al-ulama ’, on the scholars of 
Jaunpur, written in 1216/1801 (Edition : Calcutta 1931), he 
mentions numerous works of his own. These include (1) ‘ Ibrot - 
nameth, on the reign of Shah-‘Alam (see p. 641 infra), (2) Jaunpur- 
namah (see p, 698 infra), (3) Tiihfah i tazaJi, on the history of 
Benares (see p. 702 infra), (4) Gmvaliydr-ndmah (see p. 736 
infra), (5) ‘Alam-dshub, a history of India from Nadir Shah’s 
invasion to the death of Najaf Khan (this work he describes as 
unfinished), (6) Gulzdr i asrar, anecdotes of Indian saints, 

(7) Sardbistdn, anecdotes of Indian kings, (8) Khair al-maialis, 
an abridgment of Nur Allah Shfishtarfs Majdlis al-mu’mimn, 

(9) Burhdn i imdmat , written by order of Asaf al-Daulah, (10) 
i 'Mhct/wariq i Q'adinyah , written at the request of Shah-‘Alam, 
as well as works on such subjects as dogmatic theology, law, 
logic, philosophy, rhetoric and grammar. A work entitled 
■fcaifidlla-yi ‘Aziz, in which he seeks to show that the author of 
the Tuhfah i Ithm- Afuiriyafi [i.e. Abd al-AzIz Dihlawi, for 
whom sec pp. 24-5 supra] was secretly a ShTite, is preserved in 
the India Office (D.P. 273 (a)). For his account of a short period 
in the history of Oudh (Rieu iii 948a) see p. 704 infra. 

Sketch of Timurid history from Babur to Shah-Alam with 
a chronological abstract of the latter’s reign to his death in. 
1221/1806: Rieu iii 948a (circ. a.d. 1850). 

[Autobiography in the Tadhh'rat al- ulama ' , Wiatimah (Calcutta 
edition pp. 67-75, terns, pp. 74-82) ; autobiographical state- 
ments in the Jaunpur -ndmah (see Rieu i 311a), the Tuhfah i 
tazah (see Rieu iii pp. 9646, 965a), the Thrat-nmmh (see Rieu iii 


522 


II, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY. ETC. 


946) and the G u wd liydr- i > dnm h (see Rieu iii 1028/j) ; Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii p. 257 : Rieu iii 946, 9f.il. 1028/;, 
i 311 ; Banklpur vii pp. 97, 140 ; Buekland Did>onnrif <>j Indian, 
biography p. 235.] 

688. M. ‘AH Khan Ansar! has already been mentioned (p. 141 
supra) as the author of the general liistory Bnhr ai’nwrwij 
completed according to the preface 1 in 1299 1794 5 but in fact 
extending to 1211/1796. The part of that history relating to the 
Indian Tmmrids is for all practical purposes a reproduction of 
the TdrVjBi Muzaffari, which was composed originally in 1202 
1787-8 for the purpose of obtaining the patronage of Mu'in al- 
Daulah Mubariz al-Mulk Khan i Khanan S. M. Rida Khan 
Bahadur Muzaffar-Jang (Na'ib-Xfizim of Bengal and Bihar), 
then resident at Murshidabad, -where he died in Safa r 1206, 1791. 

Tdri kh i Muzaffari 3 a history of the Indian Timfirids to 
a.h, 1202/1787-8, subsequently continued to a.h. 1225/1810, 
valuable . for M. Shah’s reign and later times : Lindesiana 
p. 191 no. 870 (a.h. 1 205/1790-1 2 1 2/1 797) , Berlin 479 (lacks 
continuation. Bears seal dated 1206). Ivanow C'tirzon 39 (breaks 
off in a.h. 1222/ 1807. a.h. 1247 ( i) '1831-2), Ivanow 182 (ends 
with a.h. 1209/ 1795. a.h. 1293. 1876k 183 (<mds wii h us. 1225 ' 
1810. a.h. 1295/1878), Kieu i 282/; (ends with a.h. 1225 1810. 
Early 19th cent.), iii 925a (ends wii h ajj. 1212 1797. a.h. 18191. 
925a (8hah-‘Alam’s reign to a.h. 1201 4786 7. (’ire. a.h. 1850), 
1027a (extracts only. Cire. a.u. 1850), I 03 (td (extracts only. 
Circ. A.D. 1844), I.O. 4550 (ends with a.h. 1212 1797. a.h. 1266/' 
1849), 3906 (ends with a.h. 1212 1797. a.h. 187c). 2,95 f (reigns 
of • Bahadur ■ Shall ' .and: Jahilndfir ■ ; Shalt : only. / ’ ' a.ik : ' 1 S92 )/ ' 3883' 
(reigns of Ahmad Shah and ‘Alamglr H probably from the 
Bohr td-iiunnnlj / 18th cent.}, 3991 (reigns of Farrukh-sivar. 
Rafr al-Darajfit etc., and M. Shrdi probably from tie- Huhr at- 
mamed]. 1 a.ik 1891), Bankipur vii 593 (breaks off in middle of 

1 These MSS., if they ha<l hc-n H<*uf .snuta-r, hav, apj* ;irv<l <m 

P* 144 supra, !>ut thin place is almost equally appropriate, »imv the part of the 
Bafyr al-mawwaj with.- the Indian Timurids is praet 

the Tarikh i Muzaffari. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 523 

Shah-‘ Alain’s reign, the last date being 1202/1788. 19th cent.), 
possibly also vii 545 (Shah-‘Alam’s reign to a.ii. 1200/1785. 
19th cent.), ‘Aligarh Subhan Allah MSS. p. 58 no. 954 (8), 
Asafiyah i p. 230 nos. 450 and 722. 

Extracts translated by Din Muhammad : B.M. MS. Add. 30782 
foil. 206-32. 

Extracts translated by J. Dowson: Elliot and Dowson 
History of India viii pp. 317-30. 

689. Maharajah Kalyan Sing’ll b. Shitab Ray (see p. 719 infra). 

Khulasat al-tawari kh, a history in two bobs of which the 
first deals with the Indian Tlmurids to a.ii. 1227/1812 and the 
second, which has in some MSS- the independent title Wdriddt 
i Qasvml and is the longer and by far the more important, with 
the Nazims of Bengal. For further information see p. 721 
below. 

690. Ahmad ‘Ali b. Yusuf ‘All Faidabadi. 

(Mukhtasar dar ahwal i Timurtyah ), an untitled sketch 
of Indian history under the Tlmurids to the year 1228/1813 
{more than half of the work being devoted to Shall- 1 A lam II) 
written in 1245/1829-30 at the request of Maha-rajali Kirat 
Chand : 1.0. 4429 (circ. a.d. 1850). 

691. M. Rida t£ Najm ” Tabataba 1 has already been mentioned 
(pp. 148, 488 supra) as the author of the Zubdat al-gharaib, the 
Majmri al-muluh and the Akhhdrdt i Hind. 

Mafatih al-ri’asat, a history of India from 1 1 51/17 38—9 to 
1251/3835-6 forming vol. iv of the author’s historical encyclo- 
paedia Bohr al-za lih'kJi ar (cf. Elliot and Dowson History of India 
viii 433) : Rieu iii 10146 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10186 
vi foil. 126-252 (extracts, a.d. 1849), cf. 1053a (papers relating 
to vol. iv). 


1 Tabataba, not TabatabilT, seems to be the form used by M. Rida himself 
in his prefaces etc. 


524 


II, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

692. Raj all Apurva Krishna “ Kunwar % or. Aptlrva Krishna 
DSva, born in 1815 (see Proceedings of the A .S3., 1925 p. xxxi), 
was the son of Rajah Raj Krishna (d. a.tk 1825, aged 42 1 ) 
and the grandson of Rajah Nava Krishna, the '* Xob Kisseii " 
who rendered important services to the British in Clive’s time 
and whose name is repeatedly mentioned in the histories of that 
period. 2 He was thus a brother of Maharajah Sir Xarendra 
Krishna, K.C.I.E., and of Rajah Kali Krishna. On the title- 
page of the ffh ali-mmah i Hmd (Calcutta 1848) he. is described 
as “ Honorary 'Poet to His Ma jesty the King of Delhi, and 
Member of the Hamburg Academy, &c., &c.» kef According 
to Lake Hath Ghose he died in 1867. He seems to have lived a 
simple and uneventful life at Sovabasar, Calcutta, For his 
cUwdn see Sprenger p. 474X// 

Shdh-namah i Hind (on the English title-page fM HiMmj 
of the Conquerors of Hind from the most early period to the present 
firm : containing an account of the religion, government . usages 
and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom), a poem of winch 
the two chapters published in 18-18 extend to the time of Babur 
but are concerned mainly with Timur and Shah- R ukh ; Linctesiana 
p. 114 no. 774 (vol. (chapter?) iv (reigns of Babur and IfutpayOn). 
a.h. 1257/184-1). 

Editions : Calcutta 1848* (chapters i and ii (only ?). extending 
to the time of Babur but dealing mainly with Timur and Shah- 
Rukh. The B.M. has chapter i), Lahore }iS99*. chapters 
i and ii only]. 

[Taiyib Allah Lives of Malm Raja Aparm Krishna Bahadur 
. . , Jus fit her and grandfather {Math nano l Taiyih AlUih). Calcutta 
1847°; Sprenger p. 474 ; Gurein de. Tassy i pp. 2J7 18; .Lola* 
Nath Ghose The modern history of the Indian chiefs , rajas, zamin- 
darSy etc., pt. ii. Calcutta 1881, p, I2L] 

1 Set* 0‘f nmlogmal and other arrounU of Mnha-Rnja Kali -K rid m Bahadur, 
Calcutta 1841*, p, 5, C'yCCCcC : y .y-p. 

* Fora <letail<«I baijrraphy of “ Xob Hixson ” see; X. X. I «!»•»** Memoirs uf 
Maharaja Kuhidmm BnhmUtr, Calcutta IftOI*. l‘f. Rm-klwl’s IK -timet*!/ 'I 
Indian biography, under Xaba Kishen, 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 525 

693. For the Tdnkh i Farah-b akhsh of M. Faid-Ba khsh Eakorl 
which begins with a history of the Timurids see p. 706 below. 


694. Mirza Asad Allah Khan « Ghalib ” b. 'Abd Allah Beg 
Khan was born at Agrah on 8 Rajab 1212/27 Dec. 1797. His 
grandfather was a Turk of Samarkand who had migrated to 
India in Shall-' Alain’s reign and had been given a mansab by 
Najaf Khan. “ Ghalib ” was only five years old when his father, 
at that time a military officer in the service of Rajah Bakhta war 
Sing’k of Alwar, w r as killed in battle. He and his younger brother 
were adopted by their uncle, Nasr Allah Beg Khan, a com- 
mander of 400 horse in Lord Lake’s army, but, when “ Ghalib ” 
was nine years old, his uncle died, and his jdglr, consisting of 
two pargdnahs in the neighbourhood of Agrah, reverted to the 
government. In compensation “ Ghalib ’’ was granted a small 
government pension, which for the greater part of Ms life seems 
tb haye been almost his only regular income. 1 


In 1266/1850 Bahadur Shah conferred upon him the titles of 
Najm al-Daulah Dabir al-Mulk Nizani-Jang and appointed him 
to write a history of the Timurids at a salary of Rs. 50 a month. 
The Mihr i nim-ruz published in 1852 represents the first half 
of this task, but “ Ghalib ”, who was evidently in no hurry to 
complete the undertaking, had not written the second half when 
the Mutiny of 1857 led to the deposition of Bahadur Shah. 
Wajid 'All Shah, King of Oudh (a.h. 1263/1847-1272/1856), 
granted “ Ghalib ” a stipend of Rs. 500 a year, but only two 
years afterwards, in 1856, Oudh was annexed by the E.I.Co. 
and that stipend ceased. Two years after the Mutiny Nawwab 
Yusuf ‘Ali Khan of Ramp hr assigned to him a pension of Rs. 100 
a month, and this was continued by Nawwab Kalb-'Ali Khan 
to the end of “ Ghalib’s ” life. He died at Delhi on 2 Dhu 
’1-Qa‘dah 1285/14 Feb. 1869 1 at the age of 73. 


It is chiefly as an Urdu poet — one of the greatest, if not 
actually the greatest — that !£ Ghalib ” is still remembered. His 


1 15 Feb. 1869 according to the Yadgar i GJidlib, p. 108, but, as 15 Feb. was 
3 Dhu ’1-Qa‘dah, either the Muhammadan or the Christian date must be 

incorrect. -S: A; rj: ; : J: ■; 


526 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Urdu duvdn lias often been published (e.g. Cawwpore 1278/ 
1861°, Lucknow 1873*, 1881°, Cawnpore 1887*, Delhi 1889*} 
and under the title Mumqqcd i Qhiightwj [**ib] (with illustrations 
by M. s Abd al-Rahman Chughtay) at Lahore in [1928 j. Other 
Urdu works well known in India are Urdu / mu' alia, a collection 
of letters, and l thl i Hindi, a collection of letters and reviews. 

His Persian poetical works have been published under the 
title Kulllydt i Ghdlib at Lucknow in 187*2° and 1 92 L 51: (3rd ed,). 
A Persian diwm> doubtless for the most part identk al with tin* 
KidUydt, was published at Delhi in 1261 is 15 (506 pp, Hoe 
Sprenger p. 410), and there is a MB. at Banklpur (Catalogue, 
vol. iii no. 441). The Abr i guhnr-hdr, an unfinished /mthumd 
on the life of Muhammad, was published separately at Delhi in 
1280/1863° and is included in the Lucknow Kidllydt (p. 111). 
The Qafidak % bar-gimdah , an ode to Queen Victoria, of which 
there is a manuscript in the Bibliotheca Lindesiaua (Catalogue 
p. 202 no. 613), is also in the K-idUyal (p. 241). 

Of his Persian prose works in addition to the 'Mi hr i mm-nn 
the following have been published : (1) Pmrj cthamj , a collection 
'of letters, .prose compositions, lists of words and other material 
useful to a student of i»dmd Delhi 18.53* and. in the Kulllydt 
i nmthr i Ghdlib , [Lucknow.] 187U*. pp. 2-254. Cawnpiuc 3 88 if, 
1888*. (2) QafV i burhdn. criticisms <>f the Persian dh-tinnury 

Hurltdn i qdtj\ [Lucknow.] 1278 1862 . (3) Dimf*h i Kiinv/diu, 
an enlarged edition of the precodin if. Delhi 1865 . ( jj linMfwhdj^ 
reminiscences of the Mutiny at Delhi, Bareilly D7t* ami in tin* 

1 The Pan j nhiruj. described inexactly in the India f Hit >• (.itdogue ns “u 
treatise on grammar and- lexicography ”, contains {If dltpth it Mali, it mmttib 
i muiu'alUqnh i ash i.e. complimentary formula- fur n<e at tin* In-ginning and 
end of letters, pp. 4-23, (0) {n} rules for forming tenses h<, of the verb from 
the principal parts, pp. 21~2«» (h) a list of verb* with their principal parts, 
pp. 20-33, {«••) a list; of Idiomatic phrases, pp. 33-5, id} a s!n<rt glossary of 
more or less un.-ommon words, pp. 3,1-9, (3) a collect ion of verses by ” Gjhrdih '* 
suitable for quotation in letters, pp. 39 - 47 , ( 4 ) a collect ion of prefaces , laudatory 
notices of books ( taqanz ), and other prose pieces pp. 47-HO. (5i letters to friends 
of the author, pp. 5*0-234. The pagination given al«»vc is that of ibe KuUiyul 
i mfhr i Ghalib, in which the Panj hhmvj oeenpies pp. 2 25-1 , the Mi hr 
i nlm-ruz pp, 253-370 and the Dmtatibuy pp, 877-410. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (1) GENERAL 527 

Kullnjdt i nathr i Ghalib, [Lucknow,] 1871°*, pp. 377-416, Cawn- 
pore 1884f, 1888*. 

Mihr i nim-ruz 3 a short history of the Timurid line 
from the Creation to the reign of Humayun undertaken by 
the author on receiving the titles of Najm al-Daulah, Dablr al- 
Mulk and Nizam- Jang from Bahadur Shah on 23 Sha‘ban 1266/ 
4 June 1850 and intended to form the first half of a work entitled 
Partawistan and to be followed by a second half entitled Mali 
i mm-mah dealing with the period from Akbar to Bahadur Shah 1 : 
1.0. D.P. 583 (a.h. 1270/1854). 

Editions: Fakhr al-matabi‘ [Delhi?] 1268/1852*, 1271/ 
1854-5, 2 and in the Kulliycit i nathr i Ghalib , Nawal Kishor, 
[Lucknow,] 1871°* pp. 255-376, Cawnpore 1884f, 1888*. 

[Autobiographical statements in Bastanbuy , esp. pp. 392-5, 
Mihr i mm-ruz, preface, and various passages in his poems ; 
Gulshcm i bi-khar (cf. Sprenger p. 228) ; Riycid al-afkdr (Bankipur 
Suppt. i p. 57) ; Sprenger pp. 204, 228, 410 ; Haft dsmdn 
pp. 166-7 ; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 475-82 (where will be found 
an abridged French translation of the obituary notice in the 
A wad'h akhbdr of 16.3.1869) ; M. Husain “ Azad ” Ab i haydt (in 
Urdu. Originally published circ. 1880), Lahore 1899, pp. 466-99 ; 
Bankipur iii pp. 269-70 ; Ency. I si. under Ghalib (Blumhardt) ; 
Altaf Husain “ Hall ” Yddgdr i Ghalib (in Urdu), Lucknow 1924 ; 
Saksena A history of Urdu literature pp. 158-68, 263-5 ; T. 
Grahame Bailey A history of Urdu literature pp. 71-2, 84 ; 
an Urdu biography, Ghalib , by Ghulam-Rasfil “ Mihr ” (Lahore, 
date, not stated) was reviewed at some length by S. M. £ Abd 
Allah in the Oriental College Magazine Yol. xiii no. 1 (Nov. 
1936) pp. 71-84; Portraits facing p. 376 and Hissah i nathr 
p. 28 in the Urdu translation of Saksena’s work ( Tarilch i adab 
i Urdu , Lucknow 1929).] 

695. By desire of Bahadur Shah, the last Emperor of Delhi 

1 The second half was never written (see Yadgar i Ghalib p. 35). 

3 The chronogrammatic colophon of an edition lithographed at the Fakhr 
al-matabi* in this year is reprinted in the [Lucknow] edition of 1S71. 


528 


TI. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY- ETC. 

(1253/1837-1275/1857), Muhammad Fakhr al-DIn Husain with 
the. assistance of Hakim M. Aft sail Allah Khan and tin* painters 
Ghulam ‘All Khan and Babur ‘All Khan begun in 12(5(5 1849-50 
and completed in the following year 

Mir' at al-ashbah i said fin i asman-jdh , chronological tables 
of the Indian Tlmurids with their portraits and pictures of their 
tombs ; Linflesiana p. 137 no. 775 (eire. 1850, possibly this 
may he a copy of the lithograph mentioned below). 

Edition: [Delhi?] 1207/1851° (see Men i 285a). 

690. Mirza M. *AM al-Qadir Khan, commonly .called'' Vurf ) 
Mrrzti M. Agha Ian, 1 b. MunshI Mirza Ahmad dun be; Mirza' 
Shah-Muhammad Khan 2 Aoah Bash Qajar Kabuli, was bom at 
Bongarh 3 (A. i M. pp. 53 :i , 815 t: ) in the Maiulsaur district of the 
Gwalior State. His grandfather had migrated from Kabul to 
Peshawar (A. i Jl. p. and his father at the time of the 

Indian Mutiny of 1857 settled in Bongarh {A, i M. pp. :5 ,2 “*’V; 
52 ult.-D^ 1 “), where he became right-hand man 4 to Thiikur 
Kesri Sing’h, the Rajput ruler (ra'u, wall) of the tiny state of 
Bongarh. On his father’s death in 1897 (A. i M. p.';.8ICf*f' ls | 
Mlrza Aglja Jan succeeded to his father’s office {A. i M. 

p. 

Awimdq [sie 5 ] i Mugkulf completed in August 1900 apart 
from a (second) kkaUntah added in November 1901, an account 

1 Not Khan. * ' 

2 A genealogical tree of the author's family (Shn famh i i Ikirhl*) 

5a given on p. ,“»t of the -1. i 31. 

3 This Sttngarh Is to be distingwished from tetter 'known ./pbuk« 'of the same 

mime in Raroda and Kathiawar. 1 . , '■ rdf.:' 

4 The preri.-e title nfhis oiliee is not stated. On tie litle.juuv On author j\ 
described merely as a resident (mki/i) of Sdngnffa. 

... 5 This word is so vocalised on the title. page and in some ehronograminalie 
verses (not in the author) at the end, one line being IVa-itim ;/u ,->■> ^ 

'l-turzi qi/tnn * Mt'il, <>n ft Au'hm>ii l-MnMjdi | .CJ. For the word see Hmn, 
Id, under Aimak (Barthold) and Rodhouses Turk id* diethmury, where the 
promno iation is given as (H-ni.t'j, 

6 So on the title-page, but Mugitul where the title oeeura at the »-ml of tho 
preface. The author uses the two spellings interehangt-ably. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (2) BABUR 529 

of the Mughul tribes 1 (Bab i awwaldar baydn i aqivdm i Mughul, 
pp, 7-100) and a history of the Mughul dynasties ( Bab i duywm 
dar tqfsil i ijmdl i saldtdn i Mughul, pp. 101-832), Timur 2 and 
the Timurids occupying pp. 271-695 (Babur and the Indian 
Timurids from p. 389). Edition: Amritsar 1319/1902°*. 

697. Miscellaneous works relating to the Timurids : 

(1) Fihrist i Timuriyahy a sketch of Tlmurid history to 

a. h. 1185/1771, written in 1203/1788 : BanMpur Suppt. 1771 
(a.h. 1233/1817-18). 

(2) Humayun-namah) by ?, a history of the Mughul 
Emperors from Humayun [to ?] : Lindesiana p. 148 no. 833 
(a.h. 1170/1756-7). 

(3) ( Tdrtkh i Tlmuriydn ) 3 a sketch (foil. 13) of Tlmurid 
- history to a.h. 1221/1806 : Bankipur Suppt. i 1772 (19th cent.). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (2) BABUR 

698. Eahir al-Dln M. Babul' b. ‘Umar Shaildi Mlrza b. Sultan 
Abu Sa‘id Mlrza b. Sultan-Muhammad Mlrza b. Miran-Shah 

b. Timur was bom on 6 Muharram 888/14 Feb. 1483, and 
succeeded his father as ruler of Farghanah. in Ramadan 899/ 
June 1494, being then in his twelfth year. In 906 /1501 a defeat 
at the hands of Shaibani Khan deprived him of his princedom, 
but in 910/1504 he occupied Kabul and made it the seat of his 
government. In 932/1526 he defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat, 
made Agrah his capital and founded the Timurid dynasty of 
Hindustan. He died on 6 Jumada i 937/26 December 1530 in 
his 48th year. 

In addition to his Memoirs, which alone concern us here, 

1 The author laments that the works dealing specially with the Mughul 
tribes, like the Turijth i Raskidi (sec p. 274 supra) and the Muqaddimah i 
Zafar-namak (see p. 284 supra), were unobtainable in India and therefore 
inaccessible to him. 

2 The author uses the spelling GWRKAN for Timur’s title, not Gurgan, as 
seems to be usual in India. 


530 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Babur was the author of some poetical works in Turk! (for which 
see The Babur-nama in English pp. 437-8 and appendices 
pp. lviii-lxvii, Akbar-ndmah i pp. 118-19, F. Teufel Babur und 
Abu’l-fazl (in ZDMG. 37 (1883)) pp. 179-84, JDwdn-i-Bdbur 
Padishah edited with facsimile by E. I). Ross in JASB. 1910, 
extra number). 

(Bdbur-namah) } or ( Wdqi c dt i Baburi 1 ), or ( Tuzuk i 
Bdburi), Babur’s personal memoirs in Chaghatay Turk!, extant 
only in a mutilated form, since the existing MSS., as well as 
‘Abd al-Rahim’s translation, are marred by numerous lacmiee : 
Edinburgh Scottish National Library ( £< may have been copied 
during Akbar’s first decade (1556-67) ”. See Mrs. Beveridge’s 
description hi JRAS. 1907, pp. 131-44 (cf. 1900 pp. 451-3), 
and her brief account hi The Bdbur-ndma in English p. xliii. 
Formerly belonged to Elphinstone and Erskine), Eieu B.M. 
Turkish Cat. p. 280 (detached fragments only, a.h, 1039/1630. 
Cf. Mrs. Beveridge in JRAS. 1900 pp. 453-4, 470), Lindesiana 
p. 244 no. 151 (fragment only (71 foil.) from the beginning. 
Written, according to Mrs. Beveridge, by Nur hi., nephew of 
Abu T-Fadl, who was living in 1625. See JRAS. 1900 pp. 465-6, 
470, and The Bdbur-ndma in English p. xli). Haidarabad Salar- 
Jang Library (circ. a.d. 1700. See JRAS. 1902 p. 655, 1905 
pp. 741-62, 1906 pp. 79-93, 1908 pp. 73-6, The Bdbur-ndma 
in English pp. xlvi-xlvii). 

In addition to the above MSS., which are regarded by Mrs. 
Beveridge as representing the genuine Turk! text of the Bdbur- 
ndmah, there exist a number of others, which, according to her, 2 
resemble the text published by Ilminski from Kehr’s transcript 

1 This title is used, e.g.> by ‘AM al-Qadir , Bada’urd, Muntakhab al-taimnkh, 
i p, ,341. Babur refers to the work as the Wagd'i*. 

2 Mrs. Beveridge’s conclusions were set forth, awl from time to time modified, 
in a series of articles published in the J11A8. {1900 pp. 439-80 : Motes on the 
Turku text of Babur's Memoirs ; 1902 pp. 053-9 -. Further notes on the [Elphin- 
stone and HaydambadJ MBS. of the Turin, text of Babur's Memoirs ; 1905 
pp. 741-62 : The Bay darabad codex of the Babar-nama . . . ; 1906 pp. 79-93 ; 
The Eaydarabad codex, etc., continued; 1907 pp. 131-44: Further notes on 
the Babar-nama MSS. The Elphinstone codex ; 1908 pp. 73-98 : The Babar- 
nama. The material now available for a definitive text of the book. I. The wording 
of the Haydarabad and Elphinstone MSS. 11. General notice of the St. Petersburg 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA I (c) THE TIMURIDS (2) BABUR 531 

(see p. 532 infra), and of which, therefore, the contents are 
partly genuine, partly retranslated from ‘Abd al-Rahlm’s Persian, 
and partly spurious. 1 The recorded MSS. of this garbled recension 
are as follows : Leningrad Foreign Office Institute of Oriental 
Languages no. 360 (Gr. J. Kehr’s transcript, a.d. 1737. See 
Smimow’s Turkish cat. pp. 142-4,JIiLhS'. 1900 pp. 467-73, 1908 
pp. 76-96 , 828-31, 1923 pp. 75-77, The Bdbur-ndma in English 
pp. lii-lv), Asiatic Museum No. 590 6te (Senkovski’s transcript. 
a.d. 1824. See JRAS. 1900 pp. 474-5, The Bdbur-ndma in English 
pp. Iv-lvii), University Library no. 683 (a.d. 1839 ('?). See JRAS . 
1900 pp. 466-7, The Bdbur-ndma in English p. Ivi), Ivanow 1730 
(late 12th/18th cent. See JRAS. 1900 pp. 461-5, The Bdbur- 
nama in English p. Ivi), Etbh 214 (early 19th cent., probably 
transcribed from Ivanow 1730. Lacunse. Incorrectly described 
by Ethe as complete. See JRAS. 1900 pp. 455-61, The Bdbur- 
ndma in English p. Ivi). 

Facsimile of the Turk! text : The Babar-nama, being the auto- 
biography of the Emperor Babar . . . written in Chaghatay Turkish ; 
now reproduced in facsimile from a manuscript belonging to the 
late Sir Solar Jang of Hyderabad, and edited with a preface and 
indexes by A. S. Beveridge. Leyden and London 1905* (Gibb 
Memorial Series, 1). 

Foreign Office codex {copied by" Kehr) and of the pseudo-Babar ‘Fragment'. 
III. Dr. Kehr's transcript considered as text-material. IV. Summary of the 
results in text-material of the examination of the fifteen, MSS. , . . ; 1908 pp. 828— 
31 : The Babar-nama : Dr. Kehr's Latin version and a new letter by Babar. ; 

1909 pp. 452-60 : Notes on the Babar-nama, I, Dr, J. G. Klaproth's part 
translation of the book. II. On the origin and meaning of the word Tdshkand ; 

1910 pp. 111-28 : The Babar-nama description of Farghand [a revised transla- 
tion] ; 1911 pp. 65-74 : The Babar-nama. A passage [concerning B.’s escape 
from impending death, Memoires i p. 255] fudged spurious in the Haydarabad 
MS. ; 1914 pp. 440-51 : Notes on the Babur-nama. I. Nagarahar and Ning- 
■ndh&r. ■ II. Dara-i-nur. III. [The wines of Dara-i-nur. IV . Of Bihbud Beg ; and 
of Babur's vassal-coinage ; 1923 pp. 75-78 : Further notes on Baburiana [viz.: 
a description of Kehr’s transcript and of Ilminski’s Baber -name}. The con- 
clusions were summarised in the preface to The Babur-nama in English. 

1 It has been shown by F. Teufel ( Babur und Abu'l-fazl, ZDMG. 37 (1883) 
pp, 141-37) that one portion is a translation from the Akbar-namah. For the 
passage discussed by Mrs. Beveridge in the JFAS. 1911 pp. 65-74 see also 
II. Beveridge’s article A passage in the Turki text of the Babarndmah in the 

ASB- N.S. vi no. 4 (April 1910) pp. 221-6. 



532 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

English translation from the TurkI : The Babur-nama in 
English (Memoirs of Babur) by Zahiru-d-din Muhammad Babur 
Padshah Ghazi. Translated from the original Turhi text by A. S. 
Beveridge. London 1921*. 

Edition of most 1 * * of the extracts preserved in Kehr’s manu- 
script of the garbled recension : Baber-name Hi Zajdski Sultana 
Babera [these words in the Russian character]. Baber-Nameh 
Djagataice ad fidem codicis Pctrogolitani edidit N. Ihninshi. 
Kazan 1857* (cf. Zenker ii p. 64 no. 814). 

Erenck translation of Ilminski’s text : Memoires de Baber 
(Zahir-ed-din Mohammed ) traduites . . . snr le texte djagatai gar 
A. Pavet de Courteille. Paris 1871*. 

Persian translations of these memoirs, or parts of them, were 
made by the following persons: 

(1) Shaikh Zain [al-Din] “Wafa 5 !” Khwafi. a poet who was 
Sadr in Babur’s reign, who wrote a fath-ndmak describing the 
Battle of Kanwah (cf. Rieu iii p. 1 0466 vii), which is quoted 
in the Memoirs, and who died in 940/1533-4 and was buried at 
Agrah. [See The Baburnama in English pp. 448, 476, 532, 553 
(bis), 559, 565, 575, 662, 683, Alcbar-namah i p. 119, Beveridge's 
trans. i p. 280 ; ‘Abd al-Qadir Muntakhab al-tatvdrikh i pp. 341, 
471-2 ; Tabaqdt i Shdh-Jahdni ; Safinah i Khvmshgu no. 68 ; 
Makhzan al-ghard'ib no. 2933 ; Elliot and Dowson History of 
India iv pp. 288-9.] 

1 For a list of the contents of Kehr’s transcript and a specification of the 

parts published by Hminski see The Bdbur-nmna in English pp. lii-liii and the 

JRAS. 1923 pp. 75-8.. One of the extracts (the “ Hindustan Section”, as 
Mrs. Beveridge calls it) is actually a part, of Babur’s TurkI text, others appear 
to be retranslations from 4 Abd al-Rahlm’s Persian, others arc spurious and one 
is “ a continuous passage translated from the ATcbar-nama winding up Babur’s 
story to his death and Court Mrs. Beveridge argued from the colophon of 
Senkovski’s transcript (TurkI text quoted in JRAS. 1900 p. 474) that the 
garbled recension was a compilation “ planned to contain the histories of 

Babur and Humayun ” and entitled Waqa'i‘-namah i padshahi by Mulla ‘Abd 
al-Wahhab Akhund Ghuidawani. who completed it on 31 Aug. 1709/5 Rujab 

1121. It seems probable, however, that, since Waqa'i‘ is the term used by 
Babur in speaking of his Memoirs, Waqa'i‘-numuh i padshahi is merely equivalent 
to WaqVat i Bdburi, Babur-namah and the other quasi-titles given to the 
Memoirs. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (2) BABUR 533 

An ornate paraphrase of the Memoirs , 1 or perhaps 
only of a portion 2 relating to the Indian period of Babur’s life : 
Rieu iii 9266 (events of ah. 932 and the early part of 933. 102 foil. 
a. h. 998/1590), i 246a (Safar 932-Muharram 933. -17th cent.), 
Blochet iv 2154 (from the beginning of 932 to the end of the 
description of Hindustan. Early 17th cent.). 3 

Description and 3 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India iv pp. 288-92. 

(2) Mirza Payandah Hasan Ghaznawi and Muhammad-Qull 
Mughul Hisari, the former of whom began his translation in 
994/1586 at the command of Bihruz Khan (afterwards Naurang 
Khan, who died as Governor of Junagarh a.h. 1002 : see 
Rieu ii 7996) and dealt with the first six years and part of the 
seventh, while the latter continued the work to a.h. 935 : Browne 
Suppt. 1351 (n.d., but presented to King’s Coll, in 1788. King’s 
96), Rieu ii 7996 (a.h. 1203/1789), Eth6 215 (n.d.), Bodleian 
179 (modern). 

(3) Mirza ‘Abd al-Rahim Khan i Khanan 4 b. Bairam Khan 
Khan i Khanan, who made his translation by order of 
Akbar and completed it in 998/1589-90: Rieu Suppt. 75 
(late 16th cent. Fine Pictures), Rieu i 244a (late 16th cent.), 
2446 (16th cent. 4 Pictures), 245a (a.h. 1048/1638. 26 
Pictures), 245a (a.h. 1148/1735), 245a (18th cent.), 2456 

1 The inappropriate title Tabaqfit i JBabun, which Dowson gives to. the work* 

is ignored by Rieu in his description of the Elliot MS. and may be presumed 
to have no satisfactory authority. ft 

2 According to ‘Abel al-Qadir Bada’uni (i p. 4725-0) u tanlehi namshtdh 
mushtamil bar aliwal ifath i Hindustan u shark i (jhara'ib i an u dad i sukhhun- 
warl dar-an diidah . An earlier passage in the MuMaJchab al-tawarikk (i 
p, 341 l"-18) says that Sh. Zain Waqi'at i Babnrl ra kih an padshah i 
maghfur wwishtah ba-‘ibamii battgh tarjamah hard. 

» Of. ZDMG. 37 (1883) p. 177 n. 

* This celebrated general, governor and man of letters was born at Lahore 
in fjtafar 984/1556 and died at Delhi in 1036/1627. He is the subject of ‘Abd 
al-Baqi Nihavandf s Ma'dthir i Ralmm (see p. 553 infra). For other accounts 
of him see A' in i Akbari tr. Blochmann i pp. 334-9, IqbdJ-ndmah i Jahangir? 
iii pp. 287-8 ; Ma'athir al-umanV i pp. 693-713, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 50-65 ; 
Safi nah i Khwushgu no. 619; Ency. I si. under ‘Abd al-Rahim Khan (A. S. 
Beveridge), etc. ' f At ■ V 



534 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(early 19th. cent. 1 Picture), 2456 (,19th cent.), 2456 
(portion only. Early 1 9th cent.), ii 800a (a.h. 1203/1789), iii 
926a (3 detached portions. Giro. a.d. 1850), 1046 (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Blochet i 559 (16th cent.), 560 (1st half 
of 17th cent.), 561 (a.h. 1215/1800), 562 (a.d. 1870), Lahore 
Panjab Univ. Lib. (2 copies, one dated a.h. 1021/1612 and the 
other a.h. 1215/1800-1. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, 
no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 49, and vol. x, no. 3 (May 1934), 
pp. 137-8), Ethd 218 (not later than a.h. 1051/1641), 216 (n.d.), 
217 (n.d.), 2989 (“ excellent, but undated ”), BanMpur vii 549 
(a.h. 1082/1671-2), Suppt. 1763 (fragment, more than one- 
third of the work. 17th cent.), Bodleian 180 (n.d. 28 Pictures) 
181-3 (three undated copies), Edinburgh 205 (old and good), 
206 (a.h. 1303/1885), 207 (defective. 18th cent.), 76 (a.h. 1213 [?]/ 
1798), Ivanow 113 (late 18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 233 no. 160 
(circ. a.d. 1780), Agrah College (date 1 Some illustrations from 
this MS. are reproduced in L. F. Rushbrook Williams’s An empire 
builder of the sixteenth century, London 1918), Alwar State 
Library (date ? Some illustrations reproduced in the afore- 
mentioned work of Rushbrook Williams), Browne Pers. Cat. 
86 ii (incomplete), Bombay Univ. p. 265, Eton 175 (“ History 
of Farghanah 55 [sic], but the opening words, quoted in the 
catalogue, suffice to identify the work), Mehren p. 19 no. 50. 

Edition of ‘A.bd al-Rahlm’s translation : Bahur-nanuih 
mausum, bah Tuzuk i Bahuri u Futuhdt i Bdbun , Bombay 1308/ 
1890*. (For a criticism of this edition see Oriental College Maga- 
zine, vol. x, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1934), p. 136.) 

Extracts from ‘Abd al-Rahlm’s translation : [biographies of 
poets, scholars, musicians etc. edited by M. Shaff] Oriental 
College Magazine, vol. x, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1934), pp. 140-9. 

English translation of ‘Abd al-Rahlm’s Persian version : 
Memoirs of Zehir-ed-BinMuharmned Baber, Emperor of Hindustan, 
written by himself, in the Jaghatai Turki, and translated [mainly 
from the Persian version] partly by the late John Leyden , partly 
by William Ersldne . . . , London 1826* (Zenker i no. 956), 
Life of Baber, Emperor of Hindostan, written by himself and 



M. HISTORY OR INDIA .* (c) THE TIMURIDS (2) BABUR 535 

translated from the Jaghatai ToorJci [or rather, from the Persian 
version], by J. Leyden and W. Erskine. 2nd ed. London 1844 
(Zenker ii no. 813), Memoirs of Zehir-ed-dm Muhammed Babur, 
. . . written by himself, in the Chaghatdi Turki and translated by 
J. Leyden ... and W. Erskine . . . Annotated and revised by 
Sir Lucas King . Oxford 1921*. 

Abridgments of Leyden and Erskine’s translation : (1) Life 
of Baber, abridged from the Memoirs of Zehir-eddin Muhammed 
Baber .. .by R. M . Caldecott . London 1844* (Zenker ii no. 812), 
(2) Memoirs of Baber Emperor of India, first of the Great Moghuls ; 
being an abridgment with an introduction, supplementary notes, 
and some account of his successors, by Lieut. -Colonel F. G. Talbot. 
London 1909*. 

German translation of Leyden and Erskine’s version : Zehir- 
Eddin Muhammed Baber, Kaisers von Hindustan, Henkwurdig- 
keiten von ihm selbst im Dschagatai-Turkischen verfasst und nach 
der englischen Uebersetzung des J. Leyden und W. Erskine deutsch 
bearbeitet von A. Kaiser . . . Leipzig 1828 (Zenker i no. 957). 

Description and 57 pp. of extracts from Leyden and Erskine’s 
translation : Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 218-87. 

699. Mirza Barkhwurdar Turkman completed in 937/1530-1 
and dedicated to Shah Isma'il a work entitled Ahsan al-siyar, 
which is one of the authorities used by L. F. Rushbrook Williams 
for An empire builder of the sixteenth century (London 1918), 
and which according to him {op. cit. p. viii) “ recounts in great 
detail the relations between Babur and Shah Ismael [sic] ” and 
is “ noteworthy because the author, a Shia [sic], who wrote 
with the professed object of correcting the Habib-us-Siyar, 
confirms it in all important respects ”. 

Ahsan al-siyar 3 a history, of which the fourth and last 
volume (the only part known to be extant) is a detailed 
account of Shah Isma'il’s reign 1 : Rampur Nawwab c Abd al- 
Salam Khan’s library (Vol. iv (last) only). 

1 This work would have been mentioned among the histories of Shah Isma'il’s 
reign, if Rushbrook Williams’s article in the J.A.S.B, had come to notice 
earlier. 



53G 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Description : A new Persian authority on Babur? By L. F. 
B,ushbrook Williams (in the J.A.S.B . N.S. VoL xii (1916) 
pp. 297-8). 

M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (c) THE TlMURIDS 
(3) HUMAYUN. 

(See also pp. 299, 543, 561, etc.) 

700. Khwand-Amir was instructed to write the Hiimdyun- 
ndmah on being presented to Humayun (b. 913/1508, ace. 
937/1530, d. 963/1556) at Gwalior about the beginning of 
a.h. 941/1534. He died probably in the next year (see p. 101 
supra ). . 

• Humdyiin-ndmahs an account of HumayiliTs rules and 
>. cndinances and of some buildings e recte d by h im : Rosen 
■ ' Institut 23 (1) (10th/16tk orH.It.il/17tli cent.), Rieu iii 1024« 
(circ. A.J.). 1850). 

English translation, by Sadasuk’h Lai : B.M. MS. Add. 30774 
foil. 25-114, 

Description with some translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India v pp. 116-26. 

701. Mihtar 1 Jauhar, for some years AftabcKi, or ewer- 
bearer, to Humayun, says towards the end of his Tadhkirat al- 
wdqi‘dt (on fol. 132 in the B.M. MS. Add. 16711, which has 
146 foil.) that in 962/1554-5 Humayun appointed him Collector 
of Haibatpur and subsequently of Tatar Khan LSdl's villages. 
Further on (fol. '135b in the same MS.) he calls himself Treasurer 
(Khizdnchi) of the government of the Ran jab and Multan. In 
the Akbar-ndmiah (i p. 346 u 12 , Beveridge's trans. i p. 627) 
his appointment to the office of Treasurer (Khazvnah-ddr) of the 
province (subah) is mentioned among the events of 962/1554-5. 

Tadhkirat aTwdqi < ’dt ) memoirs of Humaytin’s reign, written, 

1 This title is prefixed to Jauhar's name in tli a Afrbar-uamuh i p. 34G n , and, 
evidently, in Ilah-dad “ FaidFs ” epilogue to the llmnayun-Shuhl (see Rieu 
iii 927a). • 



M. HISTORY OJ? INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (3) HUMAYUN 537 

or at any rate begun, in 995/1586-7 : Rieui 246 (a.h. 1019/1610), 
iii 1047a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Lindesiana i p. 167 
no. 412 (a.h. 1182/1768-9), no. 413 (a.d. 1863), Browne Suppt. 
256 (King’s 84, presented a.d. 1788), Asaflyah i p. 232 no. 715 
(4tli year of Bahadur Shall IX, i.e. a.d. 1840-1), Bankipur vii no. 
550 (a.h. 1278/1862), Lahore Panjab UniY. Lib. (a.h. 1287/1871. 
See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no, 4 (Aug. 1926) p. 50). 

English translation (bad) : The Tezkereh al Vakidt, or Private 
memoirs of . . . Humdyun, written . . . by Jouher . . . ; translated 
by Major G. Stewart. London 1832 °* (Oriental Translation 
Fund), Calcutta 1904°* (with index). 

MS. corrections of Stewart’s; translation by W. Erslcine : 
B.M. MSS. Add. 26608 and 26620. 

Description and 11 pp. of extracts from Stewart’s translation : 
Elliot and Dowson History of lndia y pp. 136-49. 

Later recension divided into five babs (the last dealing with 
Akbar’s accession) subdivided into fuml : Jawdhir i shahlf 
I.O. 3946 (a.h. 1060/1650), Ethd 221* 

Later recension in ornate prose written at Jauhar’s request 
by Ilah-dad “ FaidI ” Sirhindi (see p. 551 infra) for presentation 
to Akbar and divided into the same five chapters as the J dwahir 
i shdhi , 1 but having a new preface (with a dedication to Akbar) 
and an editor’s epilogue, in which Ilah-dad “ FaidI ” speaks 
of his contribution to the work: Hwndyun- Shdhi ^ Blochet 
i 563 (a.h. 1187/1773), Rieu iii 927a (a.h. 1264/1848), EtM 222. 

702. Bayazld Bayat 2 was the younger brother of Shah-Bird! 

1 The difference, if any, between the Javxihir i shahi and, the. Hum&yiin- [ 
Shdhi remains to be 

2 This is a Turkish tribal name. Cf. -A'M i Akbari tr. Bloehmann p. 581, 

note : The Bayat tribe is a Turkish tribe scattered over Azarbaijdn, Erivan, 
Tahrdn. Fdrs, and Ntshdpur ; C. E. Yate Khurasan and Sistan pp 368-9 : 
The district [i.e. the “ Sar-i-Valayat ” district, headquarters “ Ghakana ”] 
coritained 62 villages, big and little, all inhabited by Bayat Turks, a tribe numbering 
some 15,000 families . „ . These Bayat Turks said that they had been brought to 
this district by Nadir Shah from Irak, or somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
■Teheran; Babinger Gesohiohtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 31 : 15. Befall Sejah 
Mahmud. Er ist tnrkmmischer Herkunft; der Name Bejati dautet avf der Stamm 
der Bejai (urn Kerkuk). Ykkk'/XY 



538 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Bayat, afterwards known as Bahrain “ Saqqa ”, the poet, 1 
whom he joined at Gardez in the service of Mirza Kamran, 
Humayun’s half-brother. When Humayun entered Kabul in 
Ramadan 952/1545, all Kamran’s officers, including Shah- 
Birdl, deserted to Humayun, and Bayazld went with his brother. 
At the time of the festivities connected with Akbar's circum- 
cision at Qandahar in 953/1546 Shah-BirdI under the influence 
of ecstasy ( jadhbah ) gave up the profession of soldiering and 
became a saqqa/, or water-carrier, under the name of Bahrain 
i Saqqa. Subsequently at Agrah he erected a saqqd-Jchdnah 
under a urn-tree on ground belonging to his brother. Con- 
siderably later than this Bayazld was chosen by Abu 1-Eadl 
at Akbar’s request for the purpose of writing the TariJch i 
Humayun , which he began in 999/1591 at Lahore and completed 
in 1000/1591-2 [?]. 

j Tafikh i Humayun , a history of the reigns of Humayun 
and Akbar, with accounts of the persons closely connected with 
them, opening with the year 949/1542 (when Humayun was 
forced to leave India) and ending with 999/1591 : Etlffi 223. 

Translation (with omissions) of chapters i-iii, i.e. nearly half 
the work: Memoirs of Baizid [sic]. By B. P. Salcsena (in Allaha- 
bad University Studies , vol. vi, pt. 1 (1930) pp. 71 -148), 

Abstract: The Memoirs of Bdyazul ( Bajazet ) Biydl [,s7cj. 
By II. Beveridge (in JASB. lxvii, no. 1 (1898) pp. 296-316). 

[Autobiographical statements (for which see H. Beveridge’s 
article in the JASB. for 1898 and the summary given by Maulawi 
lAbd al-WalT in the JASB. N.S. xx (1924) no. 7 p. 490) ; Gul- 
badan Bega m llunmyun-ndmah, ed. and tr. A. S. Beveridge, 
introduction, pp. 38, 64, 74.] 

703. Grulbadan Begam, a daughter of the Emperor Babur 
by his wife Dildar Begam and consequently a half-sister of 
'Humayun, was eight years old when her father died in 937/1530. 
She had left Kabul and joined him at Agrah. in the preceding year. 

3 For the diwcm of “ Saqqa. see Sprenger no. 499, do Jong 173, Asafiyah 
i p. 724 nos. 23, 304, 432, Ethe 1436, Bankipur ii 241-2, Lindesiana p. 214 
no. 2906, Ivanow 669-70. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (3) HUMAYUN 539 

She married Khidr IGiwajah Chaghatay, who was Amir al-umard ’ 
under Humayun. 1 In 982/1576 she performed the pilgrimage 
to Mecca. She died at Agrah on 6 Dhu T-Hijjah 1011/7 May 
1603 at the age of 82 lunar years. 

(j Humdyun-ndmah), or ( Ahzodl i Humayun Padshah ), 
personal memoirs written at Akbar’s request as material for 
Abu ’1-Fadl’s Akbar-namah : Rieu i 247a (defective, breaking off 
after the blinding of Kamran (at the end of 960/1553 according 
to the Akbar-namah i 328). 17th cent.). 

Editions : (1) The history of Humayun ( Humdyun-ndma ). By 
Gul-badan Begam . . . Translated . . . and reproduced in the 
Persian from the only known MS. . . . By A. S. Beveridge. London 
1902°* (Oriental Translation Fund, N.S. 1), (2) Humdyun- 
namah i Gul-badan Begam, Lucknow [1925*]. 

English translation : see above Editions : (1). 

[Tabaqdt i Akbari ii 312 s = Elliot and Dowson v p. 391 ; Akbar- 
namah iii 568 6 , 815 0, 7 , 817 u etc. (see the index to Beveridge’s 
translation, when published) ; Icfbdl-ndmah i J ahdngiri (mentioned 
by Bieu, iii p. 1083a, without precise reference, as authority for 
the date of Gul-badan’s death. The occurrence would fall in 
vol. ii, and therefore not in the Bibliotheca Indica text) ; Tdnkh 
i MuJiammadi (presumably under the year 1011) ; Rieu i 247a, 
iii 1083a ; Mrs. Beveridge’s introduction to the Humdyun- 
ndmah ; Ency. I si. under Gulbadan (H. Beveridge).] 

704. In the time of Akbar was written 

Humayun-ndmah (?), an epic poem on the life of Humayun : 
Rieu iii 10006 (defective at both ends and elsewhere. 17th cent.). 

705. In the catalogue of the Bibliotheca Lindesiana no. 431 
on p. 136 (dated a.d. 1826) is described as 

ylqbdl-ndmah . Tdnkh i Humayun Padshah and is ascribed 
to “ Faidl ” b. Mubarak, the well-known poet of Akbar’s reign. 

1 For further information about him see A' in i Akbari tr. Blochmann 



540 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


It is not clear from, the catalogue whether this is a poetical work 
or not, but it may be identical with poem mentioned in the 
preceding paragraph. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TlMURIDS (4) AKBAR, 

706. Sh. Abu T-Faid u Faidi ” afterwards “ Faiyadl 55 b. 
Mubarak, the elder brother of Abu T-Fadl (for whom see p. 511 
infra), was born at Agrah in 954/1547, became Malik al-dutlardS 
in Akbar’s reign and died at his birthplace on 10 Safer 1004/ 
15 Oct. 1595. He began an Akbar-ndmah, which was to be, like 
“ Nizami’s ” Sikandar-ndmah, the fifth, poem of a Jchammh, but, 
like the other four poems except the Markaz % axlwar and Nal 
Daman, it was never finished. No copies of the unfinished 
poem seem to be extant. For further information concerning 
him and his works see the section on Poetry. 

(Zafar-namah i Ahmadabad), 1 a mathnawl on the 
conquest of Ahmadabad by Akbar and the death of the 
SipaMdr M. Husain Mirza, who was defeated and put to death 
in 981/1573: Lahore Punjab Univ. Lib. (see (Mental College 
Magazine, vol. iv no. 2 (Feb. 1928) p. 13), Rieu iii 1001a (a.d. 
1850). 

|~ Khuldsat al-ash‘dr (Sprenger p. 37 no. 485) ; Tabaqdt i 
Akbari ii pp. 486-8 ; Mimtakbab cd-taivdnkh ii pp. 405-6 = 
Elliot and Dowson v pp. 544-9 ; Ann i Akbari pp. 235-42, 
Blochmann’s translation pp. 490-1, 548-63 ; Mir at al-khaydl 
pp. 79-81 (Bodl. 374 no. 65) ; Ilannshah bahdr (Sprenger p. 127) ; 
Safin ah i Khumshqu no. 317 ; Ma'dthir al-imara ii pp. 584-90, 
Beveridge’s trans. pp. 513-18 ; Khuldsat al~kaldm (BankTpur 
viii p. 144) ; Khuldsat al-afkdr no. 196 ; Sprenger pp. 401 2 ; 
Ilafidsman pp. 115-26 ; Browne Lit. Ilist. iv 242-5 ; Eney. Id. 
under FaizI [,] Shaikh ; Brockelmann ii 417, Supptbd ii p. 610 ; 
For other authorities see the section Poetry.] 

\.Av This title has ; been invented as more appropriate than Dastaii i; Attbaf 
SMshah, which is that; given in the Oriental College M agazine . No : title is 
mentioned by Rieu. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 541 

707. M. c Arif Qandaharl was Steward [Mir-Saman) to Bairam 
Khan Khan i Kluinan. 1 the celebrated general of Humayun 
and Akbar’s reigns, and was present at his deathbed in Gujrat. 
After his death he made a pilgrimage to Mecca and on his return 
to India lived for a time in Bihar. In 985/1577-8 he came from 
Bihar and was presented to Akbar. . 

Tankh i Akbari 2 or ( Tarikh i Muhammad c Arif i 
Qandaharl) ) a history of Akbar’s reign to the year 987/1579, 
being apparently only the last part of a larger work, since, according 
to Sri Earn Sharma, “ there are cross-references to a history of 
the reign of Humayun, which, however, is missing ” : Browne 
Pers. Cat. 86 (i) (ending abruptly with Akbar’s return from 
Ajmer to Fathpiir-Sikri towards the end of Eajab 981/1573. 
Autograph ?), Rampur State Library (see Sri Ram Sharma in 
JRAS. 1933 pp. 807-11). 

Description: TariJch-i-Muhammad Arif Qandahari. By Sri 
Ram Sharma (in JRAS. 1933 pp. 807-11). 

[Autobiographical statements (for which see Sri Ram Sharma’s 
article) ; Ma’dthir i Rahimi ii pp. I 4-5 , 7°~ 17 .] 

708. For the Tankh i Humayun, a history of the reigns of 
Humayun and Akbar ending with the year 999/1591, see p. 538 
supra. 

For the {Tankh i khanaddn i Timuriydh), a history of Timur 
(foil. 7-134), his successors to Sultan Husain Mirza (foil. 136- 
234), Babur (foil. 238-73), Humayun (foil. 273-95) and Akbar 
to the 22nd year of his reign (foil. 295-338), see pp. 298-9 
supra. 

709. Sh. Abu ’1-Fadl “ ‘Allami ” was the second son of the 

1 For accounts of Bairam Khan see A' in. i Akban tr. Blocliinann pp. 315-17 ; 
Ma'dihir i liahimt ii pp. 1-102 (where much of the information is quoted 
from M. ‘Arif’s history) ; Ma’dihir al-umard ’ i pp. 371-84, Beveridge’s trans- 
lation pp. 368-78 ; Ency. Isl. under Bairam Khan (H. Beveridge), etc. 

2 This is the title by which the work is cited in the Ma’aihir i lialmni ii p. 1 

(M. ‘Arif i QandaharT Mh Mir-Saman u mutazim i Khan i Khanan i marhum i 
nmshdr ilaihi ast dar Tarikh i Akban kih ba-nam i ndrrii i hhalifah i ilahi 
nawishlah dwardah kih v : ; 



542 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

scholar and Sufi, Shaikh Mubarak Nagaurl (for whom see 
Am i AJcban tr. Blochmann pp. i~xx ; Ma’dthir al-umara’ ii 
584r-5, Beveridge’s trails, pp. 513-14 ; Rahman 'All 174 etc.), 
and the younger brother of the poet, Abu T-Faid “ Faijl ’’J 
He was born at Agrah on 6 Muharram 958/14 Jan. 1551, was 
presented to Akbar in the 19th year of the reign (a.h. 981/ 
1573-4) by <e FaidI ”, and soon became a close friend of the 
Emperor’s. He is said to have been mainly responsible for 
destroying Akbar’s faith in Islam. After distinguishing himself 
as a military commander in the Deccan he was returning to 
court, when on 4 RabI i 1011/22 Aug. 1602 he was assassinated 
at the instigation of Prince Salim (afterwards the Emperor 
Jahangir) by a Bundelah chief, Blr-Sing’h Dev, who sent his 
head to Salim at Allahabad. His body was taken to Antrl near 
Gwalior and buried there. 

He is the author of the ‘lydr i ddnish, a modernised version of 
^ the Anwar i Suhaili, and he wrote prefaces for the Persian 
.translation of the MahabMrata and the Tdrikh i alfir 

Two collections of letters composed by him are extant. The 
best known, properly entitled Mukatabdt i 'Alldmi (a chronogram 
— 1015/1606-7, the date of completion) but often called Inshd 
i Abu ’ l-Fadl or Mukatabdt i Abu ’ l-Fadl , was begun soon after 
his death in 1011/1602 by his sister’s son e Abd al-Samad b. 
Afdal Muhammad and is divided into four daftars (viz. (1) letters 
written in Akbar’s name to kings and amirs , (2) letters written 
by Abu ’l-Fadl to kings and amirs , (3) exordia and conclusions 
of letters, select extracts and detached pieces in prose, (4) fifty- 
two letters of which the first is written in Akbar’s name to 
£ Abd Allah Khan tjzbak and the rest in Abu T-Fadl’s name to 
various persons). The fourth daftar is very rare (for MSS. see 
Banklpur ix 869 and apparently Voders 964), but manuscripts 
of the first three daftars are common and numerous editions 
have been published. The second collection is usually called 
Ruqa'at i Abu ’ l-Fadl . It consists of private letters and was 
compiled by his nephew Hur [al-Dln] Muhammad. Editions 

1 See p. 540 supra. 

. 1 2 Tlie latter preface is not to be found in the MSS. of the Tunkh i alfi. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 543 

have been published at Calcutta in 1238/1822-3* and at Cawnpore 
in 1872.* Tor MSS. see Rieu ii 8386, Ethe 287 etc. 

(1) (. Akbar-ndmah ) 3 a detailed history of Akbar’s reign with 
an account of his predecessors, commonly said to be divided into 
three daftars, 1 of which the first, completed in Sha'ban 1004/1596, 
the 41st regnal year, is subdivided into two parts ((1) Akbar’s 
birth, genealogy of the Tlmurids, reigns of Babur and Humayun, 
(2) Akbar’s reign from the first to the middle of the 17th year 2 ), 
the second continues the narrative from the middle of the 17th 
year to the end of the 46th, 3 while the third, known by the inde- 
pendent title A in i Akban, deals with the administration and 
statistics of the empire 4 : London Victoria and Albert Museum 

1 According to the author’s own statement in the preface to Daftar ii 
(Bibliotheca Indica edition, vol. iii p. 3, II. 14-16) his plan was to devote a 
separate daflar to each period of thirty years in Akbar’s life (chundn bar Jchatir 
i sdfi partau andakht kill liar si-sdlah sawanili i kishwar-khuday rd juddganah 
daftari nigcishtah sa‘adat-namah i khioucl rd tazah furughi ba khsha d). but, 
although divisions are indicated in the text by bombastic exordia and epilogues, 
these latter do not state clearly that such and such a daftar, or such and such a 
part, is there beginning or ending. In accordance with the author’s apparent 
intention it is customary to regard the portion extending from Akbar’s birth 
to the middle (or to the end, as the case may be) of the 17th regnal year as 
Daftar i and to regard this as consisting of tw r o “ parts ”, there being a division 
of the kind indicated above, though the two “ parts ” are not formally so 
designated. The rest of the Akbar-ndmah is treated as Daftar ii. The A’ in i 
Akban is sometimes, in manuscripts (e.g. Mehren 54) and elsewhere, called 
Daftar iii, though the author’s text seems to give no warrant for calling it so. 

2 i.e. to the birth of Daniyal, or rather to Akbar’s encamping at Nagaur 
a few days later (9 Jumada i a.h. 980/17 September 1572). In many, appar- 
ently in most, of the manuscripts, however, the first daftar ends with a full 
account of the 17th year. In such copies Daftar ii begins with the 18th year, 
and Rieu in fact describes Vol. i [i.e. Daftar i] Part 2 as containing “ History 
of Akbar from his accession to the end of the 17th year of his reign ” and 
Vol. ii [i.e. Daftar ii] as containing “ Continuation of Akbar’s reign from the 
beginning of the 18th to the end of the 46th year ” (see Rieu i p. 248a). 

3 Continuations of the narrative to Akbar’B death in the 50th year by Tnayat 
Allah [b.] Mufiibb ‘All and Muhammad §alih [Kanbo ?] are in existence. 
According to Beveridge (trans. vol. iii p. 1204) they are more or less reproduc- 
tions of the Iqbal-namah i Jahdngm. The Bibliotheca Indica edition contains 
one which the editor ascribes to Muljibb ‘All Khan (no doubt identical with 
that of Tnayat Allah [b.] Mulnbb ‘AH). 

4 It is treated separately on pp. 549-51 below. 



544 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(about 110 illustrations 1 by painters of Akbar’s time, 
beginning with the fifth year and ending with the twenty-second. 
Clarke MS.), Browne Suppt. 82 (“all three vols.” a.h. 1007/ 
1598-9 [sic ?]. King’s 31), 80 (Vols. % Bears a seal of 1164/1751. 
Christ’s), 81 (an abridgment \ Corpus), Pers. Cat. 87-8 ( Daftars 
i-ii, both defective. Daftar ii dated a.h. 1042/1632), 89 
(Daftar i. a.h. 1034/1625), 90 (. Daftar i, pt. 2. _a.h. 1140/1728), 
91 (Daftar ii. 47th year of [‘Alamglrs] reign), AsaSiyali iii p. 92 
no. 995 (“ Jild i awwal .” Probably written about the author’s 
time), i p. 218 no. 712 (“ Tfhulth i dawivum ”), no. 709 (“ Th ulth 
i siwwum ”), R.A.S. P. 115 == Morley 110 ( Daftar i. a.h. 1014/ 
1605), P. 114 (1) = Morley 109 ( Daftars i-ii. a.h. 1145-6/ 
1732-3), P. 116 — Morley 111 (Daftar i. a.h. 1232/1816), 
P. 117-8 = Morley 112-3 (Daftar i), P. 119-20 = Morley 114-5 
(Daftar i), D.M.Gr. 10 (Daftar l a.h. 1016/1607), Bloehet i 566 
(Daftar i. a.h. 1021/1612), 576 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1082/1671), 564 
(Daftars i-ii. Early 18th cent.), 565 (Daftar i, pt. 2, and Daftar ii. 
Various dates from mid 17th cent, to a.h. 1210/1795), 567 
(Daftar i. Late 17th cent.), 568 (Daftar i. Late 17th cent.), 
569 (Daftar i. Early 18th cent.), 570 (Daftar i. 18th cent.), 571 
{Daftar i. 18th cent.), 572 (Daftar i, pt. 2. a.h. 1205/1790), 573 
(Daftar i, pt. 2), 574 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1101/1689), 575 (Daftar ii 
to 20th year. 18tli cent.), Majlis 217 (a.h. 1023/161.4), Leningrad 
Mus. Asiat. (Sahifah i Shatii (? ?). Two copies, one defective at 
beginning dated a.h. 1024/1615 (see Melanges asiatiques ii (St. 
Petersburg 1852-6), p. 58) and the other breaking off in 979/ 
1572 (see Dorn A.M. p. 678)), Pub. Lib. (2 copies. Sec Melanges 
asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 728), Cairo p. 499 (a.h. 1026/ 
1617), Lindesiana, p. 107 nos. 798-800 (“3 vols.” a.h. 1044/ 
1634 -5), no. 223 (“2 vols.” a.h. 1042/1 632-3), p. 108 no. 168 
(Daftar i. Circ. a.d. 1700), no. 169 ( Daftars i-ii, defective. 
Circ. a.d. 1750), no. 404 (Daftars i-ii. 17 Pictures. Circ. 
a.d. 1820), no. 819 (Daftar i, pt. 2. and Daftar ii. a.h. 1228/1813), 

4 See II. Beveridge Note on an illuminated Persian manuscript (in the JBA8. 
1905 pp. 365-0). A MS. oi Uaftar i belonging in S. ‘All BilgramI, “ contain- 
ing passages which do not occur in the printed editions ” and believed by 
H. Beveridge to show the original condition, was described in the JjRAS. 
1903 pp. 115-22. For another old MS. (Chester Beatty) see BSOS. iv p. 721. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMUEIDS (4) AKBAR 545 


Eth6 235 (Daftar i. am. 1065/1655, Daftar ii. a.h. 1106/1695), 
236 ( Daftars i— ii), 237 ( Daftars i-ii. a.h. 1111/1699-1700 and 
3132/1719-20), 238 {Daftars i-ii, breaking off in 19th year), 
239 {Daftar l a.h. 1073-4/1663), 240 [Daftar i. a.h. 1101/1689), 
241 ( Daftar i. ajl 1111/1699), 242 {Daftar i), 243 {Daftar i), 
244 {Daftar i), 245 ( Daftar i, pt. 1. a.h. 1094/1683), 246 {Daftar i, 
pt. 1), 247 {Daftar i, pt. 1), 248 {Daftar i, pt. 1. a.h. 1223/1808), 
249 {Daftar i, pt. 1). 250 {Daftar i, pt. 1), 251 {Daftar i, pt. 1 and 
fragment of pt. 2), 252 {Daftar i, pt. 2. a.i-i. 1098/1686), 253 
(Daftar i, pt. 2), 254 (Daftar i, pt. 2), 255 (Daftar i, pt. 2, and 
Daftar ii. a.h. 1101/1690 (?)), 256 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1048/1639), 
257 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1159/1747), 258 {Daftar ii), 259 ( Daftar ii), 

260 ( Daftar ii with M. Salih’s continuation, a.h. 1225/1810), 

261 (Daftar ii with M; Salih’s continuation, defective at end), 

262 (large fragment of Daftar ii), 263 (fragment of Daftar ii), 
3010 (Daftar i), I.O. 3917 (Daftar ii, defective), 3919 {Daftar i, 
defective and disarranged), 3963 {Daftar i, pt. 2), Vollers 974 
(part i [i.e. presumably Daftar i]. a.i-i. 1053/1643-4), 975 (nearly 
complete), Bankipur vii 552 ( Daftar i. a.h. 1242/1827), 553 
( Daftar ii. a.h. 1059/1649), Suppt. 1764 (from the latter part of 
the 30th to the 46th year. Dated 38th year of Aurangzeb), 
Bodleian 200 (Daftars i-ii with M. Salih’s continuation, a.h. 1831), 
201-4 (four copies of Daftar i), 205-7 (three copies of Daftar i. 
pt. 1), 208 (Daftar i, pt. 2 with M. Salih’s continuation), 209 
(. Daftar i, pt. 2, and Daftar ii. a.h. 1133/1721), 210 (. Daftar i, 
pt. 2 and fragment of Daftar ii), 211 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1064/1654), 
212 (an abridgment of Daftar ii), MS. Pers. c. 25 (Daftar i. 
a.h. 1812-14), Leyden iii p. 9 no. 920 (Daftar ii. a.h. 1072/ 
1663-2), v p. 230 no. 2638 (part of Daftar ii (end of 27th year 
to 47th)), Aya Sufiyah 3017 = Tauer 546 (vol. i. a.h. 1073/ 
1662), Rieu i 247 (. Daftars i-ii (the latter defective) with part of iii. 
Text differs in places considerably from the Lucknow ed. 
a.h. 1080/1670), 2486 (Daftar i, a.h. 1097/1686), 249a (. Daftar i. 
17th cent.), 249a (Daftar L 17th cent.), 2496 (Daftar i. a.h. 1114/ 
1702), 2496 (Daftar i. a.h. 1119/1707), 2496 {Daftar i. 18th cent.), 
250a (Daftar i, pt. 1. 17th cent.), 250a {Daftar i, pt. 1. 18th 
cent.), 250a (Daftar i, pt. 1. 18th cent.), 250a (Daftar i, pt, 2. 
17th cent.), 2506 {Daftar i, pt. 2. a.h. 1151/1738), 2506 ( Daftar i, 


546 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

pt. 2. 18th cent.), 2506 ( Daftar i, pt. 2. a.h. 1113/1701), 2506 
(Daftar i, pt. 2 and Daftar ii. 18th cent.), 251a (Daftar i, pt. 2, 
and part of Daftar iii. a.h. 116G/1753), 251a (Daftar ii. Early 
17th cent.), 25i& (Daftar ii. a.ii. 1183/1770), 2516 (Daftars i- ii. 
76 Pictures, a.h. 1232/1817), iii 928a (Daftar i, pt. 1, defective. 
17th cent.), 928a (fragment. Circ. a.h. 1850), 928a (fragment. 
2 Pictures. 17th cent.), 1047a (extracts. Circ. a.h. 1850), 
Mehren 51 (Daftar i), 52 (Daftar i, pt. 2 and Daftar ii. a.h, 1099/ 
1687-8), 53 (Daftar i, pt. 2 to end of 12th year. a.h. 1180/ 
1766-7), Nur i ‘Uthmaniyah 3081 — Taner 544 (Daftar i. 
11th /17th cent.), 3154 — Tauer 547 {Daftar i. 11th /17th cent.), 
As ‘ad 2201 — Taner 545 (Daftar i. llth/17th cent.), Adahiyat 
Kutubklianah-si 788 — Tauer 548 (Daftar i, pt. 1. llth/17th 
cent.), 783 = Tauer 549 (Daftar i, pt. 2. a.h. 1002/1593 (? ?)), 
Berlin 482 (Daftar i, pt. 1. a.h. 1105/1694), 481 (Daftar i), 
483 (Daftar i, pt. 3), Aumer 248 (Daftars i-ii. a.ti. 1107-8/ 
169G), 249 (Daftar i, pt. 2), 250 (Daftar i, pt. 2), 251 (Daftar 

ii with M. Salih’s continuation, a.h. 1100/1688-9), Calcutta 
Madrasah 129 (Daftar i. Late 17th cent.), 130 (Daftar i, 
pt. 2 and Daftar ii. a.h. 1107/1695-6), 131 (Daftar ii, defective, 
18th year to 40th year. 19th cent.), Rehatsek p. 76 no. 14 
(Daftar i. a.h. 1151/1738-9), p. 92 no. 39 (Daftar i), p. 93 
nos. 40 (Daftar i, defective, ending in Babur’s reign), 41 
(Daftar ii, slightly defective. Ornate copy), Oxford Ind. Inst. 
MS. Pers. A. I. 10 (Daftar i, pt. 2. a.h. 1154/1742), Buhar 
63 (Daftar i, pt. 1. 17th cent.), 64 (Daftar i, pt. 2, 
defective at end), Ivanow 122 (Daftars i-ii with M. Salih’s 
continuation, a.h. 1206/1791-2), 123 (Daftar i, defective at end. 
18th cent.), 124 (Daftar i. 18th cent.), 125 (Daftar i, defective 
at end. 18th cent.), 126 (Daftar i. 19th cent.), Curzon 26 (Daftar i, 
pt. 2. 17th cent.), Edinburgh 78 (Daftars i-ii. Old), Lahore Panjab 
Univ. Lib. (one old copy of “ vol. i,” one defective copy, two 
copies (one defective) of vol. ii ”. See Oriental College Magazine , 
vol. ii, No. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 50), ‘Allgarhi Subhan 
Allah MSS. p. 61 no. 28 (Daftar i), Bukhara Semenov 12 ('?), 
Dorn Asiat. Mus. (defective, ending with a.h. 979/1572), Eton 
181, Madras (3 (complete ?) copies and 1 of Daftar iii), Mashhad 

iii p. 73, T.C.D. 1580. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA ! (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 547 

Editions: Lucknow 1867 “V 1913* (Akbar Nama. Part I. 
With explanatory notes. A rapid reading course for the [Allaha- 
bad Univ.] B.A. examination . . . for 1914-1915), Calcutta 1873— 
87 °* (edited by Agha Ahmad ‘All and ‘Abd al-Rahhn. With 
index. Bibliotheca Indica), Oawnpore-Lucknow 1881-3°* (with 
notes by M. Sadiq ‘All Lak’lmawi), Cawnpore 1881° (vol. i 
only ? With notes). 

English translation : The Akbarndma of Abu-l-Fazl, translated 
.. .by II . Beveridge . . Calcutta 1897-1921°* (Bibliotheca 
Indica). 1 2 

Abridged English translations : (1) [the whole work] by 
Lieut. Chalmers: E.A.S. MB. (2) [Babur and Humayun] 
Chronological retrospect, or memoirs of the principal events of 
Mohammedan history . , . By Major David Price, vol. iii, part 2 
(London 1821*) pp. 658-950. (3) [Humayun' s reign and that of 
Akbar to his 29th regnal year] B.M. MSS. Add. 26607, 26620-1. 

Translated extracts : (1) An account of the siege and reduction 
of Chaitur, by the Emperor Akbar. Prom the Akbar-Namah of 
Shaikh Abul Fazl. Translated by Major D. Price (in Miscellaneous 
translations from Oriented languages , London 1831-4°* (Oriental 
Translation Fund), vol. 2). (2) Koch Bihdr, Koch Ildjo, and Asdm, 
in the 16th and 17th centuries, according to the Akbarndmah, the 
Pddishdhndmah , and the Fa.thiyah i Tbriyah. By PI. Blochmann 
(in the JASB. 41 (1872) pp. 49-101). (3) Elliot and Dowson 
History of India v: i pp. 9-102 (translated by J. Dowson). 

Continuation [or continuations] : Takniilah i Akbar-namah , 
a detailed account of Akbar s reign from the 47th year to his 

1 “ A lithographed edition of the Akbar-nama, in three quarto volumes, 
was printed at Lucknow in 1867, at the expense of the llaja of Pattiala, It 
is a handsome and costly work, and it is greatly to be regretted that its literary 
valuers by no means commensurate with the money expended upon it, Gross 
and obvious errors abound in it, and there are many passages wanting. In 
one instance the annals of six months of one of the most important years of 
the reign (the 17th) : are altogether omitted.” (Elliot and Dowson History of 
India vi pp. 8-9.) ■ yY ■.■■■; yyyyy; 

2 Only the index to vol. iii remains to be published. . 



548 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


death by ‘Inayat Allah [b. 1 ] Muhibb ‘All [?] or M. Salih [?] or 
both [? 2 ] : Aumer 251 (author not specified in the catalogue. 
a.h. 1100/1688—9), Ivanow 122 (M. Salih, a.h. 1206/1791—2), 
Eth<§ 260 (M. Salih, a.ii. 1225/1810), 261 (M. Salih), Bodleian 
200 (M. Salih, a.d. 1831), 208 (author not specified), Rieu iii 
929a (‘Inayat Allah [b.] Muhibb ‘All. a.h. 1268/1851), 1031& 
(extracts only. Girc. a.d. 1847. Ascribed on the fly-leaf to ‘Abd 
abSamad b. Afdal Muhammad, the son of Abu fl-Fadl's sister), 
Suppt. 76 i (18th cent.) Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (“Inayat 
Allah [b.] Muhibb ‘All. See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii 
no. 4 (Lahore, Aug. 1926) p. 50), and doubtless in other MSS. 
of the Akbar-ndmah recorded above. 

Edition of the Takmilah: Akbar-ndmah , Calcutta 1873-87°* 
(Bibliotheca Indiea), vol. iii pp. 802-43. 

English translation of the Takmilah : The Akbarndma . . . 
translated . . , by II . Beveridge . . ., Calcutta 1897-1921°* (Biblio- 
theca Indiea), vol. iii pp. 1206-62. 

Abridged English translation of the TahniTah 3 by Lieut. 
Chalmers: R.A.S. MS. (at the end of Chalmers’s abridged 
translation of the Akbar-ndmah). 

1 Rieu states in Ids Additions and Corrections p. 1096« ad 929a that in the 
Tdrikh i Muhammadi, fol. 1316, the author is called ‘Inayat Allah b. Muhibb 
‘All. 

2 “ The circumstance that the author of the continuation is sometimes 
called ‘Inayat Ullah and sometimes Muhibb ‘All [and sometimes M. Salih] 
may be due to the fact that there are more than one continuation ” (Beveridge, 
Akbar-ndmah trans. iii p. 1204, where some information is given about the 
continuation). The continuation seems to have been written in Shah-Jahan’s 
time, and the two authors referred to are presumably the brothers ‘Inayat 
Allah Kanbo, author of the Bdhur i ddninh, and M. Salih Kanin}, author of the 
1 Amal % sdlilt. According to Beveridge the continuation [or the one examined 
by him] is copied from the Iqbal-ndmah i Jahdrtgirl, 

3 According to Rieu the Takmilah i Akbar-ndmah described by him (vol. iii 
p. 929) “is quite distinct from the Takmilah i Akbar Hamah described in 
Elliot’s History of India, vol, vi, pp. 103-115, and appears, from a comparison 
with the extracts there given, to be much fuller ”. Similarly Beveridge observes 
{Akbar-ndmah trans. iii p. 1204) “ The continuation as given by Chalmers 
differs considerably from that in the Bib. Ind, ed. and the continuation in 
Nos, 260 and 261 of the I.O. differs from both of them. But evidently all the 
continuations are more or lca s i reproduc lions of the Iqbfilnnma ", 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 549 

Description of the Tahnilah and 12 pp. of extracts from 
Chalmers’s abridged translation : Elliot and Dowson History of 
India vi pp. 103-15. 

(2) (A’ln i Akbari), a detailed account of the administration 
and statistics of Akbar’s empire divided into five daftars ((1) on 
Akbar’s household and court, 1 (2) on the state service, 2 lists of 
scholars, notices of poets etc., (3) on the Ilahl era, the revenue, 3 
the statistics of the provinces etc., (4) on the Hindus, their 
literature, institutions etc., foreign invaders of India, dis- 
tinguished travellers, Muhammadan saints etc., (5) sayings of 
Akbar collected by Abu ’1-Eadl) : Browne Suppt. 82 (a.h. 1007 / 
1598-9 [sic ?]. King’s 31), 144 (n.d. King’s 5), Pers. Cat. 92 
(year 1785 of some Hindu era), Lindesiana p. 108 no. 170 
(a.h. 1036/1626-7), 171 (a.h. 1115/1703-4), 172 (circ. a.d. 1700- 
10), p. 107 no. 800 (a.h. 1044/1634-5), Leyden iii p. 10 no. 921 
(a.h. 1037/1627-8 (?)), R.A.S. P. 121 - Morley 116 (a.h, 1066/ 
1655), Rieu i 2486 (from the beginning to the chapter on the 
Arsenal, a.h. 1080/1670), 251<x (from the beginning to the 
chapter on the Mansabddrs. a.h. 1166/1817), 2516 (17th cent.), 
252a (17th cent.), 252 a (a.h. 1130/171 8), 252a (18th cent.), 
2526 (defective. 18th cent.), 2526 (a.h. 1196/1782), 2526 (account 
of the subahs only. 18th cent.), 2526 (account of the Hindus 
only. 18th cent.), iii 9286 (account of the subahs. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
9286 (topographical tables only. a.d. 1847), 10196 (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10206 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
1070a (early Nth cent.), Ethd 264, 265 (a.h. 1119/1707), 266-9 
(four undated copies), Eton 184, 185 (a.h. 1133/1720-1), Aumer 

1 For the elucidation of A'm 27 {A' in i nirkh i ajnas) see W. H. Moreland’s 
articles Prices and wages under Akbar ( JRAS . 1917 pp. 817-25) and The value 
of money at the court of Akbar (JRAS. 1918 pp. 375-85). 

2 Of. W. H. Moreland’s article Rank ( mansab ) in the Mogul stale service 
(JRAS. 1936 pp. 641-65). 

3 For the elucidation of this subject see W. H. Moreland’s articles Akbar' s 
land-revenue system as described in the “ Ain-i- Akbar i ” (by W. H. M. and 
A. Yusuf ‘AIL JRAS. 1918 pp. 1-42), The development of the land-revenue 
system of the Mogul empire (JRAS. 1922 pp. 19-35), Akbar' s land revenue 
arrangements in Bengal (JRAS. 1926 pp. 43-56), Slier Shah’s revenue system 
(JRAS. 192G pp. 447-59), The Mogul unit of measurement (JRAS. 1927 pp. 
101-2). 



550 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

252 (a.h. 1148/1735-6), 253-5 (three undated copies), 256 
(fragment), Mehren 54 (a.h. 1171/1758), 55 ( Daftars i-iii ap- 
parently), Blochet i 577 (a.h. 1187/1773), 578 (18th cent.), 
Edinburgh 208 (a.h. 1197/1782), 209 (abridged account of the 
silbahs only), 210 (“ merely an abridgement of some of the minor 
institutes ”), Bankipur viii 554 (18th cent.), 555 (19th cent.), 
552 (a.h. 1242/1827), Berlin 484 (a.ii. 1209/1795 (?)), 484a 
(formerly owned by Bangles. Ornate copy), Ivanow 127 (late 
11th or early 12th cent. ii. Pictures), 128-34, Curzon 696 
(a.d. 1803), Bombay Fyzee 5 (18th cent, “ Magnificent copy : ’), 
Buhar 65 (19th cent.), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (two copies, 
one very defective and the other in disorder. See Oriental 
College Magazine, vol. ii no. 4 (August 1926) p. 51), A$afiyah i 
p. 218 no. 706 (vol. i only), 709, ii p. 1782 no. 136, Bodleian 213 
(“ splendid copy. 5 ’ N.d. Pictures), 214-16, MS. Pers. b. 5 
(a.h. 1234/1818), Rehatsek p. 68 no. 1 (n.d.), T.C.D. 1585. 

Editions : Delhi 1272/1855° (vols. i and iii (last) only. 1 Edited, 
with illustrations, by S. Ahmad Khan), Lucknow 1869°*, 1882° 
(with illustrations), 1893 (see Asaflyah iii p. 92 no. 1232), 
Calcutta 1867-77°* (ed. by H. Blochmann. Bibliotheca Indica). 

Extracts : Selections from the A’m-i-Akbari . . . by Maulawi 
M. Raji Siddiqi (IntiMab i A’m i Ai'barT), Allahabad 1931*. 

English translations: (1) Ayeen Akbery ; or, The, institutes 
of the Emperor AJcber, translated . . . by Francis Gladwin, Calcutta 
1783-6 °* (an abridged and inaccurate paraphrase of Daftars i-iii), 
London 1800°*, Calcutta 1898° (vols. i and ii only. Edited by 
Jagadia Mukhopadhyaya), (2) The Ain i Akbari by Abul Fazl 
' Allami , translated, . . . by II. Blochmann (vols. ii and iii by II. S. 
Jarrett.) Calcutta 1868-1894°* (Bibliotheca Indica). 

Index : A supplementary index of the • place, names on pages 
| 89 to 414 of the ‘Am [sic] -i-Akhari. Vol. ii ( Translated by 

/ Colonel II. S. Jarrett.) Compiled by W. Irvine and L. M: 

5 Ansley, Calcutta 1910°* (Bibliotheca, indica). 

i 

ii 

I 
I 
I 


1 Vol. ii, delayed for further consideration of the matter relating to the 
revenue, was destroyed at the time of the Mutiny, when it was in the press 
(see Hayal ijawid (in Urdu) i p, 65). 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 551 

Annotations to Gladwin’s translation : Supplement to the 
first volume of Gladwin? s Ayeen Akberi, prepared for the use of 
students by L. F. Rushbrook Williams . . . together with a chrono- 
logical table of the reign of Akbar compiled by Ram Prasad Tripathi 
. . . assisted by Harish Chandra Misra , London (Beccles printed) 
1918°* (Publications of the Department of Modern Indian 
History, Allahabad University, No. 2). 

Translated extract : The Ay in Akhary , or the institutes of the 
Emperor Akbar. Translated . . . [by F. Gladwin], London 1777° 
(81 pp. only, published as a specimen of the translation published 
at Calcutta in 1783-6). 

Commentary : Shark i A’tn i Akbari 3 an abridgment with a 
running commentary by Najaf ‘All Khan b. M. ‘Azim al-Din, of 
Jhajar, written for Sir H. M. Elliot : Rieu iii 9286 (a.h. 1267 /1851). 

Abridgments : (1) Muntakhab i A’m i Akbari , Ethd 270, 
(2) Dastur al-‘amal, Lindesiana p. 108 no. 765 (a.h. 1103/1691) 
and p. 131 no. 765 [?], Bankipiir xi 1098 xxx (18th cent.). 

[Autobiography in A’ in i Akbari (at end) ; Tabaqat i Akbari 
ii p. 458 ; £ Abd al-Qadir Muntakhab al-tawarikh ii pp. 173°~ 8 , 
198-200, 260 6 " 7 , 261 11 , 262 8 -263, 306 12 , 318 antepenult. ; 
Ma'dthir al-umard ’ ii 608-22, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 117-28 ; 
biography by Blochmann prefixed (as pp. i-xxxvi) to his transla- 
tion of the A’in i Akbari ; Elliot and Dowson History of India 
vi pp. 1-6 ; M. Husain “ Azad ” Darbdr i Akbari (in Urdu) ; 
Rahman ‘All 4-5 ; Ency. 1st under Abu ’1-Fadl ; Abidfazl by 
Sh. Abdul Qadir in Journal of the Punjab Historical Society i 
(1911-12) pp. 31-7. Portrait in BSOS. iv, facing p. 721.] 

710. Sh. Ilah-dad “ Faidi ” b. Asad al-ulamdi ‘All Sher Sirhindi, 1 
who in a.h. 1001/1592-3 composed the Persian dictionary Maddr 
al-afadil (Rieu ii 496a etc.), was in the service of the Ba khsh i 
al-mulk, Shaikh Farid Bukhari (afterwards entitled Murtada 
Khan 2 ). His revised edition of Jauhar’s Memoirs, Tdrikh i 

1 “ Shaikh IHahdad [.sic] was a native of Sirhind, and held a madad-ma'dsh 
village in that district ” (Elliot and Dowson vi p. 116). 

2 For whom see A' in i Akbari tr. Blochmann i 413, Memoirs of Jahangir tr. 
Rogers i 13 etc., Ma'afhir al-umara' ii 633. 



552 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

IIumdyim-ShaM, has already been mentioned (p. 537 supra). 
He was in Ms 36th yearwhenhe began hisAkbar-ndmah, having 
previously been greatly devoted to social pleasures. 

( Akbar-ndmah ) 3 a plain history of Akbar to a.h. 1010/1601, 
compiled apparently from the Tabaqdt % Akbwr-Shalu (see p. 433 
supra) and the Akbar-namah of AbuT-Fadl (see. p. 543 supra ) 
but with additions, especially concerning Shaikh Farid, at whose 
suggestion it was written; 1 : ;Rien i 253n (17th cent.), iii 9296 
(a.h. 1264/1848), Ethe 289 (a.h. 1104/1693), Caetani 68 (a.d. 1826). 

Description and 30 pp. of translated extracts ; Elliot and 
Dow r son History of India vi 116-46. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Akbar-namah (see Elliot 
and Ddwson and Rieu) and in the preface to the Maddr al-afadil / 
MaMzan al-ghamib no. 1910; Elliot and Dowson History of 
India vi 116-17.] 

711. Aqa 2 or Khwajah 3 ‘Abd al-BSq.1 “ BaqI ” b. Khwajah 
Aqa Baba Kurd 4 Nihawandi was born at Jiilak near Nib a wand 
in 978/1570. His father, a Kurd of Julak, was made a Wazvr 
and Nazir of Hamadan by Shah ‘Abbas. ‘Abd al-Baqi himself 
was for some time revenue officeryof Kalian. Raiy, Qazwln and 
Qumm, and eventually became a Wazir in place of his brother 
Aqa Khidr. On incurring the- King's displeasure he decided to 
leave Persia and in 1023/1614 he reached Burhanpur, where 
the Khan i Khanan, ‘Abd al-Rahim b. Bairam Khan, 5 welcomed 
him and asked him to write the 'Ma’dtMr i Rahim, which he 
completed hi 1025/1616, Until 1029/1619 he served as Amin 
of the Deccan and Barar. Subsequently Sultan Parwez, Jahangir’s 
second son, made Mm Dmdn of Bihar. The statement of the 
Tdnk'h i Muhammadi (see Rieu iii 10806) that he died in 1042/ 

1 fvh. Farid, having remarked that the WaqVat i Mushtaql (see p. 513 supra ) 
concluded with the period of Humayun and contained, no notice of Akbar 's 
reign, desired the author to supply the deficiency (Rieu i p. 233a). 

2 So Rieu iii 10806. 

3 .'So Taq! Kaghi (Sprengcr p.- 39). -.wy 

4 For a notice of Hajji Aqa Baba ** Mudrikl ” see Taql Kashi KJiulasaf 
1-asRar (Sprcnger p, 39 no, 527). 

5 For this celebrated general and governor of Akbar’s time see p, 333 supra. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA .* (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 553 

1632 seems to be incorrect, since a Calcutta MS. (Ivanow 140) 
contains a note saying that it was collated by the author himself 
in 1046/1637. 

Mahathir i Rahimi 3 a life of ‘Abd al-Kalilm Khan i Khanan 
padded with a history of Islamic India in his own and in previous 
times and divided into a Muqaddimah (on his ancestors), four 
fasls ((1) on his father (Bairam Khan) and his own youth together 
with a history of Hindustan from the Ghaznawids to Jahangir 
and of Bengal, Jaunpur, Malwah, Kashmir and Multan, (2) on 
Ms public career, campaigns etc. together with a history of the 
sultans of Gujrat, Sind, the Deccan, and Khandes, (3) on the 
mosques, colleges, baths etc. built or repaired at his expense, 
(4) on his children) and a khdtimah (notices of contemporary 
celebrities) : Browne Pers. Cat. 93 (apparently corrected (except 
the Mdtimah) by the author at Burhanpur in 1030/1621), 
Ivanow 140 (apparently collated by the author in 1046/1637), 
141 ( hhatimah only. Early 19th cent.), Bankipiir viii 722 (fchati- 
mah only, defective. Not later than 1046/1636), Rieu 1316 
(extracts only. 19th cent.), 9706 (abstract of contents only). 

Edition : Ma’asir-i-Rahimi ( Memoirs of ‘Abd ur-Ralnm 
Khan Khanan) by Mulld ‘Abd ul-Baql N aJidvandi. Edited by . . . 
M. Hidayet Husain..., Calcutta 1910-31°* 1 (Bibliotheca 
Indica). 

Description and a translated extract of 3 pp. : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vi pp. 237-43. 

[TaqI Kashi Khiddsat al-ash‘ar } Khdtimah , Asl xi (Hamadan) 
(Sprenger p. 39 nos. 527 (Hajji Aqa Baql MudrikI ”), 528 
(Khwajah £ Ahd al-Baql) ; Ma’dtkir i Rahimi iii pp. 1535-76 
(see also the editor’s introduction) ; Tadhhirah i Tahir i Nasrd- 
bddi i p. 124; Safmah i Khumshgu (Bodleian 376) no. 650 ; 
Makhzan al-ghara'ib (Bodleian 395) no. 1562; Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vi pp. 239-40 ; Banklpur viii p. 164.] 

712. Asad Beg “ Asad ” b. Khwajah Murad Qazwini, a native 
of Qazwln, was for a time Dawdtddr to the Wazir Khwajah 


1 An index to the three volumes remains to be published. 



554 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Afdal at Harat. Settling in India lie served Shaikh Abu : 1-Fadl 
b. Mubarak for seventeen years and after his death in 1011/1602 
entered the service of Akbar, by whom he was sent on a mission 
to Bljapur in connexion with the marriage of Prince Daniyal 
to Ibrahim ‘Adil-Shah’s daughter. On his return Akbar ap- 
pointed him chamberlain, an office which he held for a year. 
Then he was appointed envoy to the four provinces of the 
Deccan. Not long after his departure on this mission Akbar died 
and he was recalled by Jahangir, who dismissed him. Subsequently 
he was received into favour and given the title Pesh-rau Khan. 
According to the Mir at i. jahan-numa (Rieu 890, fob 302) he 
died in 1030/1620-1, leaving a diwdn of 8000 lines and some 
mathnawls, but according to a note at the end of a B.M. MS. 
of his memoirs (Rieu iii 979) he died in 1041/1631-2 under 
Shah-Jahan. 

(Halat i Asad Beg ) or (Ahwal i Asad Beg) s memoirs of 
the author’s life from the murder of Abu T-Fadl [in 1011/1602] 
to the death of Akbar and the accession of Jahangir [in 1014/ 
1605] : Rieu iii 979 b (a.h. 1211/1796), 1029a (circ. a.d. 1850, 
apparently transcribed from the preceding MS.), probably also 
Asafiyah ii p. 848 no. 41 ( £< Sawanih i Asadi ” by Asad Beg 
Firdausi [sic, Firdausi being presumably a misprint for Qazwinl] 
composed in 1010, perhaps a misprint for 1015). 

English translation by B. W. Chapman : B.M. MS. Add. 30,770, 
foil. 33-84. 

Description, summary and 19 pp. of extracts from Chapman’s 
translation : Elliot and Dowson History of India vi pp. 150-74. 

[Haft iqiim no. 1271 ; Abd al-Nabi Mai-'khmiah pp. 554—5 ; 
llarmskahbahdr (Sprenger p. 118) ; Safmahi Khwusium (Bodleian 
376 no. 422 (and 685 “ Asadbeg, with the takhallus Asad of 
Turan ” ?) ; Riydd al-shu'ara’ ; Atash-Mdah no. 514 ; MaJchzan 
al-ghardib no. 106 ; Mir at i dftab-nwmd ; Slum! % aujuman 
67-8 ; Elliot and Dowson he. cit . ; Rieu iii 9796.] 

713. Mania wl S. Amir BAidar "Amir” Husain! Wasit! 
Bilgraml, a grandson of GhuIam- f All “ Azad JJ BilgramI (author 
of the iadhldrah entitled Khizdnah i ' amir ah and of other works), 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (4) AKBAR 555 

was the author of (1) Tahqiq al-istildhdt (a chronogram = 1189/ 
1775), a glossary of rare words 1 (see Rieu iii 10706), (2) Munta- 
Jchab al-nahw, a Persian syntax written a.h. 1214/1799-1800 
(see Rieu ii 8576), (3) Muntakhab al-sarf on the formation of 
Arabic words used in Persian (see Rieu ii 8576, extracts were 
published by M. J. Rowlandson in Part ii of An analysis of 
Arabic quotations which occur in the Gulistan of Mudih-ud-deen 
Sheikh Sadi (Madras 1828°)), (4) a Persian work of which an 
English translation was published under the title Dissertation 
concerning the Revenues of Government , and of landed Tenures 
according to the Mohammedan Law in The Oriental Miscellany 
(Calcutta 1798°), (5) Ruqa'dt i Haidar (Asafiyah i p. 124 no. 129). 

According to <£ Afsos” he was for some years a mufti in the 
service of the East India Company and died in 1217/1802-3, 
having fallen ill at Murshidabad when accompanying his family 
as far as Patna on a journey to Bilgram. 

Sawanih i Akbafi , a biography, of which vol. i (apparently 
the only one extant) goes down to the end of the 24th regnal 
year, a.h. 987/1579-80, based mainly on the Akbar-ndmah but 
also on the four daftars of Abu ’l-Fadl’s Munsha’dt ; and other 
works and written by desire of William Kirkpatrick 2 : Bankipur 
vii 556 (a.d. 1854), Rieu iii 930a (19th cent.). 

English translation of the preface : B.M. MS. Add. 30,780, 
foil. 343-9. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 193. 

[“ Afsos ” Ardyish i mahfil, in the account of Bilgram at the end 
of the description of Oudh ; Garcin de Tassy 1st ed. ii p. 379, 
2nd ed. i p. 259 (an extract from the Ardyish i mahfil. \ 

71,4. M. Hafiz, a resident of Jaland’har (“ Jullundur ”), left 
that town on account of Sik’h disturbances. 

Naff al-tdlibln y a life of Akbar written at the request of 
Hadrat Ruh al-Amln Jiw, based on the Akbar-ndmah, the 

1 The .author’s autobiography, which, as stated at the end, was to form an 
appendix to the work, is missing from the BM. MS. (Rieu iii 10706). 

3 For whom see Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography. 



556 


H. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


J aJidngvr-ndmah , the ‘Alamfir-nmmh and other histories, com- 
pleted in 1184/1770-1, revised in 1230/1815, and containing 
in the second of its three Jiismhs a commentary on difficult 
passages in the India? i Abu ’ l-Fadl : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. 
(a.h. 1256/1840. See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii no. 4 
(Aug. 1926) p. 51). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TlMUlt IDS 
(5) JAHANGIR 

715. M. Salim, the eldest son of Akbar and Rajah Biliarl 
Mai's daughter, was born at Fathpur-Slkri on 17 Rabr i 977/ 
31 Aug. 1569. He succeeded his father on 20 Jumada ii 1014/ 
24 Oct. 1605 at the age of 38, and adopted the title of Abu 
T-Muzaffar Nur al-Dln M. Jahangir Padshah. In 1020/1611 
he married Mihr al-Nisa’ (afterwards entitled Nur-Mahall and 
later Nur-Jahan), the daughter of Ghiyath Beg afterwards 
entitled 1‘timad al-Daulah. He died on 28 Safar 1037/7 Nov. 
1627 and was buried at Shahdarah near Lahore. 

Jahangir-namah 1 or (Tiizuk i Jahangm), the Emperor’s 
memoirs, existing in three forms, 2 the first two apparently 
authentic and the third, -which is confused, lacking in dates and 
marked by exaggerations and irrelevant digressions, more or 
less garbled (see de Sacy’s discussion in the Journal des savants , 
1830, pp. 359 foil, and 430 foil.) : 

1 The earliest version 2 of the memoirs written in the 3rd 
year of the reign (beginning Hamd i lu-yhdyat u shukr i bl-nihdyat 

* This is the title , given to the work In the nmmnt of the 13th year (pp. 
235 19 , 239 7 ) and in the preface to the Ma'athjir i Jahangir?. Various other 
titles have been given to it, e.g. Tiirikh i Salun-Shahl, Tdrikh i Suit nu, Wdqi’fU i 
Jahdn/jJrl, etc. 

2 The classification given below is only provisional, since the manuscripts 
have not all been carefully examined or adequately described. 

3 This shorter redaction of the spurious memoirs as ,Kt he calls if. agrees 
generally, according to Rieu, with the earlier part of the “ garbled ” or 
" spurious ” memoirs, which are apparently an amplification and extension 
Of it. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMUEIDS (5) JAHANGIR 557 

mubdi% m 1 ) : Bankipur vii 557 (written, at Haidarabad a.ii. 
1020/1611 (note this very early date), Aumer 259 (1) (?) (a.h. 
1138/1726), Eth6 309 (a.ii. 1194/1780), Berlin 486 (a.h. 1199/ 
1784-5), Bodleian 222 (a.h. 1225/1810), Rieu iii 932a (a.h. 
1239/1824). 

II The “ authentic ” memoirs (beg. Az ‘indy at i bi-cfhdydt i 
ildhi) written by the Emperor himself from his accession firstly 
to the end of the twelfth regnal year (after which copies w r ere 
bound and distributed to relations and officials) then to the 
17th year, after which they were continued, under his super- 
vision, by Mu'tamad Khan (for whom see p. 560 infra) to the 
beginning of the 19th year, and finally re-edited in the time of 
Muhammad Shah by M. Hadi, who added an introduction 
(beginning Hamel u thand-yi hi mar u liadd) dealing with Jahan- 
gir’s pre-regnal life and a continuation to the end of his reign r 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (the first twelve years. A copy bearing 
the seals of Jahangir and Shah-Jahan. See Oriental College 
Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (August 1926) pp. 51-2), Ross and Browne 
9 (breaks off about half-way through the work. Bears a seal 
dated 1040/1630-1), Eth6 305 (to beginning of 19th year. N.d.), 
306 (to beginning of 19th year. N.d.), 307 (defective, extending 
to beginning of 10th year. N.d.), 308 (ends as no. 307. a.d. 1835), 
2833 (with M. Hadi’s continuation. Written after collating 
different MSS. by S. M. Khan Dihlawl a.d. 1843. Ornate copy), 
Rieu i 2536 (to end of 12th year. 17th cent.), Suppt. 77 (breaks 
off in middle of 13th year. 17th cent.), iii 9306 (with M. Uadi’s 
continuation. 1 Picture, a.h. 1241/1825), 931a (with M. Hadi’s 
continuation. 18th cent.), 931a (with M. Hadi’s continuation. 
18th cent.), 931a (extracts. Circ. 1850), 931a i (Or. 1648 foil. 35- 
181. The first twelve years in a shorter recension. Early 19th 
cent.), 931a ii (Or. 1648 foil. 202-296. Passages from the fuller 
recension. Early 19th cent,), Lindesiana p. 159 no. 938 (with 
M. Hadi’s continuation. Circ. a.d. 1700), Bodleian 219 (to 23 
Rabr i a.ii. 1027/1618, the 14th year. a.h. 1118/1706), 220 

1 These are the opening words of the garbled memoirs also. For the opening 
and closing words of this earliest version see Elliot and Dowson History of 
India vi p. 264. 


558 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(ends at same point), 221 (with M. Hadfs continuation. Com- 
pleted a.d, 1846 by S. Ahmad Khan (for whom see p. 483 
supra) on the basis of 10 good MSS. belonging to Bahadur 
Shah’s libraries). Browne Pers. Cat. 94 (to end of 12th year. 
N.d.), 95 (to end of 12th year. a.h. 1139/1726), Spt. 333 (a.h. 
1232/1816-17), 334 (King’s 88), Blochet 579 (to end of 12th 
year. a.h. 1196/1781), R.A.S. P. 124 = Morley 120 (with M. 
Hadfs continuation, a.h. 1231/1815), Ivanow 142 (to the 19th 
year. a.h. 1253/1837), 144 (with M. Hadi’s continuation. 19th 
cent.), Curzon 27 (mid 19th cent.) 

It is not clear from the catalogue whether the copies of the 
“ Tuzuk i Jahcmgnl ” mentioned in Asafiyah i p. 234 nos. 234 
and 632 are the authentic or the “spurious” memoirs. There 
is a Tank h i J ahdmgir-Shdhi mentioned in Semenov’s catalogue 
of the historical MSS. in the Central Library at Bukhara, p. 8 
no. 14. 

Editions : (1) Toozuk-i-Jehangeeree [with M. Hadfs continua- 
tion] . . . Edited by Syud Ahmad [for whom see p. 483 supra], 
Ghazipur and (preface etc.) ‘Aligarh 1863-4°*, (2) Lucknow 
1914*. 

Extracts: MuntaMmbdt i Tuzuk i Jahdngm, Lahore 1884f. 

Extracts with translation by J. Anderson : Asiatic Miscellany, 
Calcutta 178G*, ii pp. 70-85 and 172. 

Extracts with translation by F. Gladwin : Gladwin History of 
Hindustan, Calcutta 1788, i p. 96 foil. 

English translations : (1) Tuzak-i-Jahdngin translated . . . by 
W. II . Lowe. [One fasciculus only], Calcutta 1889°* (Bibliotheca 
Indica), (2) The Tuzuk-i-J ahdngiri, or Memoirs of Jahangir 
[without M. Hadfs continuation]. Translated by A. Rogers . . . 
Edited by II. Beveridge. 2 vols. London 1909-14°* (Oriental 
Translation Fund, N.S. xix, xxii), (3) by W. Erskine (first nine 
years only) : B.M. MS. Add. 26,611. 

Description and translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson 
History of India vi pp. 276-391. 

Description and extracts from M. Hadfs continuation : Elliot 
and Dowson vi pp. 392-9. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (5) JAHANGIR 559 

III The £ £ garbled ;■ 5 memoirs (beginning : Hamd i bi-ghdyat 
u shukr i bi-mhayat mubdi'i rd, to which some verses beginning 
Ai ndm i tii sar-daftar i asrar i wujud are normally prefixed), 
apparently an amplification and extension of the earliest version 
(no. I above) and possibly, as Rieu suggests, written in the 
early part of Shali-Jahan’s reign with a view to superseding the 
genuine memoirs, which contain many passages reflecting of 
Shah- Jahan. (Most of the MSS. contain at the end a Pand- 
nmnah , or collection of moral precepts, ascribed to Jahangir 
with a prologue by Ptimad al-Daulah) : R.A.S. P. 122 — Morley 
117 (ending with a number of letters, petitions etc. belonging to 
Jahangirs later years, a.h. 1040/1630), P. 123 = Morley 119, 
P. 114 (2) = Morley 118 (the MS. from which Price made his 
translation), Mashhad iii p. 89 (defective at beginning. Probably 
the “ garbled” memoirs, a.h. 1046/1636-7), Rieu i 2546 (with 
a continuation not found in Price’s translation. Breaks off in 
prologue to the Pand-ndmah. 17th cent.), 255a (1 Picture. 
19th cent.), iii 9316 (circ. a.d. 1850), Lala Isma‘Il 337 — Tauer 

550 (llth/17th cent.), Edinburgh 211 (a.h. 1127/1716), 212 
(about same date ?), Ethd 310 (a.h. 1154/1742), 311 (circ. 
a.d. 1802-3), I.O. D.P. 775 (19th cent.), Rida Pasha 16 = Tauer 

551 (12th /18th cent.), Ivanow 143 (a.h. 1202/1787-8), Aumer258 
(18th cent.), Blochet i 580 (late 18th cent.), Lahore Panjab 
Univ. Lib. (one copy dated a.ii. 1262/1846 and one of an abridg- 
ment dated a.h. 1242/1826), Bankipur vii 558 (with the con- 
tinuation not found in Price’s translation. 19th cent.), Buhar 
67 (19th cent.), 68 (19th cent.), Browne Suppt. 366 (Trinity 
R. 13. 67). 

For a separate copy of the Pand-ndmah i Jahdngin see Ross 
and Browne 150 (ii) (a.h. 1124/1712-13). 

English translation : Memoirs of the Emperor Jahctngueir 
. . . translated . . .by Major D. Price, London 1829°* (Oriental 
Translation Fund), Calcutta 1904° [a reprint with introduction 
and index]. 

Description and a translated extract (in both Elliot’s and 
Price’s versions) : Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 
pp. 256-75. 


560 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Translation of the Pand-namah : Elliot and Dowson History 
of India vi pp. 493-516. 

716. Wall Sirhindi, called Khwajah-zadah, was in the service 
of Jahangir and was more than 46 years old in the fourteenth 
year of the reign when he wrote his Tawdnkh i Jahangir- Slight 
and dedicated it to his sovereign. 

Tawarikh i Jahangir- Shahi, or Far Jiang i badV al-lughdt i 
JahCmgiri (?), a brief chronicle of the first fourteen years of 
Jahangirs reign : Bodleian 231 (foil. 3896-42 In. Autograph). 

717. M. Sharif 1 b. Dost-Muhammad, 2 3 a member of an un- 
distinguished Persian family, received the title of Mibtamad 
Khan in the third year of Jahangir’s reign, and was for a time 
Ba Jchsh l of the Altadis. Subsequently he was Ba Jchshl to Prince 
Khurram’s army in the Deccan. In the seventeenth year of 
the reign, a.h. 1031/1622, after returning from the Deccan, he 
was ordered by Jahangir, then in bad health, to continue his 
Memoirs (see the Memoirs of Jahangir tr. Rogers and Beveridge 
vol. ii p. 246). In the second year of Shah-Jahan’s reign he 
became Second Ba Jchshl and in the tenth Mir Ba Jchsh l. In the 
thirteenth (a.h. 1049/1639-40) he died. 

An account of Shah-Jahan’s life until his accession, Ahwdl 
i shah-zadagi i Shdh-Jahm, which is extant in three recorded 
MSS. (Banklpur vii 565 (1), Rieu Suppt. 76 ii, Buhar. 74 i), is 
ascribed in “ endorsements ” to “ Mu‘tamad Khan ”, by which 
title the author of the Iqbal-namah is doubtless meant, but the 
correctness of this ascription is doubted by Eieu on the ground 
that, whereas in the Iqbal-namah MiTtaniad Khan refers to 
himself by such phrases as “ the present writer ”, the author of 
this work speaks of Mudamad Khan by name in the corresponding 
passages. 

1 He is to 1)0 distinguished from Sharif Khan, who was Amir ul-umartV 

in the early years of Jahangir’s reign and who died in 1021/1612. 

3 Ihn Dost AT. M, Sharif al-mnkhatab bi-Mu'tamad Khan, according to 
Berlin 400, fol, 4a, 1. G ah infra (se c Pert. self s catalogue p. 470 n, 1), Bfinkmfir 
vii p. 60 lilt. fj.; >' 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (5) JAHANGIR 561 

Iqbal-namah i JahangiriJ- completed, according to the 
preface, in Kashmir a.h. 1029/1619-20, the fifteenth regnal year 
(but the narrative is brought down to Jahangir’s death), a history 
in three volumes ((1) Babur and Humayun, (2) Akbar, (3) 
Jahangir, of which the third is common, the first two rare), 
based mainly on the AJcbar-ndmah, the Tabaqat i Afcbari, Khwajah 
‘Ata [so Banklpur vii p. 61, but read Asad ?] Beg Qazwlm’s 
history of [a small part of] Akbar’s reign (see p. 554 supra), 
and Jahangir’s own Memoirs : Banklpur vii 560-1 (vols. i-ii. 
a.h. 1045/1635-6. The preface of this copy contains no mention 
of a third volume), 559 (vols. i-iii, slightly defective. 18th cent.), 
562 (vol. iii. a.h. 12 — * (?)), Suppt. 1765 (vols. i and iii. a.h. 1207 / 
1792-3), 1766 (vol. iii. 18th cent.), Blochet i 581 (vols. i-iii, 
lacking last chapter. Mid 17th cent.), 582 (vol. i. Latter half 
of 17th cent.), 583 (vol. ii. a.h. 1049/1639), 584‘(vol. iii. a.h. 1204/ 
1789), 585 (vol. iii. a.h. 1160/1747), Browne Pers. Cat. 96 (vol. iii. 
a.h. 1143/1730-1), 97 (vol. iii, defective. N.d.), Suppt. 75 (vol. iii. 
a.h. 1219/1804. Christ’s Dd. 3. 17), 76 (vol. iii. a.h. 1231/1816. 
Corpus 207), 77 (vol. i. a.d. 1063/1653. Vol. ii. a.h. 1086/ 
1675-6. King’s 33), EtU 312 (vols. i-ii. a.h. 1087/1676 (?)), 313 
(vol. ii, pt. 2 (from middle of Akbar’s 28th year to his death. 
a.h. 1064/1654), 314 (vol. iii. a.h. 1071/1660), 315-24 (ten copies 
of vol. iii, 324 being misdescribed by Ethe 2 ), I.O. D.P. 621 B 
(Vol. iii, defective), 621 C (Vol. iii. a.h. 1228/1813), Mehren 57 
(Vol. iii. a.h. 1071/1661), Rieui 255a (vol. iii. a.h. 1074/1664), 
2556 (vol. iii. 17th cent.), 256a-2566 (five 18th-century copies 
of vol. iii, one containing nine Pictures), 2566 (three 19th- 
century copies of vol. iii), ii 8196 (a.d. 1819), iii 9226 (vol. i. 
a.h. 1104-5/1693), 923a (vol. ii. 18th cent.), 923a (part of vol. 
ii (to Akbar’s 17th year). 17th cent.), 9236 (vol. iii. a.h. 1103/ 
1692), iii 10306 (extracts), Philadelphia Lewis Coll. p. 56 (Vol. 
ii. 54 pictures, of which a list is given and three are repro- 
duced in the catalogue), p. 63 (fragments of Vols. i and ii. 
Late 17th cent.), Bodleian 224 (vol. iii. a.h. 1095/1684), 225 
(vol. iii. a.h. 1106/1695), 226-30 (five more copies of vol. iii), 

' j 1 Often called the Jahangir-namah, 

2 According to Beveridge (see Memoirs of Jahangir, preface, p. xv, postscript); 

\;V Jr O .0 


562 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pers. A. ii. 19 (vol. iii), Vollers 981 (vol. 
iii), 982 (vol. iii apparently, a.h. 1101/1689-90), Berlin 487 
(vols. i-iii), 488 (vols. i-ii. a.h. 1209/1794), 489 (vol. iii. a.h. 
1111/1699), 490 (vol. iii. a.h. 1151/1738), Buhar 66 (vol. ii. 
a.d. 1719 (?)), Aumer 257 (vols. i-iii. N.d.), 259 (2) (vol. iii. 
a.h. 1138/1725-6), 260 (vol. iii. Early 12th. cent, h.), E.A.S. P. 
125 = Morley 121 (vol. iii. a.h. 1145/1732), Edinburgh 80 (vol. 
iii. a.h. 1189/1775-6), 213 (vol. iii. Not later than a.h. 1150/ 
1737), Ivanow 145-8 (four copies of vol. iii, one dated a.h. 
1151/1738-9), Curzon 28 (vol. iii. 18th cent.), 1st Suppt. 759 
(vol. iii. a.h. 1227/1812), Lindesiana p. 199 no. 373 (vol. iii (?). 
Circ. 1780), no. 923 (a.h. 1241/1825-6), ‘Aligarh Subhaii Allah 
MSS. p. 60 no. 21, A§afiyah i p. 218 nos. 233, 490, 572 (vols. 
not specified), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (vol. iii. See Oriental 
College Magazine, vol. ii no. 4 (August 1926), p. 52, Madras, 
T.C.D. 1579 (see the Memoirs of Jahangir , vol. ii, p. vi, note, 
where Beveridge says that this MS. is only a modern copy of the 
Iqhdl-ndmah). 

Editions: Calcutta 1865°* (vol. iii only. Ed. /Abd al-Haiy 
and Ahmad ‘All. Bibliotheca Indica), Lucknow 1870°* (vols. i- 
iii), 1890° (vol. iii only. Title: Jahangir -namah. Author’s 
name given in the publisher’s colophon as Khwajah Abu 
’1-Hasan 1 * ), Allahabad 1931* (vol. iii only). 

Description and 37 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson Hist, of India vi 400-38. 

English translation by J. Macmurdo (b. 1785, d. 1820) : I.O. 
MSS. Eur. E. 26 (according to G. R. Kaye, “ The extracts 
given by Elliot, possibly from a different work, differ consider- 
ably from our manuscript ”). 

[. Iqbal-ndmah i Jahangin iii pp. 91 7 , 104 1 , 187 12 , and doubtless 
elsewhere ; Memoirs of Jahangir tr. Rogers and Beveridge i 300, 
ii 1, 2, 100-1, 128, 129, 131-2, 158, 175, 193, 235, 246 ; ‘Abd 
al-Hamld Padshdh-ndmah i 73 etc., ii p. 102 etc. (see the indexes 
to both volumes in the Bibliotheca Indica) ; Ma'dthir al-umard’ 


1 In the B.M. catalogue consequently this edition is entered under Abu 

’l-Hasan, Khvajah. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (5) JAHANGIR 563 

iii 431-4 (two short extracts from this notice are translated in 
Elliot and Dowson viii p. 191) ; Tadhkirat al-umara ’ ; Elliot 
and Dowson vi p. 400 ; Ency. I si. under Mu‘tamad Khan.] 

718. Khwajah Kamgar Husaini, originally in the service of 
Jahangir, took part in the campaign of his uncle £ Abd Allah 
Khan Firoz-Jang against the rebel Khan-Jahan Lodi (for whom 
see Ency. I si. ii 898) and took the latter’s head to Shah-Jahan in 
the fourth year of his reign, a.h. 1040/1631, receiving as a reward 
the title of Ghairat Khan. In Shah-Jahan’s tenth year he was 
appointed Nazim of the Subah of Delhi, but in 1049/1639, when 
the new buildings of Shahjahanabad were just rising from their 
foundations under his superintendence, he was transferred to 
the Subahdarl of Tattah, where he died in 1050/1640-1. 

Ma’athir i Jahdngvri 3 completed A.H. 1040/1630 in Shah- 
Jahan’s third regnal year, a history of the early life and reign 
of Jahangir, regarded by Khafi Khan as more veracious than 
the Iqbal-namah : Eankipur vii 563 (17th cent.), Brelvi and 
Bhabhar p. xiii (a.h. 1137/1724-5), Rehatsek p. 76 no. 12 (de- 
fective at beginning. N.d.), Eieu i 257a (a.h. 1148/1735. Written 
by M. b. Rustam (see p. 141 supra), 2576 (imperfect. 18th cent.), 
iii 93 %a (frequent variations in the text. a.h. 1264/1848), I.O. 
D.P. 743 (a.h. 1223/1808) [Ethe 324, erroneously described as 
the Ma’athir i Jahangiri, is the Iqbal-namah. See p. 561 supra], 
Bodleian 223, Eton 186. 

Description and two translated extracts : Elliot and Dowson 
History of India vi 439-45. 

[Ma’athir al-umara 5 ii 863-5 ; Tadhkirat al-umara’ ; Elliot 
and Dowson vi 439-41 ; Rieu i 257a.] 

719. Mulla “ Kami » Shiraz!. 1 

Waged d al-zaman, or Fath-namah i Nur-Jahdn Begam 3 
a mathnawi on events towards the end of Jahangir’s reign 

1 It is not clear whether Bloehet has good authority for ascribing the Wccqa'i 1 
al-saman to this poet, since, according to him, in both of the manuscripts the 
author’s name has disappeared in a lacuna. “ Kami ” Shiraz! is not mentioned 
in the Iqbal-namah among the poets of Jahangir’s reign, nor does he seem to 
be noticed in the tadhkirahs. 



564 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(especially “ la lutte entre l’empereur timouride, Mohabat [sic] 
Khan, Asaf Khan, laquelle fut provoquee par les intrigues de sa 
femme, Nour Djihan Begoum, qui avait fait choisir Khourram, 
son troisieme fils, commie prince heritier ”) composed at Kabul 
in 1035/1625-6 and dedicated to Jahangir : Blochet iii 1874 
(circ. a.d. 1626), 1875 (late 17th cent.). 

720. One of the Elliot MSS. of the J ahangir-namciJi (Or. 1648. 
Rieu iii p. 931a. Early 19th cent.) contains on foil. 1815-2016 
“ detached notices and anecdotes relating to various periods 
of Jahangir’s reign 5 ’ including some quotations from the J cthangir- 
namah and following no chronological order. They begin with 
the words i! az intikhab i J ahcvnglr- Shdhl nawishtaji mi-skawad ”, 
and contain internal evidence that the author was a contemporary 
and companion of Jahangir. That they belong to a larger work 
is clear from the fact that “ the author speaks of his having 
related, in another part of the volume, a detailed account of the 
proceedings of Bikramajit and of ’Usman in Bengal ; and neither 
of these passages occurs in these extracts 

Intikhab i Jahangir- Shahi (?) : see description above. 

Description and 5f pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vi pp. 446-52. 

721. For the Shash fath i Kdngrah of Jalal al-Din Tabataba'i 
see p. 566 infra. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (c) THE TIMURIDS 
(6) SHAH-JAHAN 

722. The author of the Aimed i sfmh-zadagi i Shall- Jakan does 
not mention his name in the text, but “ endorsements ” (ap- 
parently on all the three recorded MSS.) ascribe the work to 
Mu‘tamad Khan. The person intended is doubtless the author 
of the Iqbal-namah i Jakangvn (see p. 560 supra), but the 
correctness of the ascription is doubted by Rieu on the ground 
that, whereas ; in the Iqbal-namah Mir'tamad Khan refers to 
himself by such phrases as “ the present writer ”, the author of 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 565 

the Ahival i shali-zadagi i Shdh-Jahdn speaks of Mu'tamad Khan 
by name in the corresponding passages. 

( Ahwal i shah-zadagi i Shdh-Jahdn)^ an account of Shah- 
Jahan’s life until his accession in 1037/1628: Banklpur vii 
565 (1) (44th year of ‘Alamgir), Rieu Suppt. 76 ii (18th cent.), 
Buhar 74 i (a.h. 1235/1819-20). 

723. Mirza M. Jalal [al-Din], or Jalala, Tabataba’i Zawari 1 
Isfahan! went to India in 1044/1634-5, and, having been ap- 
pointed one of Shah-Jahan’s court chroniclers, wrote an account 
of five 2 years of the reign, but owing to the envy of rivals he 
had to discontinue this work. In 1062/1652, according to his 
own statement, he began to translate from the Arabic for Prince 
Murad-Ba khsh the work known as TauqVdt i Kisrawl , or, 
chronogrammatically, Dastur-ndmah i Kisrawl, a collection of 
answers alleged to have been given by Khusrau Anushirwan to 
ministers of his who questioned him concerning matters of 
administration or other subjects [Arabic text unknown (?). 
MSS. of Persian translation : Bodleian 1470, Browne Suppt. 
335-7, 488. Editions: Khuda’I Press [Lucknow] 1261/1845*, 
Nawal Kishor [Lucknow] 1287 / 1870*, Nawal Kishor [Cawnpore] 
1874*, Cawnpore 1886°, Lucknow 1892°* ( The Wisdom of 
Naushirwan “ the Just 55 . . . commonly called Tauqiyat i Kisra- 
wiya. With transliteration and English translation by W. 
Young). According to the Tadhkirah i Tahir i Nasrdbddi he died 
some years (chand sal ) before the composition of that work 
(which was begun in 1083/1672-3, but added to in 1089/1678-9 
and 1092/1681). He was regarded as the master of a new style 
of Persian composition. 3 For collections of letters and other 
pieces by him see Rieu iii 933a, Asafiyah i p. 132 no. 20, and 
Lindesiana p. 161 no. 425. 

(1) (Padshah-ndmah or Shdh-J ahan-ndmali), a prolix 
account of the 5th~8th solar years of Shah-Jahan’s reign (i.e. 28 

1 For the meaning of this nisbah see p. 14 supra, n. 2. 

2 It will be seen below that the B.M. MS. at any rate does not contain five 
full years. 

3 Cf. the statement of Diya’ al-Din Khan, cited by Rieu (iii 9336), that none 
but Sh. Abu ’1-Fadl ever wrote history with equal elegance. 



566 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Sha'ban 1041 /20 March 1632 to 11 Shawwal 1045/19 March 1636) : 
AsaSiyah i p. 244 no. 359 (a.h. 1187/1773-4), Lindesiana p. 161 
no. 410 (circ. a.d. 1800), Rieu iii 933a (a.h. 1216/1801), 10356 
(a notice of the work with extracts. Circ. a.d. 1850), 10486 
(a notice of the work), I.O. D.P. 684 (early 19th cent. This is 
the MS. referred to by W. N. Lees in JRAS. 1868 p. 463). 

(2) (Shash fath i Kangrah ), six stylistically different 
accounts of the expedition sent by Shah-Jahan, when governor 
of Gujrat, and commanded by Rajah Rikramajit, against the 
rebel Suraj-Mal in Jahangir’s 13th year a.h. 1027/1618 and the 
capture of the fort of Kangrah (in the Panjab below the Hima- 
layas) : Lindesiana p. 161 no. 879 (circ. a.d. 1750), Banklpur 
Suppt. ii 2198 (a.h. 1195/1781), I.O. D.P. 498 foil. 402-29 (24th 
year of Shah-‘Alam, i.e. 1196/1782), D.P. 686 A (a.h. 1240/1824-5), 
686 B, Rieu i 258a (a.d. 1829-30), iii 9326 (19tli cent.), 9326 
(19th cent.), 933a (circ. a.d. 1850), Ivanow Curzon 29 (a.h. 1257 / 
1841), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, 
vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 52). 

Descriptions and partial translations : (1) Elliot and Dowson 
History of India vi pp. 517-31 (the whole of the first account is 
translated and the beginnings of the other five), (2) The Zafarnama- 
i-Kdngrd, or an account of the conquest of Kangra during the reign 
of Jahangir. By Raza Husain (in the Journal of the United 
Provinces Historical Society, vol. ii (1919) pp. 56-62). 

[‘Amal i Salih , near the end ; TadhMrah i Tahir i Nasrdbddl 
i pp. 102-3 ; Rieu i 258a.] 

724. Mlrza M. Amin b. Abl T-Husain Qazwini, usually called 
Amina i Qazwini, a Persian by birth, entered the service of Shah- 
Jahan as a munshi in the fifth year of his reign, and in the eighth 
year (a.h. 1045/1635-6) was appointed Historiographer with 
orders to prepare a history of the first ten years of the reign. 
According to the Mir’ at al-‘a!am (Rieu i, 1256, fol. 4626) he was 
an eminent calligraphist, but he does not seem to be mentioned 
in the TadhMrah i Miwush-nawisdn of Ghulam-Muhammad 
Dihlawl, h/ i-;- ; / 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 567 

Padshah-namah , a history of the first ten years of Shah- 
Jahan’s reign, with a muqaMimah on his life before accession 
and a Jchatimah on the contemporary shaikhs, scholars, physicians 
and poets : Edinburgh 409 (autograph ?), Rieu i 2586 (17th cent.), 
2596 (18th cent. 9 good Pictures), 2596 (a.h. 1251/1835), iii 
9336 (a.h. 1240/1824), 935 (extracts only), R.A.S. P. 126 = 
Morley 122 (a.h. 1173/1759), Bankipur vii 566 (1) (18th cent. 
Good Pictures), Buhar 69 (a.h. 1228/1813), I.O. D.P. 683 
(a.h. 1248/1832-3), Ivanow 151 (a.h. 1258/1842), Bodleian 236 
(1 ? ), Windsor Castle (see Journal of Indian Art, vol. v (London 
1894), plate 69), possibly also Blochet i 590 (18th cent.). 

[‘Arnal i Salih (quoted Bankipur vii p. 72).] 

725. Muhammad-Qull “ Salim ” Tihrani was for a time 
attached to Mlrza ‘Abd Allah, Governor of Lahijan, but subse- 
quently went to India and found a patron in Islam Khan 
Mashhad!. 1 He died in Kashmir in 1057/1647. (For further 
information see the section Poetry.) 

( Jang i Islam Khan 2 3 * ), a mathnawi on the victories of Islam 
Khan in Kuch Hajo and Assam 3 : Ivanow 748 (6) (early 18th 
cent.), 749 (18th cent.), 750 (18th cent.), Bankipur iii 311 fol. 216 
(described as “ A Masnawi in praise of Spring ”. 18th cent.), 
Rieu iii 1032a (circ. a.d. 1850), and doubtless in other MSS. of 
the Diwdn (for which see the section Poetry). 

[Tadhkirah i Tahir i Nasrabddi ; Safinah i Khwushqu no. 731 ; 
Haft dsman pp. 144-5 ; Bankipur iii pp. 88-9 and the authorities 
cited there. See also the section Poetry.] 

726. M. Sadiq Dihlawi is probably identical with M. Sadiq 
Kashmiri HamadanI, the author of the Tabaqdt i Shdh-J ahdni 

1 For Islam Khan see Ma'atMr al-umara' i pp. 162-7. In Shah.- Jahan’s eighth 
year ho was appointed Governor of Bengal. 

2 This, according to Eth6, is the title given to the poem in the Khulasat 
al-kalam (see Ethe col. 851 6 ). In some of the MSS. it seems to be headed 
[Maijinawl ?] dar fatb i Bangalah. 

3 In 1047/1637 (see ‘Abd al-Hamld Padshah-nainah ii 68-90, 'Amal i Salih 

ii 286-8). 



568 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(written in 1046/1636-7) and t he Kalimat al-sadiqin (completed 
in 1023/1614. See Bankipur viii no. 671). 

Athar i Shdh-Jahdm or Akjtbdr ijahdngm 5 dedicated to 
Shah-Jahan, and divided into a muqaddimah (on kingship), 
a math? (on Shah-Jahan’s ancestors), a maqsad (anecdotes of 
prophets, caliphs and kings), and a hhdtimah (probably on Shah- 
Jahan) : Bankipur vii 564 (lacking Ichatimah. 18th century), 
Browne Suppt. 23 (King’s). 

727. Hajjl M. Jan 1 “ Qudsi ” Mashhad! was born at Mashhad. 
Coming to India in 1041/1631 he was patronised by *'Abd Allah 
Khan Fir oz- Jang and in 1042/1632 presented by him to Shah- 
Jahan. He received liberal rewards from Shah-Jahan, but did 
not become Malik al-shu‘ard \ 2 having been forestalled by 
<£ Kalim ”, who received the title before “ Qudsl’s ” arrival at 
Shah-Jahan s court. He died a.h. 1056/1646 3 at Lahore, 4 and 
w r as buried at Mashhad. According to M. Amin Qazwlnl 5 (for 
whom see p. 566 supra), “ Qudsi ” and “ Kalim ” (for whom 
see p. 572 infra ) were simultaneously (in 1047/1637-8) engaged 
in composing poetical records of Shah-Jahan’s reign. 

Zafar-ndmah i Shah-Jaham 3 an uncompleted mathnawi 
on the life of Shah-Jahan : Browne 293 (extract only. Bears 
seal of 1071/1660-1), Rieu ii 685 (“ confused series of detached 
fragments. ” 17th cent.), iii 10016 (portion only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 
10486 ( ft Iqbdl-nama-h.” Extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Suppt. 
323 (a.h. 1071/1661), Buhar 391 (17th cent.), Bodleian 1102 (5) 
(a.h. 1114/1703), 1106 (defective. 17th cent.), Bankipur iii 
308 (1) (18th cent. Full Analysis), Berlin 940 (1) (n.d.), Ethd 
1552 (2) (n.d.), 1553 (2) (detached fragments. Bears a seal of 
1155/1742-3), 1554 (extracts only. a.h. 1093/1682), Ivanow 745 
(extracts only). 

1 Not Khan, as in the JEncy. I si. 

2 As is erroneously stated by some authorities, but it is expressly denied by 
M. Salih. 

3 In 1055/1645 according to some authorities. 

4 In Kashmir according to other authorities. 

5 Padshah-namah, fol. 431. according to Rieu, who does not make it clear 
which MS. he is referring to, but evidently the passage occurs in the account 
of the poets at the end of the work. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 569 

[Tabaqat i Shah-Jahdnl ; £ Abd al-Hamid Pddshah-namah i 
pt. 1, pp. 444, 530, pt. 2, pp. 19, 21, 50, 80, 142, 351-3 ; ‘Amal 
i Salih, near the end ; Tadhkirah i Tahir i Nasrabadi (Sprenger 
p. 90) ; MiS at al-Jchaydl pp. 85-8 (Bodleian 374 no. 69. Wrong 
date given here by a mistake of Ethe’s, see Banklpur viii p. 76) ; 
Kalimdt al-shu‘ard’ (Sprenger p. 113) ; Uarmshah bahdr (Sprenger 
p. 128) ; Safinah i Khwushgu (Bodleian 376) no. 728; Yad i 
baidd 1 ; Wdqidt i Kashmir; Riydd al-shu l ara > ; Majma ! al- 
nafd’is; Sarw i dzad; Khizdnah i ‘dmirah (Bodleian 381) 
no. 96 ; Atash-kadah (Bodleian 384) no. 217 ; Khuldsat al-kdldm 
(Banklpur viii 705, no. 37); Khuldsat al-afkar (Bodleian 391) 
no. 214 ; MaJchzan al-cghard'ib (Bodleian 395) no. 2067 ; Nishtar 
% ‘ishg; Natd’ij al-afkar; Sprenger p. 536 ; Haft dsmdn 143-4 ; 
Rieu ii 684; Ethe 1552 ; Ency. Isl. under KudsI ; Portraits 
in E. B. Havell Indian sculpture and painting, 2nd ed., plate 
lviii, and Buhar 391.] 

728. Mir M. Yahya “Yahya” or “Kashi” 1 (perhaps both) 
Kashi, whose father had migrated from Shiraz to Kashan, 2 went 
to India in the reign of Shah- Jahan and wrote panegyrics on him 
and his eldest son Dara-Shukoh. He was appointed Imperial 
Librarian ( Kitdb-dar ), and commanded to write in verse a record 
of the reign, but he afterwards lost the royal favour and dis- 
continued the poem. He died in 1064/1653. 3 His diwdn was 
collected after his death by his friend tc Ashna 55 (see p. 577 
infra). A copy is preserved at Banklpur (iii no. 331). 

Padshah-namah , a metrical history of Shah-Jahan’s reign : 
Rieu iii 10016 (a fragment of 45 foil, consisting of panegyrics 

1 In the alphabetically arranged taclhkirahs Mir Yahya seems always to be 
placed under Yahya, which would imply that this was his iakhallus. ‘Abd 
al-Muqtadir, however, in describing the (unique ?) Banklpur MS. of his diwdn 
calls him “ Mir Yahya, who adopted the poetical title of Kashi ”. 

2 In support of this statement ‘Abd al-Muqtadir quotes some lines ascribed 
to Yahya Kashi by “ Arzu ”. If they are really by Yahya Kashi, they are 
decisive enough, but ‘Abd al-Muqtadir does not say whether they occur in the 
diwan. 

3 There is some confusion in several of the tadhkirahs between Mir Yahya 
Kashi and Qadi Yahya Lahiji (Gilani), who according to Taqi Kashi (Sprenger 
p. 22) died in 953 and according to the Atash-kadah (Bodl. 384 no. 344) in 952. 



570 


IL HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

on Shah-Jahan and florid descriptions of some of his buildings. 
a.h. 1267/1851). 

[‘Abd al-Hamid Padshdli-namah ii 758-9 ; Tadhkirah i Tahir 
i Nasrabddi (Sprenger p. 91) ; Kalimat al-skiam’ (Sprenger 
p. 115) ; Yad i baidd’ ; MuntaMiab al-ashfdr no. 742 ; Riydd al- 
shidara ; Majma ( al-nafais ; Khizanah i ‘amirah (Bodleian 
381 no. 134) ; Khuldsat aVkaldm (Bankipur viii 705 no. 58, 
Bodl. 390 no. 78) ; Khuldsat al-afkdr (Bodl. 391 no. 468) ; 
Mahhzan al-gharalib (Bodl. 395 no. 3101) ; Haft dsmdn pp. 156-8 ; 
Bankipur iii pp. 120-2.] 

729. Hilyah i Shah-Jahan-, a mathnawi of 25 foil, describing 
the physical features of Shah-Jahan (beg. lldhi ba-iqbdl u bdfarr 
u shdn) : Bankipur iii 325 (20th regnal year [of Shah-Jahan 
probably]). 

730. Bay Chandar-bhan “ Barahman ” or £: Barhaman ” 
(both of these forms, but not of course c< Brahman ”, being used 
in his diwdn), the son of a Brahman named D’haram-Das, was 
born at Lahore and was a pupil of the well-known divine e Abd 
al-Haklm Siyalkotl (for whom see the I.O. catalogue of Arabic 
MSS., vol. ii no. 1122, Brockelmann i 417 and Sptbd ii pp. 613-14). 
He became secretary to Afdal Khan (Mulla Shukr Allah ShlrazI, 
who was appointed Mir-Sdmdn in Shah-Jahairs first year, 
a.h. 1037/1628, and Diwdn i Kull in the second year, and who 
died in 1048/1639. See Ma’dthir al-umard' i 145-51). After Afdal 
Khan’s death (but not immediately after, since according to 
Bieu iii 9355, evidently on the authority of the Char chaman, 
his first introduction to Court took place in Sirhind, when Shah- 
Jahan was preparing for the conquest of Bada khsh an (a.h. 1055)) 
he was appointed Wdgi : ah~7iavns i Iluclur, his duty being to 
attend Sh ah-Jahan on his journeys and to record the daily 
occurrences of his court (Bieu i 3975, again apparently on the 
authority of the Char chaman , written shortly after 1057). 
It must have been later than this that, as Khafl Khan relates 
(i, p. 740 10 ), he entered Dara-Shukoh’s service with the Emperor’s 
consent. After a time (apparently in 1066/1655-6, the year 
under which Khafl Khan mentions the occurrence) he was taken 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH- JAHAN 571 

from Dara-Shukoh and given employment in the Bar al-Insha ’ 
with the title of Ray Chandar-bhan. According to the Mir’at 
al-Miayal he retired from employment after the death of Dara- 
Shukoh 1 (in 1069/1659), went to Benares and died there in 
1073/1662-3. According to the Mir’at i jahdn-numd (cited Rieu 
iii 1087a ad 3976) he died in 1068/1657-8. 

He was distinguished both as a poet and as a prose-writer. 
For his diwdn see Asafiyah i p. 718 no. 453, Bodleian 1123, 
Brelvi and Dhabhar p. xxv no. 10, Browne Suppt. 517, Bthe 
1574-5, Ross and Browne 258 (4), Ivanow 762-3, Ivanow 
Curzon 740, Lindesiana p. 129 nos. 84 and 640, Rehatsek p. 98 
no. 50, Sprenger no. 168. A mystical matknawi of his was 
published in a Majmu‘ah i rasd’il at Lucknow in 1877 °*. An 
edition of his Munsha’dt or letters to Shah- Jahan and 
others, was published at [Lucknow] in 1885°. For MSS. see 
Asafiyah i p. 114 no. 60, Bodleian 1385-6, Ethe 2094, ii 3047, Berlin 
1070, ‘Aligarh Subh, MSS. p. 53 no 9, Rieu i 397. A Yedantic 
work, Ndzuk Jchaydlat, translated by Chandarbhan from the 
Atma-vildsa ascribed to Shankara Acharya, was published at 
Lahore in [1901°]. He also translated from Hindi into Persian 
Dara-Shukoh'' s questions concerning Hindu beliefs and customs 
and the answers to them (Berlin 1081 (2)). 

Char chaman i Barahman written soon after 1057/1647 2 
and divided into four chamans ((1) descriptions of various festivals 
at Court with poems recited by the author at them, (2) the daily 
occupations of Shah-Jahan, his capital Shahjahanabad etc., 
(3) the author’s life and some of his letters, (4) moral and religious 
reflections) : Rieu ii 8386 (a.h. 1123/1711), iii 9356 (a.d. 1849), 
Brelvi and Dhabhar p. 60 no. 8 (1) (a.h. 1186/1772-3), Eth<5 2093 
(a.h. 1193/1779), ii 3047,1.0. 3760 foil. 132-70 {Qawa‘id al-saltanat 
i Shah- Jahan), Eton 54 (1 Qawaicl al-saltanat , finished 1196), 
Browne Suppt. 376 (n.d. Corpus 94), Madras ( Qawafid al-saltanat 
i Shah- Jahan. Author not stated. 2 copies). 

1 It is implied that he was at that time in Darii-Shukoh’s service, bat this 
may be incorrect. 

2 “ The work was written shortly after a.h. 1057 ; the restitution of Balkh 
to Ka'/r Muhammad, which took place at that date, is mentioned, fol. 546, 
as a recent transaction” (Rieu ii 8386). 



572 


II. HISTOEY, BIOGEAPHY, ETC. 

Extracts by the author : Guldastah i Char ckaman i Barahman 
(beg. : Gauhar-afshdm i sakdb i qalam) : ‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. 
p. 53 no. 22 (a.h. 1146/1733-4), Brelvi and Dhabhar p. 60 no. 
8 (2) (A.H. 1186), Rosen Inst. 23 (3). 

Extract with English translation : Kowayid us Sultanet 
Shahjehan, or Rules observed during the reign of Shahjehan (in E. 
Gladwin The Persian Moonshee, Calcutta 1795°, London 1801°*). 

[Gkahdr ckaman i Barahman, Chaman iii ; c Amal i Salih ; 
Kalimat al-shiham’ (Sprenger p. 110) ; Mir’ at al-Maydl pp. 139- 
40 (Bodleian 374 no. 78) ; Hamishgh bahdr (Sprenger p. 119) ; 
Muntalchab al-lubdb i 740 10 ; Muntahhab al-ash’ur no. 107 ; 
Riyad al-shu‘ard ; Gul i ra‘nd; Farhat al-ndzirin (passage quoted 
in Oriental College Magazine, vol. iv no. 4 (Lahore, August 1928) 
p. 89) ; Suhuf i Ibrahim; Makhzan al-ghard’ib no. 404 ; Tadk- 
kirah i Jchwush-nawisdn 55 ; Riyad al-afkdr (BanMpur Suppt. i 
p, 51) ; Sprenger 168 ; Rieu i 397, ii 838, iii 937, 1087a ad 397 ; 
Oriental College Magazine vol. iv no. 4 (Lahore, August 1928) 
pp. 2-12 (an article by S. M. ‘Abd Allah).] 

731. Mirza Abu Talib “ Kallm ” Hamadanl (by birth) KashanI 
(by a period of residence) went to India first in Jahangir’s reign. 
He became Shah-Jahan’s favourite poet and received from him 
the title of Malik al-shu‘ard\ According to M. Amin Qazwlnl 
(for whom see p. 566 supra) he and “ QudsI ” (for whom see 
p. 568) were simultaneously (in 1047/1637-8) engaged in com- 
posing poetical records of Shah-Jahan’s reign. Having been 
sent to Kashmir to prosecute this task, he died there on 15 Dhu 
’I-Hijjah in the 26th year of the reign, a.h. 1062/1652. 1 

An edition of his dlwdn (H. Kh. iii p. 304) was published at 
Cawnpore in 1879°. 

(1) Padshah-namah , or Shah-namah or SMhanshah-namah 
or Shah- J ahan-ndmah, an uncompleted account of Shah-Jahan’s 
reign in mathnawi verse : Sprenger 305 (Motl Mahall), Rawan 
Koshkii 1521 (1) = Tauer 552 (full analysis) (a.h. 1071/1660-1), 

1 According to M. Warith and the Mir' at al-lchaval. The date 1061/1651 is 
given by several authorities. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 573 

Bankipur iii 316 (ends with Zafar Khan’s expedition to Tibet 
in the tenth year of the reign, a.h 1046-7/1636-7. 1 a.h. 1109/ 
1697), 317 (ends with same expedition. 17th cent.), Rieu ii 687 
(five fragments (210 foil). 17th cent.), iii 10486 (extracts only), 
Browne Suppt. 792 (N.d. King’s 253), Eth6 1570 (“ two math- 
nawis 55 (300 foil.)). 

Among the poems included in some copies of the dhv an is 
(2) an account of the flight and pursuit of Jhujhar 
Sing’h in mathnawi verse : Rieu ii 686a (17th cent.), 6866 
(18th cent.), Bankipur iii 314 foil. 147a-1596 (19th cent.), 
Ivanow 754. 

[ £ Abd al-Hamid Padshdh-ndmah i pt. 2, pp. 353-6 ; ‘Amal i 
Salih; Tadhkirah i Tahir i Nasrdbadi (Sprenger p. 90) ; Mir’ at 
al-khaydl pp. 90-1 (Bodleian 374) no, 71 ; Kalimdt al-shu l ara’ 
(Sprenger p. 113) ; Hamishah bahdr (Sprenger p. 128) ; Safinah 
i Khwushgu (Bodleian 376) no. 747 ; Yad i baida’ ; Riydd 
al~shu‘ard’ ; Majma‘ al-nafd’is; Sarw i dzdd; Khizdnah i 
‘amirah (Bodleian 381) no. 101 ; Atash-kadah (Bodleian 384) 
no. 588 ; Khulasat al-kaldm (Bankipur viii 705, no. 40) ; Khulasat 
al-afkdr (Bodleian 391) no. 223 ; Makhzan al-ghard’ib (Bodleian 
395) no. 2189 ; Nishtar i ‘ishg; Natd’ij al-afkdr; Sprenger 
p. 453; Mqpnci al-fusaha’ ii p. 28; Rieu ii 687 ; Ethe 1563; 
Bankipur iii 314 ; Shibli Nu'mani Shir al-Ajam iii pp. 205-230 ; 
Browne Lit. Hist, iv 258-63 ; Ency. Isl. under Kallm.] 

732. In Shah- Jahan’s reign was written 

Shah-Jahan-namah) a metrical history of Shah-Jahan’s 
reign, beginning Sipas u thana Izadl rd sazast : Aumer 262 
(332 folk). 

Rieu (ii p. 687a) identifies this with “ Kalim’s ” Shah-J ahdn- 
ndmah (see p. 572 supra), but the opening words are different. 

733. Rashid Khan known as ( e urf) M. Badff (so Khafi Khan 

i 722), or Rashid Khan Badf al-Zaman (so Ma’dthir al-umard ’ 

ii 829 5 ), or Badf al-Zaman Mahabat-Khani (so Rieu i 2646, 

> According to the Khulasat al-kaldrn (Bankipur viii, p. 144, no. 40) “ Kallm’s ” 
Shah-namah gives a detailed account of ten years of Shah-Jahan’s reign and 
consists of 14,948 verses. \ 



574: 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


probably from the TadMirat al-umara?), accompanied Dara- 
Shukob on his campaign against Qandahar in 1063/1653, being 
then Diwdn to Mahabat Khan (? Rashid Khan s urf M. Badi‘ kih 
dar-dn muhimm dar khidmat i padshah-zadah ham-rdh i Mahabat 
Khan ta‘alluqah % diwdrii dasht ba-tanq i waqd’i c ruy-ddd i 
muhasarah mi-nawisht u ba~ard i pbdskdh-zddah rasandah in* dm 
girift u an tankh rd musammd ba-TdnJch i Qandahar sdkhtah, 1 
Khafi Khan i 722). In the 24th year of Aurangzeb’s reign he 
became Diwdn i Khdlisah (he is called Baflar-ddr i Khdlisah 
in the Ma'athir al-umara 1 ii 829 5 in a statement referring to the 
35th year). He was Diwdn to Shah-'Alam when he died at 
Agrah a.h. 1107/1695-6, 2 more than eighty years old. 

LataHf gl-akhbar* or Tdnkh i Qandahdri, a detailed account 
of Dara-Shukoh’s unsuccessful siege of Qandahar in 1063/1653 : 
Ethd 338 (a.h. 1094/1683 ?), 339 (n.d.), 1.0. D.P. 609 (a.h. 1241/ 
1826), Rieu i 2646 (18th cent.), 265a (a.h. 1217/1802), 265a 
(a.h. 1234/1819), iii 1056a (extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850), 
Suppt. 78 (slightly defective at end. 17th cent.), Banklpur vii 
567 (17th cent.), Bodleian 238 (a.h. 1115/17041), 239 (a.h. 1210/ 
1795), Bloehef i 593 (19th cent.), 594 (defective at end. Late 
18th cent.), Ivanow 155 (18th cent.), 156 (19th cent.), A§a£iyah i 
p. 250 no. 583, Vollers 983. 

Rough MS. English translation by Major Raverty : I.O. 
MSS. Eur. E>. 220. 

[TdinJch i Muhammadi (Rieu ii 895) fol. 2346 • Khafi Khan i 
722 0-7 ; Mahathir al-umarai ii 829 0-7 ; TadMirat al-umara’ ; 
Rieu i 264, iii 10836, Suppt. p. 54.] 

734. Shah-Jahan, having heard that ‘AM al-Hamid Lahaurl 
was a master of the style of composition exemplified in Abu 
’l-Eadl’s Ahbar-namah, summoned him from Patnah, 3 where he 
was living in retirement, and asked him to write the official 
record of the reign. Having completed the account of the first 

1 This is the authority for ascribing the work to Rashid Khan, who does not 
mention his name in the text. 

2 According to the Tarilck i Muhammadi {cited by Rieu iii 10836 ad 2646). 
According to the Tadkkirat al-umara. ’ he died in the 41st year of Aurangzeb. 

3 Or Tattah, see Banklpur vii p. 68. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 575 

two decades, which was revised by the Wazvr Sa‘d Allah Khan, 
‘Abd al-Hamid was compelled by old age to discontinue the 
work, and the annals of the third decade were written by his 
pupil and collaborator M. Warith and revised, after Sa'd Allah 
Khan’s death (a.h. 1066/1656), by ‘Ala’ al-Mulk Tun!. 1 £ Abd 
al-Hamid died in 1065/1654-5, and M. Warith was killed by a 
mad student on 10 Rabf al-awwal 1091 /1680 (the latter fact is 
recorded in the Ma'athir i ‘Alamgiri. See a translation of the 
passage in Elliot and Dowson vii p. 121). 

Padshah-ndmahA a history of Shah-Jahan’s reign in three 
daftars each devoted to a period of ten years (the first daftar, 
“ containing nearly the same matter as the Padshgh-7iamah of 
Muhammad Amin (but omitting the full account of Shah- 
Jahan’s predecessors and the history of his minority) “ differs 
from it in its wording and its division ” (Rieu)) : Ivanow 149 
(vol. ii. Transcribed by M. Salih al-Katib (i.e. perhaps 
‘ £ Kashfl ”, for whom see p. 214 supra) . Bears an autograph note 
by Shah-Jahan), Ivanow Gurzon 30 (vol. ii, slightly defective. 
19th cent.), Rieu i 260 (vols. i-iii. a.h. 1109/1697), 261a (vol. i. 
17th cent.), 261a (vol. i. a.h. 1124/1712), 261a (vol. ii. a.h. 1159/ 
1746), iii 934a (extracts from vol. i. Circ. a.d. 1850), 934a 
(vol. iii. 17th cent.), 1031a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1844), 
10486 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Blochet i 586-7 (vols. i-ii. 
17th cent.), 588 (vol. iii. a.h. 1109/1697), 589 (vol. i. a.h. 1208/ 
1793), 590 (vol. i. A redaction quite different from 586. 1 2 3 18th 
cent.), 591 (vol. ii. 18th cent.), 592 (vols. ii-iii. Late 18th cent.), 

1 ‘Ala’ al-Mulk Turn was appointed Khan-saman in Shali-Jahan's 19th 
year (a.h. 1055-6 /1645-6), received the title of Radii Khan in the 23rd year 
(a.h. 1059-60/1649-50), and died in 1073/1663 a few days after becoming 
prime minister to Aurangzeb (see Padshah-naniah ii p.755; Ma'atkir al-umara’ 
iii 524-30, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 550-3; Rieu i 2606; Binyon and Arnold 
Court 'painters of the Grand Moguls pp. S3 -4 (portrait Plate xxvi)). 

2 That Shah-Jahan did not call this work the Badshah-namah (with a B) 
is clear from an autograph note reproduced, by Blochinann in JASB. 1870 
p. 272. 

3 “ Redaction completement differente de celle du n° 586, an point qu’on 
serait presque tente d’y voir le Padishah nameh de Mohammed Emin ibn 
Aboul Hosein Kazwini (Rieu, Catalogue, p. 258).” Unfortunately Blochet 
does not give sufficient particulars to render identification possible. 



576 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

nu 325 (vol. i. N.d.), 326 (vol. i. N.d.), 327 (vol. i. a.h. 1162/ 
1749), 328-9 (vols. ii-iii. a.h. 1109/1697-8), 330 (vols. ii-iii, 
defective), Bankipur vii 565 ii-iii (vols. i-iii. ‘Alamglrs 45th year, 
i.e. a.h. 1112/1701), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (one copy of 
vols. i and iii written in the 16th and 17th years of M. Shah, 
one of vol. i dated a.h. 1262/1846, and an old but defective 
copy of vols. i and ii. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii 
no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 53), Browne Pers. Cat. 98 (vol ii 
a.h. 1147/1734 ?), Lindesiana p. 207 no. 928 (circ. a.d. 1750), 
Bodleian 232 (vols. i-iii. N.d.), 233 (vol. i. N.d.), 234 (vol. i. 
N.d.), 235 (vol. i. N.d.), 1967 (vols. i-iii. a.h. 1197/1783) 1968 
(vols. ii-iii. N.d.), R.A.S. P. 127 = Morley 123 (vol. i), P. 128 = 
Morley 124 (vol. i. a.h. 1231/1815), Buhar 74 ii (vol. i. a.h. 1235/ 
1820), 75 (vol. iii. a.h 1235/1820), A§afiyah i p. 220 no. 221 
(vol. ii), no. 525, p. 244 no. 235 (? Shdh-J akan-ndmah by ‘Ala’ 
al-Mulk Turn), iii p. 92 no. 1298 (vols. ii-iii), p. 104 no. 1459 
(apparently a fragment of vol. iii dealing with events from 1067 
to 1068), Aumer 261, Bombay Fyzee 6 (vol. iii only ?), Mehren 59 
(vol. ii), Salemann-Rosen p. 16 no. 142 (vol. iii). 

Edition [of vols. i and ii only] : TheBddshahNdmah, by ’Abd 
Al-Hamid Ldhawri edited by Mawlawis Kahir Al-Din Ahmad and 
Abd Al-RaMm. Under the superintendence of Major TF. N. Lees 
. . ., Calcutta 1866- 72 °* (Bibliotheca Indica). 

Translated extracts : (1) Koch Bihar, Koch Hdjo, and Asdm, 
in the 16th and 17th centuries, according to the Ahbarnamah , the 
Pddishdhnamah, and the Fathiyah i ’ Ibriyah . By H. Blochmann 
(in the JASB. 41 (1872) pp. 49-101), (2) Elliot and Dowson 
History of India vii pp. 3-72, 121-2, (3) A complete hey to tike 
Persian Entrance Course for 1897-1898. By Oude Behan Lai 
and Jwala Prasada, pt. 1, Allahabad [1896 °], [1897 °], pp. 80-108. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 3-5. 

[For ‘Abd al-Hamld see Pddshdh-nmnak, preface ; l Amal i 
Salih, in the section on prose writers near the end ; Elliot 
and Dowson vii p. 3; Rieu i p. 2 

For M. Warith see Pddshah-namaJi. Doftar iii, preface; 
Mahathir i ‘Alamgin p. 192 (cf. Elliot and Dowson vii p. 121, 


M, HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-JAHAN 577 

where the passage is translated) ; Elliot and Dowson vii p. 121 ; 

'Rieu i 260.] .. 

735. M. Sadiq entitled Sadiq Khan, apparently a Persian by 
birth, held at different times in Shah-Jahan’s reign the offices of 
Bakhshi, Tutor ( AiciViq ) to Prince Shah Shuja‘, Sh ah-Jahan’s 
second son, Daroghah of the (Jhusl-hhdnaJi or private audience- 
chamber and WaqaJ-naims at Agrah. Having remained faithful 
to Shah-Jahan, he was deprived of the last office by Aurangzeb 
and summoned to the royal presence in Jumada ii 1068/1658. 

( Shah-Jahan-namah or Tawdnkh i Shah-Jaham or 
Padshah-namah), a plain narrative of Shah-Jahan’s reign to 
the time of his confinement by Aurangzeb : Rieu i 262 (a.h. 1220/ 

1805 ?), iii 10086 (defective at end. a.h. 1244/1829), Rampur 
(modern. See JRAS. 1936 p. 281). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii p. 133. 

[Autobiographical statements (see Rieu i 262) ; Abu ’1-Padl 
Ma'muii’s (?) History of Aurangzeb (B.M. MS. Or. 1671 fol. 

1006. See Rieu iii 10086).] ; 

736. M. Tahir “ Ashna ” entitled ‘Inayat Khan was the At 

son of Zafar Khan “Ahsan”, who held the governorship of j 

Kashmir and other offices in Shah-Jahan’s reign. He became i 

Daroghah i Hudur and Daroghah i Kitdb-khdnah, or Imperial ; 

Librarian, to Shah-Jahan. In Aurangzeb' s reign he retired to 
Kashmir, where he died in 1077/1666-7 or 1081/1670-1. Eor his [ 
(Dwa.n etc. see Sprenger pp. Ill, 339, Ethe 1584-5. | 

. ‘ Mul akhkh as (usually called Shah-Jahan-namah ), a history of \ 

the first thirty years of 'Shah-Jahan’s reign abridged from the j 

Padshdh-ndmah of c Abd al-Hamld and M. Warith and, so far ; 

as the 4th-10th years are concerned, from that of M. Amin: J 

Buhar 70 (only the last ten years with the special title Qarmyah ' f 
i Shah-Jahan Bddshdh. 17th cent.), Etlffi 331 (a.h. 1155/1742), . 

Rieu i 2616 (18th cent.), 262 a (Introduction, first 4 years and I 
-part of the 5th. 17th cent,), Bodleian 237 (a.d. 1834), Bankipur j 

]■; ■'■■■’ ’ " ' A'A AJVA/Aa-hAAVAA :A ' A ' A ■■ - ' A': ; AA AA. AA.' A ■ a'A/A Aw - A -'ft- uAbAbAl 

V 'AA' - ;: :K A.. A' / -/AV AVAyAA; bK.vA rV-AyiA Pp ' 

A.A-; : A AwA- AAA ,■ At A A ■. 'A: A/.. : ; w . ' . : .At A A ... ■ •; . • ■' A. /■ I'"::!--' .. • • ' : ' ' ' ?AbA| 

'^/Ai-b-.AVAA.vAAy^A^VAA^v A- A;,: ,,-.A A a, ; -a : a.,; A' An ' -A a .A g-wbAAAAA -A . . • ■ a. A. w?: | 


578 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

vii 568 (19th cent.), R.A.S. P. 129 = Morley 125 (defective 
at end). 

English translation (nearly complete) by Major Fuller : B.M. 
MS. Add. 30777 foil. 1-562. 

Description with 45 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii pp. 73-120. 

[Mir'at al-‘alam (B.M. Add. 7657 fol. 476. Cf. Rieu iii 10837 
ad 2616) ; Tadhh'rah i Tahir i Nasrabadl i pp. 58-9 ; Mired i 
jahdn-numd (cf. Rieu iii 10836 ad 2616) ; Kalimul al-sfoiarT 
(Sprenger p. 109) ; Ilmmshdh baJiar (Sprcnger p. 118) ; Iiiyad 
al-shiiara ; Bdgh i maidm ; Ma'dtMr al-umard’ ii 762-3; 
Tadhkimt al-umarcd ; Tdrikh i Muhammad % (B.M. MS. Or. 1824, 
fol. 217. Cf. Rieu iii 10836 ad 2616) ; Khuldmt al-kaldm (Bankl- 
pur viii no. 704 p. 138) ; Khuldsat al-afkar (BodI, 391 no. 314) ; 
Suliufi IbmMm A 227 ; Makhzmi al-ghanTib no. 214 ; Sprenger 
pp. 109, 118, 339 ; Rieu i 261, iii 1083 ; Banklpur vii 
p. 77.] 

737. Sh. ‘Inayat Allah Kanbo Lahaurl was born at Burhanpilr, 
though a Lahanri by descent, and was (metaphorically? ) the elder 
brother of M. Salih Kanbo, the author of the l Amal i Salih (see 
p. 579). He is best known as the author of the collection of tales 
entitled Bahdr i ddnish which he completed in 1061/1651 (see 
Ency. Isl under Bahdr-i danish). After a period of service as an 
official he retired from the world and lived in a Miunaqdk beside 
the shrine of Qutb al-Dln Bakhtyar KakI [at Delhi]. He died 
at Delhi on 19 Jiimada i 1082/1671, aged 65. 

Tdrikh i dil-gusha , a history of Shah-Jahan and his 
predecessors (cf. Rieu i 263«) : Browne Suppr. 234 (n.d. 
King’s 71). 

[ ( Amal i Salih iii pp. 379-82 (among the Saiyids and saints), 
pp. . (among the prose writers. Not yet printed) ; Rieu ii 
765, iii 10936; S. M. Latif, Lahore: its history etc., Lahore 
1892, pp. 208-9 ; Ency. Isl. under Inayat Allah Kanbu.] 

738. M. Salih Kanbo Lahauri was the pupil and protege of Sh. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAII-JAHAN 579 

‘Inayat Allah Kanbo (see p. 578 supra), whom he calls his 
biradar i Jcaldn, ox elder brother. 1 

Practically nothing is known about his life, 2 and the date of 
his death is uncertain. S. M. Latif states on unspecified authority 
that he died in 1085/1074— 5. 3 It is scarcely possible that he can 
have been still alive in Safar 1120/1708, 4 as is implied by the 
use of the formula sallama-hu 5 lldh after his name in the colophon 
of the 'Amal i Salih preserved in the Lahore Public Library 
(for the words of this colophon see ‘Amal i Salih, (tibuchah i 
musahhih, p. 8). 

His tomb still exists outside the Mochl Gate at Lahore. A small, 
but beautiful, mosque built by his order and completed in 
1 07 9/1 668—9 stands to this day inside the Mochi Gate. The 
inscription recording the date is quoted by Ghulam-YazdanI 
(‘Amal i Salih, ddbdchah i musahhih, p. 9). 

A collection of his letters and other prose compositions, which 

1 Ohulam-Y azdanl argues {Amal i Salih, dlbachah i mimhhih, p. 6) that 
M. Salili cannot have been the brother of ‘Inayat Allah, because the latter is 
always called Shaikh ‘Inavat Allah, whereas M. Salih by prefixing the words 
Al i Muhammad to his name shows himself to have been a Saiyid. The latter 
statement, however, is based on a misconception . The words which M. Salih 
prefixes to his name arc bemdah i Al i Muhammad (as in the inscription on his 
mosque) or fidawi i Al i Muhammad (‘ Amal i Salih i p. 4 0 - 7 ), i.e. the devoted 
supporter of Muhammad’s family. 

2 It seems impossible to identify him with the M. Salih Kanbo, whom c Abd al- 
Hamicl Lahauri describes as a brave soldier ( Padshah-'iiarnah ii p. 71 antepenult.: 
M. Salih Kanbo kih az diltrfm i jun-sipdr i dargdh i Ich au;dq Tn-pandh bud) and 
whom he mentions among those who took prominent parts in O.asim Khan's 
Operations against the Franks of Ilugl! in 1041/1641-2 {Pddshdh-numah i 436 9 ) 
and in Islam Khan’s expedition against Kfioh Hajo and Assam in 1047/1637 
( 'op, oil , ii 71 antepenult.,72 1 *> 19 , 73 3 ' 17 ,7fi 7 ). M. Salih io recording the same events, 
evidently on the basis of the PadPhfih-nmnuli, speaks of M. Salih Kanbo in 
the third person (see ‘Amal i Salih i 498 2 ) and describes him as a brave and 
resourceful man (‘Atnal i Salih ii 287 u ' 12 : M. Salih Kanbo td kih mar d i 
mardmah i sahib i tadbir % taraddud bud ha lashkan urdstah rawemah i an-jdnib 
manful). 

3 Lahore p. 209, 

4 The Bcthar i sukfmn, a collection of letters composed by himself, was 
compiled at the suggestion of his friend “Munir”, who died in 1054/1644. 
Even supposing that “Munir’s” suggestion was made in the last year of 
his life and that Salih was not more than twenty years old at the time (a very 
improbable assumption), his age in 1.120 would have been eighty -in e lunar years. 



580 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, BTC. 


bears the title Bahdr i sukhun and includes letters written by him 
on behalf of Aurangzeb, Shah-Jahan, Asaf Khan and others, was 
completed in 1065/1 G55 1 (see Ethe 2090 and 2091), and a later 
edition in 1074/1663-4 2 (see Rieu i 398, Ivanow Curzon 144). 

(1) c Amal i Salih 5 a detailed history of Shah-Jahan completed 
a.h. 1070/1659-60 (but with later additions) : Etb4 332 
(a.h. 1112-3/1700-2), 333 (a.h. 1157/1744-5), 334 (aji. 1213/ 
1799 and 1225/1810), 335 (n.d.), 336 (extracts), I.O. 3907 (18th 
cent.), Lahore Pub. Lib. Jim 23 (a.h. 1120/1708-9. See ‘Amal 
i Salih, dibdchah i musahMJi, p. 17), Rieu i 263a (a.h. 1142/1729), 
264a (latter half (from 11th year). 18th cent. Pictures), 264a 
(latter half (from 8th year), a.h. 1186/1773), ii 793a (extract. 
a.h. 1232/1817), iii 935a (latter half (from 11th year). Defective 
at end, a.h. 1263/1847), 935a (concluding portion (from 22nd 
year). 18th cent.), 935a (extracts from latter half. 19th cent.), 
10486 (extracts. Giro. a.d. 1850) 1069a (18th cent. 16 Pictures), 
Linclesiana p. 196 no. 62 (circ. 1730), nos. 381-3 (circ. 1780 
and 1800), R.A.S. P. 130 = Morley 126 (latter half (from 11th 
year). Circ. 1759), Bankipur vii 565 iv (only the years 1067-9. 
‘Alamglr's 45th year, i.e. a.h. 1112/1701), 566 (2) (latter half 
(from 11th year). 12 Pictures. 18th cent.), 569-70 (18th cent.), 
Ivanow 152 (19th cent.), 153 (only the years a.h. 1048-69. a.h. 
1258/1842), 154 (from 21st year. a.h. 1228/1.812), A§afiyah i p. 248 
nos. 671-2, Browne Suppt. 791 (King’s 252), Lahore Pan jab Univ. 
Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1926), p. 53), Mehren 58 (to end of 10th regnal year). Edinburgh 
81 (a.h. 1224/1809) is described as apparently an abridgment 
of the ‘Amal i Salih. 

Edition : ‘ Amal-i-Sdlih or Shah Jahdn Ndmah of Muhammad 
Salih Kambo. . . . Edited by Ghulam Yazdmii , Calcutta 1912— 
°* 3 (Bibliotheca Indica). 

1 According to Ethe, who- is responsible for distinguishing two editions of 
the work, • 

2 In 1073 according to Glmlam-Yazdani ('Amal i Salih, dib&cltah i mumW-h* 
p. 7®). 

3 Nearly the whole of the text has now (June .1938} been printed. The fourth 
fasciculus of vol. iii, which appeared in 1936, extends to the notice of ‘Abd al- 
Haqq Dihlawi, the second in the section devoted to the Hilmm etc. 


M. HISTORY OF IHBIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (6) SHAH-.TAHAN 581 


Description and 8 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii pp. 123-32. 

( 2 ) A pompous account of the expedition sent by Shdh- 
Jakdn under the command of Prince Mumd-Ba Jchsh and ‘ All 
Marddn Khan against the Uzbak chief Nadhr Muhammad and 
of the capture of Balfch on 28 Jumddd I 1056(1646: Rieu iii 
9346 (19th cent.). 

[‘Amal i Salih iii p. 381 2 , i, editor’s introduction pp. 2-9 ; 
Ma’dthir i ‘Alamgin 222 ; Rieu i 263.] 

739. Sud’hari Lad. 

Tuhfah i Shah-Jahanl , a concise (32 foil.) history of 'Shah-. 
Jahan based on the ‘Amal i Salih and other works : EtM 337 
(n.d.). 

740. u BihishtI ” Shiraz! was a panegyrist of Prince Murad- 
Ba Mish , Shah-Jahan’s youngest son. 

For a MS. of his Kulliyat (in which the Ashub i Hindustan 
apparently does not appear) see Edinburgh 305 (a.h. 1096/ 
1684). ' -y. '■■■-. f ' & ' ' ; 

Ashub-namah i Hindustan or Ashub i Hindustan , a historical 
mathnawi on the war of succession between Shah-Jahan’s sons 
from the rising of Murad-Bakhsh at Ahmadabad in 1067 /l 657 to 
the death of Dara-Shukoh in 1069/1659 : Eth6 1579 (a.h. 1182/ 
1768), Bodleian 1124 (defective at end), Rieu ii 6896 (18tli cent.), 
iii 1044a (circ. a.d. 1848). 

Edition: Lucknow 1883°*. 

741. Other works: 

( 1 ) A short (78 foil.) history of Babur , Akbar and 
Shah-Jahan, preceded by an account of Timur (beg. Makdmid 
i jamilah) : see § 677 supra. 

(2) WaqdH c i Dak’han 5 an account of events in the Deccan 
in Shah-Jahan’s reign: Blochet i 620 (18th cent.), perhaps also 
A§afiyah i p. 258 no. 417 (a.h. 1287/1870-1). 



582 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY. ETC. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TlMURIDS 
(7) AURANGZEB 

742. M. Ma‘sum b. Hasan b. Salih was for twenty-five years 
in the service of Prince M. Shah-Shuja £ , Shah-Jahan’s second son, 
who was Governor of Bengal and Orissa in his father’s reign and 
who was put to death by Aurangzeb in 1070/1660. In 1070/ 
1659-60 he was spending a period of leave at Maldali when he 
conceived the idea of recording the events of recent years and 
wrote hi's 

Tarikh i Shah-Shuja ‘I (possibly identical with, or a part of, 
the F-utulidt i ‘Almngvn or Wdqi'dt, i ‘ Alamgln described in 
Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 198), a life of Prince 
M. Shah-Shuja £ and of the events which preceded and followed 
the accession of Aurangzeb : Banklpur vii 572 (19th cent.), 
Em 340, Eton 191. 

Extracts from the Futuhdt i ‘Alamgln are to be found in 
Rieu iii 1049a ix (circ. a.d. 1850), and 10586 fol. 64. There is 
a translation of the preface and headings in B.M. MS. Add. 
30,779 foil. 170-9. 

743. Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. M. Wall Talish 1 accompanied 
Mir Jumlah (Mir M. Said Ardistani, the Khan i Khanan.) during 
his campaign against Kuch Bihar and Assam in the fourth 
and fifth years of Aurangzeb’s reign, a.h. 1072/1 661-2 and 
1073/1662-3, and after the death of Mir Jumlah, who had sought 
to conceal the sufferings and losses of the Imperial army, desired 
to write a truthful account of the campaign, mainly with the 
object of bringing himself to the notice of the authorities and 
obtaining his recall from Bengal to the capital. r ■■ 

Fathiyah i Hbfiyah (or Hbratiyah), often called Tdrlkh 
i A sham or Tarikh i mulk i A sham, an account of Mir Jumlah's 
campaign, in a muqaddimah, on the causes of the expedition, 
and two maqdlahs ((1) Defeat of Bmi Narayan and conquest of 

1 Taligh is the name of a district and people in the north of Giian, see Ency, 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB 583 

Kuch Bihar, (2) Conquest of Assam) ending with Mir Jumlah’s 
death on his return to Khidrpur 2 Ramadan 1073/1(363, the 
year of composition : Blochet i 598 (a.h. 1073/1663, Possibly 
autograph), Banklpur vii 574 (“ not dated, but its appearance 
tends to suggest that it was written immediately after the 
composition”), 573 (a.h. 1181/1767. Written by the author’s 
grandson), 575 (18th cent. Calligraphic), Bodleian 240 (with a 
continuation to Sha f ban 1076/1666.4 N.d. Possibly autograph), 
241 (a.h. 1093/1682), 10. 4047 (defective. 17th cent.), Eth<5 
341-3, 344 (2) (extracts only), Rieu i 266a (a.h. 1170/1757), 
2665 (a.h. 1189/1775), iii 936a (circ. a.d. 1850), 9366 (circ. 
a.d. 1850), 10496 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), perhaps also 
ii 79 8 a (a.h. 1197/1783), Ivanow 157 (18th cent.), 158’ (19th 
cent.), Berlin 491 (a.h. 1206/1792), Browne Suppt. 225 (Christ’s), 
226 (Christ’s), 887 (Christ’s). 

Probably the TdviMi i Ashdm mentioned without author’s 
name in Iiindesiana p. 224 no. 156 (circ. a.d. 1760) is a copy 
of this work. : . : A ■; .. ? 

It is not clear from Rieu’s description whether the work which 
he calls “ Account of Kuch Bahar, and Assam, with a detailed 
narrative of the campaign of Khankhanan Muhammad Mu/azzam 
Khan ” (Rieu .ii 798a vi) is the Fathiyah i ‘ibnyah or not lie 
appends to the above description the words <£ see p. 266a ” 
(where the Fathiyah i ‘ ibnyah is described), but this manuscript 
does not occur in the index under FatMyah i ‘ ibnyah or Shihab 
al-Dln Palish. 

Edition: Tanlch i Ashdm, Calcutta 1264/1847°*. 

Abstract : Koch Bihar, Koch Ilajo, and Asdm, in the 16th 
and 17th centuries , according to the Akbarndmah, the Padislidh- 
ndmah , and the Falhiyah i ’ Ibriyah . By II. Blochmann (in 
JASB. 41 (1872) pp. 49-101). 

1 For a summary of this continuation and two long extracts see Jadunath 
Sarkar’s articles in the Journal of the. Asiatic Society of Bengal 1906 pp. 257-67 
( Shaista Khan in Bengal (1664- 66)) and 1907 pp. 405-18 ( The Conquest of 
Chatgaon, 1666 A.D.) and 419-25 (The Feringi pirates of Chat-gam, 1665 A.D.). 
The articles were reprinted by Sarkar in his Studies in Mughal India (Calcutta 
and Cambridge 1919). 



584 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Translated extract: Assam and the Ahoms in 1660 a. d. By 
Jadunalh Sarkar [being a translation of pp. 51-69 of Ivanow 
157 or 158] ( Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society 
vol. i (1915) 179-95). 

Urdu translation by Mir Bahadur 'All Husaini : Tdrikh i 
Ashdrn, Calcutta 1805°*. 

French translation from the Urdu : Tarikh-% Asham. Reeit 
de V expedition de Mir-Djumlah au pays d' Assam, traduit . . . 
par T. Pavie, Paris (Angers printed) 1845°*. 

744. Mir ‘All ‘Askari (commonly called Mir ‘Askar!) b. M. 
Taqi Khwafi was a disciple of the Shattarl saint Burhan al-Din 
Burhanpurl called Raz i Hah! (d. at Burhanpur a.h. 1083/1672-3, 
or 1089/1678. Bee p. 462 supra), whose discourses he collected 
in 1053/1643-4 under the title Thamardt al-haydt (see Ethe 1896, 
Ivanow 1278 etc.), and in allusion to whom he chose the toMallas 
“ Razi He was second Ba khsh i to Prince M. Aurangzeb, who 
on his accession conferred upon him the title of ‘Aqil Khan. 
After serving as Ddroghah of the Ghusl-kkdnah and as Ba khsh i 
i Tan , he was appointed Governor of the Province of Delhi in 
the 24th regnal year (a.h. 1091/1680-1092/1681) and he held 
this office until his death at the age of 82 in Rabf ii 1108/Oct.- 
Nov. 1696. 

‘Aqil Khan “ Razi ” was the author of a diicdn (Sprenger 467, 
Bodleian 1148) and of several mathnauns, e.g, the Muraqqa* 
(Ethe 1638, Berlin 962, Bankipur iii 361-2, Ivanow 812, Sprenger 
468), the Sham c u panvdnah (Ethe 1634-5, Bodleian 1149, 
Ivanow 811, Sprenger 469), and the Mihr u Mali (Ethe 1634, 1636, 
1637, Rieu ii 699a, Browne Suppt, 979 (Corpus 74), Ivanow 
Curzon 277, Sprenger 470. Edition : Lucknow, 1846 (acc. to 
Bankipur iii 361)). Some Sufistic meditations of his entitled 
Naghamat al-Rdzl were published at the end of ‘Abd al-Haqq 
Dihlawfs Mary al-bahrain at Fathpur in 1265/1849*. 

(Waqi c at i ‘Alamgm), or ( Zafar-namah i c Alamgiri ) 3 an 
anonymous history of the first five years of Aurangzeb’s reign 
ending with Safar I073/Sept.~0ct. 1662 (after which follows a 


M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB 585 

short note on Shah-Jahan’s death .in 1076/1666 ), ascribed some- 
times (in certain colophons and e.g. in Khafl Khan ii 32 13 ) to 
‘Aqil Khan “ RazI ”, but sometimes (see Rieu i 2655, Ethe 345) 
to Mir Khan, Subah-dar of Kabul (for whom, see Maidthir ah 
umard ’ ii 476-7, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 245-6) : Ethe 345 
(a.h. 1124/1712), 346 (a.h. 1204/1790), 10 . D.P. 695 (25th 
year of Md. Shah [a.h. 1155/1743]. In the colophon of this MS. 
the -work is ascribed to ‘Inayat Allah), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. 
(a.h. 1141/1728. Sec Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 
(Lahore, August 1926), p. 54), A§afiyah i p. 258 no. 600 (a.h. 1190/ 
1776-7), p. 248 no. 760 (defective at end. a.h. 1193/1779), 
Rieu i 265a (see Rieu’s Additions and Corrections, a.h. 1193/ 
1779), ii 7925 (a.h. 1232/1817), iii 9055 (19th cent.), 936a (19th 
cent.), 936a (a.h. 1261/1845), 936a (a.h. 1264/1848), 10265 xxxii 
(extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850), 10265 v (extracts only. Circ, 
a.d. 1850), 10545 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Browne Pers. 
Cat. 99 i (a.h. 1196/1782), Bankipur Suppt. ii 2263 (a.h. 1202/ 
1787), Ivanow 159 (slightly defective, a.h. 1252/1836-7), Curzon 
31 (a.h. 1226/1812), 698 (a.h. 1327/1909), Buhar 483 i (19th cent.). 

Edition : Wdqidt i ‘Alamgiri, Lahore [1936]:] (ed. by M. 
Abdullah Chaghtai). 

[. Mir’ at al-kkayal pp. 238-40 (Bodl. 374 no. 97) ; Kalimdt al~ 
skid am* (Sprenger p. Ill) ; Hamishah bahar (Sprenger p. 123) ; 
Safinah i Khwushgu (see Bankipur viii p. 86 ad fin .) ; Riydd 
al-shidara* ; Maathir al-umara 5 ii 821-3, Beveridge’s trans. 
pp. 264—6 ; Khulasat al-'kaldm no. 29 ; Makhzan al-ghard’ib 
no. 894 ; Ouseley Notices of Persian 'poets p. 167 ; Riydd al- 
afkdr (Bankipur Suppt. i p. 54) ; Sprenger pp. Ill, 123, 543; 
Shairi i anjuman p. 172 ; Rieu ii 699 ; Ethe 1896.] 

745. MunshI M. Kazim, b. M. Amin, a son of the author of 
the Pddshdh-ndmah (see p. 566 supra), was appointed MunshI 
by Aurangzeb in the first year of his reign and was subsequently 
ordered to compile a history of the reign from the official records. 
In the 21st year (a.h. 1088/167 7 —8) he was appointed Ddroghah 
of the Ibtiya* -Jchdnah (Mahathir i c Alamgiri p. 163). He died 
at Delhi in 1092/1681. 


586 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

4 Alamgir-namah) a history of the first ten years of Aurang- 
xeb's reign (to the end of Rajab 1078/15 Jan. 1668) : Muntakhab 
al-lubab ii 210, Lindesiana p. 194 no. 917 (a.h. 1113/1701-2), 
no. 817 (a.h. 1128/1716), no. 375 (a.h. 1249/1833-4), Blochet i 
595 (18th cent.), 596 (a.h. 1114/1702), 597 (defective. 18th cent-.), 
Eton 187, 188 (a.h. 1115/1703-4), Ivanow 160 (early 18th cent.), 
1st. Suppt. 762 (fragment. Late 18th cent.), Bodleian 243 
(a.h. 1130/1718), 244 (once owned by M. Shah), Efhe 347 
(a.h. 1131/1719), 348 (a.h. 1130), 349 (old), 350 (a.h. 1138/ 
1726), 351 (a.h. 1161/1748), 352-7, ii 3011 (n.d.), R.A.S. 
P. 131 = Morley 127 (a.h. 1150/1737), P. 132 - Morley 128 
(a.h. 1152/1739), P. 133 = Morley 129 (a.h. 1157/1744), P. 
134 = Morley 130 (a.ii. 1157/1744), P. 135 - Morley 131 (a.h. 
1225/1810), Rieu i 2666 (a.h. 1150/1737), 267a (a.h. 1184/ 
1778), 267« (18th cent.), 267& (early 18th cent.), 2676 (18th cent.), 
2676 (a.h. 1233/1818), 2676 (first part only == Calcutta ed. 
pp. 1-542), 2676 (1st half. 18th cent.), ii 8236 (victories over 
Jaswant Sing’h and Dara-Shukoh. a.d. 1717), Edinburgh 214 
(old), 215 (a.h. 1193/1779), Banklpur vii 576 (19th cent.), 577 
(19th cent.), ‘Aligarh Subhan Allah MSS, p. 58 no. 7 (defective 
at end), Aumer 264, Browne Suppt. 850 (n.d.), 851 (not later 
than a.d. 1754. Trinity), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (2 copies. 
See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) 
p. 54), Leyden hi p. 13 no. 924, Madras (2 copies). 

Edition: Calcutta 1865-73°* (ed. Khadim Husain and £ Abd 
al-Haiy. Bibliotheca Iudica). 

Extract with English translation : A description of Assam. 
Extracted from the. Alemgeernameh of Mohammed Cazim, and 
translated by IL Vansitlart (in The Asialick Miscellany , vol. i 
(Calcutta 1785*) pp. 458-80). The same English translation 
(without the Persian text) was published in The history of the 
first ten years of the reign of Alemgeer. Written . . . by M. Sakee. 
Translated by IL Vansitlart (Calcutta 1785°*) pp. 61-77, 

Description and 3 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii pp. 174-80. 

An abridgment (?) : Inlikhab i ‘Alamgm-namah [sic] BukMrl 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA * (c) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB 587 

Semenov 5. For M. Saqi Musta'idd Khan’s abridgment of this 
work see below. 

[‘ Alamgir-namah , preface ; Ta fikh i Muhammadi (Rieu iii 
895) fol. 256 ; Elliot and Dowson vii pp. 174-6 ; Rieu i 267, 
iii 10836.] 

746. Hatim Khan describes himself as a M anah-zad, i.e. the 
son of a court official. In the subscription to the B.M. MS. of 
his c Alamgvr-namali , which was transcribed in Aurangzeb’s 
47th year (a.h. 1115/1702), he is described as already dead. 

( c Alamgtr-namah), a history of the early part of Aurang- 
zeb’s reign abridged (with some additions) from M. Kazim’s work 
(see p. 586 supra) and stopping short at the beginning of the 
tenth year (p. 1038 in the printed text of M. K.’s ‘ Alatngvr-namah ): 
Rieu i 268a (a.h. 1115/1702), 

747. AUah-Yar b. Ilajji Muhammad- Yar Uzbak Balkhl. 

(1) Ausaf-namah i ‘ Alamgm, a panegyric on Aurangzeb 
in mixed prose and verse : Browne Pers. Cat. 100 (i) (bears 
Aurangzeb’s “bookplate” of a.h. 1081/1670-1). 

(2) A‘zam-namah, a similar panegyric on Prince M. A‘zam : 
Browne Pers. Cat. 100 (ii) (same MS.). 

748. Isar-Das Nagar, 1 a resident of Pattan, was from his 
youth to his thirtieth year in constant attendance upon the Qacll 
Shai kh al-Islam b. Qadi Abd al-Wahhab (Qadi i Lashkar a.h. 1086/ 
1675-6 — 1094/1683, d. at Ahmadabad a.h. *1109/1697-8). Subse- 
quently he was in the service of Shaja £ at Khan (Governor of 
Gujrat a.h. 1098/1686-7, d. 1113/1701-2), by whom he was 
made Amin in Jod’hpur. For a service rendered to the Imperial 
Court he was rewarded with a command of 250 men and a jagir 
at Meerut. 

Futuhdt i ‘Alamgiri) a history of Aurangzeb to the 34th 
year of his reign a.ii. 1101-2/1690-1 : Rieu i 269a (a.h. 1246/ 
1830), Edinburgh 218. 


1 “Name of a tribe of Gujarati Brahmans” (Platts). 



588 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


Description with a life of Isar Das : An old Hindu historian 
of Aumngzeb (in Jadunath Sarkar’s Studies in Mughal India 
(Calcutta and Cambridge 1919) pp. 242-9). 

English translation: see J, Sarkar op. oil. p. 242 ( £t I have 
made a full translation of it into English, which I intend to 
publish "). 

[Autobiographical statements (for which see Rieu and 
especially Sarkar op. ciL] 

749. Sh. Ra’fat (a nephew of M. Sana 5 ! (Rieu) or M. Surma [szc] 
Khan (Banklpur viii p. 100), or M. Thana Khan (Bodleian 395, 
no. 3001) “ YVahshat 55 Kashmir!) refers in his Futuhat i "Alamgi/n 
■to an unfinished work of his entitled AAnah i jahdn-numd on 
the contest of Aurangzeb’s sons for the throne. 

Futuhat i c Alamgiri 3 a rhetorical account of the victories 
of Aurangzeb, written after his death : Rieu iii 1038a (abstract 
only, from the unique copy belonging to ‘Ali M. Jhajharl. 
a.d. 1851). ■ ■■ - 

750. Bh!m-S§n son of Rag’hu-Nandan-Das, a Kayat’h (i.e. 
Kayast’ha), was born at Burhanpur in the year 17[0]5 of the 
Viler ami era (a.d. 1648-9) which he equates with Shah-Jahan’s 
23rd regnal year. He served in the Deccan wars of Aurangzeb’s 
time under Rao Dalpat, 1 a Biindelah chieftain in Aurangzeb’s 
service, and was for a. time commandant of the fort of Naldrug. 
After the defeat and death of Kam-ba khsh (a.h. 1120/1709) he 
left the, service and retired to Burhanpur. 

Dilgushd (TanJch i dilgushd or NusMiah i dilgushd), com- 
pleted a.h. 1120/1708-9, an account, based mainly on personal 
recollections, of military transactions in the Deccan from 
Aurangzeb’s march to Agrah (a.h. 1068/1658) to the defeat of 
Kam-ba khsh (a.h. 1120/1709) : Rieu i 271a (a.h. 1140/1728), 
Blochet i 602 (late 18th cent.), Eth6 445 (defective, “ only going 
down to about the thirtieth year of £ Alamg!r’s reign, a.h, 1089 
(a.d. 1687) ”). 

1 For Lis life see Ma'athir al-umara ’ ii 317 foil., Beveridge’s trans. pp. 442-6. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA f (c) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURAYGZEB 589 


Abridged English translation (made from the B.M. MS.) : 
Ferishta’s History of Dekkan . . . with a continuation from other 
native writers, of the events in that part of India ... By Jonathan 
Scott , Shrewsbury 1794°*, Vol. ii pp. 3-123. 1 

Description with a life of Bhim Sen : A great Hindu memoir- 
writer (in Jadunath Sarkar’s Studies in Mughal India (Calcutta 
and Cambridge 1919) pp. 231-41). 

[Autobiographical statements (for which see Rieu and 
especially Sarkar op. cit.).] 

751. Mlrza Nur al-Dln 2 M. “ ‘All ” b. Haldm Fath al-Dln 
Shiraz! belonged to a medical family of Shiraz. If not born in 
India, 3 he spent most of his life there. According to his own 
statement in the Bahadur- Shdh-ndmah (cited by Rieu, i p. 272a, 
where the passage is said to occur on fol. 44 of the B.M. MS. 
Or. 24) he entered the government service in Shah-Jahan’s reign. 
According to the Khizdnah i ‘ amirah (p. 344 1 ) he was for a period 
in Aurangzeb’s reign Superintendent (Ddroghah) of the Royal 
Kitchen ( Bawardfi-hhanah ) with the title Ni‘mat Khan (con- 
ferred upon him in 1104/1692-3 according to the prose preface 
to his diwdn. See Sprenger p. 328). At the end of the reign 
he was Keeper of the Crown J ewels (Ddroghah i J awdivir-khanaJi ) , 
with the title of Muqarrab Khan, and, as he tells us himself 
( Bahadur- Shdh-ndmah , loo. cit,), he kept the jewels at Gwalior 
during the warfare which followed Aurangzeb’s death and 

1 Aumngzehe’ s operations in Dekkan [ being “a free translation of a Journal 
kept by a Bondela officer, who attended Dulput Roy, the chief of his tribe, in 
all Aurangzcbe’s campaigns, which was presented to me by the Raja of 
Dutteah, a great grandson of Dulput Roy”]. 

2 See the prose preface to the diwdn and Sprenger p. 328. 

3 According to the Safinah i Khwushctu (Bankfpur viii p. 91) he “ was origin- 
ally from Mashhad ” and “ after performing the pilgrimage, he came to India 
in the middle of ‘Alamglr’s reign [sic, but we know from his own statement, 
if Rieu has correctly reported it, that he entered the government service in 
the time of Shak-Jahan], According to the Khizdnah i ' amirah (p. 343 penult.) 
Hakim Fatl.i al-Din came to India, and, “they say” ( guyand ), Mirza M. was 
born in India, went in his childhood (dar sighm' i sinn) to Shiraz with his father, 
was educated there and returned to India, where he entered the service of 
Aurangzeb. Of. liiydd al-ajkdr (Bankipiir Suppt. I p. 57), which is probably 
dependent on the Khizdnah i ‘amirah. 



590 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

delivered them to Bahadur-Shah on his accession. He then 
received the title Danishmand Khan and was ordered to write 
the official history of the reign. 1 According to the Tdrikh i 
Muliammadi 2 he died at Delhi 3 on 1 Rabr al-Awwal 1122/ 
30 April 1710. 4 

£< ‘All ” is famous as a satirist and wit. The Waqai', which is 
the best known of his satirical compositions, is still popular in 
India among those who read Persian. 

His cllwan lias been published (without the prose preface) at 
[Lucknow] in 1881° and at Cawnpore in 1894* ; the Hum u 
‘Ishq, an imitation of “ Pattahfs ” Husn u Dll, at [Cawnpore] 
in 1259/1843*, at Shahjahanabad [i.e. Delhi] in 1844°, at 
[Bombay ?] in 1265/1849* (preceded by the Waqai '), at [Luck- 
now] in [1783°] and at Lucknow in 1899° ; and the Jiuqa'at 
u MudJjihit at Lucknow in 1261/1845°*. 

Other works of his, such as the RdJiat al-qulub , satirical sketches 
of some contemporaries, and the Risalah i Hajiv i kukama , a 
satire on physicians, are described in Ethe 1659-62, Rieu ii 
7446, 796a, 8506, Bodleian 1157, 1159, and elsewhere. For the 
Bahadur- Shdh-namah see p. 600 infra. 

(1) Ruz-namah i waqa 3 i l i aiydm i muhasarah i ddr al~ 
jihad Haidarabad 3 usually 'called Waqd’M i Haidarabad , or 
Waqai/ i Ni/mat Khan i ‘AM, or Waqtrk i Gnlbmdah , a facetious 
and satirical account of Anrangzebls siege of Haidarabad 
a.h. 1097/1686 in mixed prose and verse: Edinburgh 375 ii 
(11th cent, if.), 82, Lahore Pan] ab Univ, Lib. ( a . h . 1131/1718-19. 
See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1926), p. 54), Eth<§ 1663 ( a . h . 1135/1723), 1659 ii (collated 
a . h . 1136/1723-4), 1664 ( a.il 1152/1739), 1665 (seal dated 
a . h , 1190/1776), 1661 i ( a . h . 1191/1777), 1660 iv (n.d.), 1662 ii 
(n.d.), 1666 (a.h. 1207/1792). 1667 (n.d.), 1668 (n.d.), Rieu ii 
74 5a ( a . h . 1151/1738), 858a ( a . d . 1782), 796a (18th cent,), 859a 

1 For this history, usually called the Bahiidur-Shuh-namah, see p. 000 infra . 

a See Eieu ii 703 a, ■Mi'" 

3 At Lahore according, to i: Khwnshgu ”. 

4 This precise date is probably correct, hut other dates are given elsewhere, 
1120 ( HamishaJi hahur ), 1121 {Dhmn i muntatchab, Sprenger p. lf>J, Khizaruxk 
i %mirah p. 344 3 ) and 1123 ( Safrn-ah i Klmushau). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB- 591 


(1st pt. only. 18th. cent.), 819 (a.d. 1819), 8546 (a.h, 1248/1832), 
8506 (a.h. 1250/1835), i 268a (19th cent.), 2686 (19th cent.), 
Lindesiana p. 204 no. 131a (circ. a.d. 1740), no. 780 (?) (a.h. 1236/ 
1820-1), no. 792/ (?) (circ. a.d. 1795), Eton 198 (a.h. 1187/ 
1773-4), Bankiphr Snppt. ii 2194 (a.h. 1195/1781), 2258 
(a.h. 1222/1807), 2329 (A.ir. 1222/1807), 2315 (a.h. 1248/1833), 
2219 (a.h. 1273/1856), Banklpur iii 370 iv (19th cent.), 371 (19th 
cent.), 878 vi, ix 1098 xviiic, Bodleian 1157 (5) (n.d.), 1159 (1). 
(a.h. 1209/1795), 1160 (defective), Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pcrs. 
A, iv 21 (n.d.), Apfiyah i p. 258 nos. 546 (n.d.), 587 (a.h. 1212/ 
1797-8), p. 260 nos. 752 (a.h. 1257/1841), 773 (a.h. 1212/1797-8), 
Blochet i 599 (18th cent.), iv 2326 (18th cent.), Ivanow 826 (4) 
(late 18th cent,), 1st Snppt. 778 (a.h. 1233/1817), 816 (28), 
Ivanow Curzon 111 (late 18th cent.), 112 (a.h. 1236/1821), 709 
(circ. a.d. 1845), Bombay Univ. 28 (a.h. 1225/1810), ‘Aligarh 
Subhan Allah MSS. p. 57 no. 954 (2) (a.h. 1244/1828-9), p. 58 
no. 6 (a.h. 1229/1814), Rehatsek p. 99 no. 53 (a.h. 1237/1821-2), 
Berlin 513, Madras (2 copies), Majlis 622 (4), Voilers 986 (1) 
(? “ Geschichte der Kampfe des Aurangzlb d 5 ). 1 

Editions : [India] 1248/1832-3 (together with the Hum u 
‘ Ishq . See Rieu i 2686), 1265/1849*, [1849 ?*], [Lucknow] 1260/ 
1844° (with marginal notes by Maqbfil Ahmad Gopamau’1 2 ), 
1264/1848°* (with M.A.’s notes), Lucknow 1859° (with M.A.’s 
notes), [place ?] 1261/1845 (Asaflyah i p. 260 no. 801), [place ?] 
1270/1853-4 (Asaflyah i p. 260 no. 258), Cawnpore 1869*, 1870° 
(with M.A.’s notes), 1878°* (with different notes), 1884f, 190 If, 
Calcutta 1915 (cd. Otto Rothfeld. See J HAS. 1916 p, 201). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 200-1. 

Commentaries: (1) SharJi i ahadTiyah bar Waqai' i Muham- 
madiyah , by c Abd Allah : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1300/ 
1883. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, 
August 1926), p. 55), (2) Maiidat al-fawaiid, by Ghulam- 
Makhdum, Mudarris in the Hoogly Madrasah : Lahore Punjab 


1 The words quoted by Voilers are those with which the prose preface to the 
di-wan opens, 

s Gopamau is 14 miles E. of Hardoi in Oudh. 



592 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1236/1821. See Oriental College Magazine, 
loc. cit .). 

(2) Jang-ndmah ? an account of Aurangzeb’s war against tlie 
Maharana of Udaipur and of the hostilities between Bahadur 
Shah and M. A'zam Shah after his death : Ivanow Curzon 162 v 
(late 18th cent. ?), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 761 (early 19th cent.), 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1261/1845. See Oriental College 
Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 55), Asafiyah 
i p. 236 no. 767 (a.h. 1271/1854-5), ‘Aligarh Subhan Allah MSS. 
p. 58 nos. 5 and 16, Banklpur xvii 1716 (19th cent.), Rieu iii 
10496 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

Editions : Lucknow 1259/1843*, 1261/1845° (two editions ?), 
1899f, Cawnpore 1279/1862°, 1877*, 1297/1880°*, 1884f, 1896f. 

English translations : (1) An English translation of Niamat 
Khan All's Jang Kama. With a concise and comprehensive 
substance of the booh and a short sketch of the authors life by 
Chandra Loll Gupta and Angan Lull Varma. Agrah, 1909°. 
(2) A faithful English translation of Jang Namah of Nimat Khan- 
i-Ali with a glossary of difficult words and phrases, references to 
allusions, d-c., By M. Baij Nath, Figar. Lucknow 1928*. 

English abstract : B.M. MS. Add. 30,779, foil. 200-48. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii p. 202. 

[Hamishah bahdr (Sprenger p. 127) ; Safinah i Khwushaii 
(Banklpur viii p. 91) ; KhafI Khan ii 338 17 ; Riyad al-shu c ard’ ; 
Tadhkirah i Husaini; Magma' al-nafais ; Yctd i baidai ; Sarw 
i Azcul; Diwan i muntaMab (Sprenger p. 151); KMzanah i 
‘dmirah pp. 333-46 (no, 82) ; Kewal Ram. Tadhkirat al-umara’, 
TdriMh i Muhammadi (Rieu iii 895) fol. 245 ; Makhzan al-gharaib 
no. 1675; Naghmah i ‘andalib; Riyad al-afkdr (Banklpur 
Suppt. i p. 56) ; Sprenger pp. 127, 151, 328 ; Elliot and Dowson 
vii p. 200 ; Rieu i 267, ii 703a, iii 1049 (the B.M. MS. Or. 2054 
contains extracts relating to Urniat Khan from several of the 
works mentioned above); Ency. I si, under Nibnat Khan 
(Berthels).] 

752. M. SaqI entitled Mustaddd Khan was brought up by 


I 


I M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( C ) THE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB 593 

I Bakhtawar Khan (see p. 132 supra), whom he served as Munshh 
and Diwan, and, in the last seventeen years of his life, assisted 
in the composition of the Mir' at al-dlam. After Bakhtawar 
Khan’s death he entered the Imperial service with a mansab, 
and held, the offices of Waqa'i'-nigar, Mushrif of the Naqqdsh- 
’ Ididnah (a.h. 1095/1684), Mushrif of the Jd-nmndz-khdnak 

I (a.ii. 1097/1683-4), Mushrif of the Khawdssdn (a.h. 1110/1698), 

I and Munshh i Nazdrat (a.h. 1113/1701). In the reign of 

| Bahadur Shah he was requested by his patron Tnayat Allah 

I Khan b. Mlrza Shukr Allah to compile a history of the forty 

| years of Aurangzeb’s reign which, owing to the prohibition of 

I historical writing, were not included in the c Alamgir-ndmah . 

I He died at Delhi on 20 Shawwal 1136/1724 at the age of seventy- 

live. 

Ma’athir i c Alamgiri (a chronogram = 1122/1710-11, the 
date of completion), a history of the reign of Aurangzeb, the first 
ten years (a later addition) being an abridgment of the ‘Alamgir- 
ndmah: Lindesiana p. 199 no. 446 (a.h. 1136/1723-4), Buhar 76 
(a.h. 1138/1725), Edinburgh 216 (a.h. 1145/1732), 217, 411 
(a.h. 1161/1748), Blochet i 600 (a.h. 1147/1734), 601 (a.h. 1148/ 
1735), Ethd 365 (a.h. 1154/1741), 366 (n.d.), 367 (a.h. 1211/ 
1796), 368 (defective), 369 (extracts only. a.h. 1148/1735), I.O. 
D.P. 760a (first ten years only, a.i-i. 1219/1804), Ivanow 164 
(a.h. 1154/1741-2), 165 (late 18th cent.), 166 (late 18th or early 
19th cent.), Berlin 492 (a.h. 1155/1742), Eton 189 (a.h. 1180/ 
1766-7), Rieu i 270a (18th cent.), 271a (18th cent.), 271a (18th 
cent.), iii 9366 (18th cent.), 9366 (a.ii. 1188/1774), 9366 (a.h. 1221/ 
1806), 937a (19th cent.), Banklpur vii 578 (lacks 1st ten years. 
a.h. 1202/1787), Suppt. 1767 (defective. a.ii. 1221/1806-7), 
R.A.S. P. 136 = Morley 132 (a.h. 1230/1814), Lahore Panjab 
Univ. Lib. (1st ten years. See Oriental College Magazine, yoL ii,/ 
no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 54), Bodleian 247, Mehren 60, 61. 

Editions: Calcutta 1870-3°* (ed. Agha Ahmad ‘All. Biblio- 
theca Indica), Agrah 1873f. 

Text and translation of years i-x : The History of the first ten 
years of the reign of Alemgeer, Written ... by Mohammed Saicee. 
Translated by H. Vansittarl. Calcutta 1785°*. 


Qq 


594 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Description and 14 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii 181-97. 

[Ma'dthir i ‘Alamgiri preface and pp. 254, 255, 278, 407, 462 ; 
Tankh i Mahammadl (Rieu iii 895) fol. 256 ; Rieu i 270, iii 
10836 ; Ency. I si. under Musta'idd Khan.] 

753. Of the three recorded manuscripts which contain Sadiq 
Khan’s Shdh-Jahmi-nmnah (see p. 577 supra ) two (namely the 
Elliot MS. Or. 1671 (Rieu iii 10086) in the British Museum and 
the Rampfir MS.) contain also a prefaceless history of Aurangzeb’s 
reign which to a large extent agrees closely with the corresponding 
part of Khaff Khan’s history but which speaks of Shah- £ Alam 
(Bahadur Shall) as the reigning sovereign and must therefore 
have been written about twenty years earlier than [the completion 
of] the MmtaMab al-lubab (see p. 468 supra). To Rieu it seemed 
highly probable that it was an early draft of Khai'I Khan's account 
of Aurangzeb’s reign, but Professor Sri Ram Sharma has recently 
examined the Rampur MS. and has been led to a different con- 
clusion. In an article entitled A new [?] contemporary history of 
Aurangzeb' s reign , which he published in the JRAS. for 1936, 
pp. 279-83, he states 1 that the author mentions his name in 
several places and that he is Abu 1-Fadl Ma'murL 

A certain Mir Abu ’1-Fadl Mafiiiui served for many years with 
the hu malts in the Deccan during Shah-Jalians reign and won 
the esteem and friendship of successive Governors, including 
Aurangzeb. When the latter encamped at the Narbadah on his 
northward march to claim the succession to Shah-Jahan’s throne, 
Abu T-FacU's mansab was increased to 1 000/4 00. 2 After the 
victory over das want it was raised to 1500/500 and he received 
the title of Mahnur Khan. Shortly afterwards lie was murdered 
by the disgruntled general Najabat Khan, to whom he Had 
been sent with a message from Aurangzeb (see Khali Khan ii 
pp. 47 1 " 7 , 111 1-2 , Ma'dthir al-umara iii pp. 506 2 * “ 4 , 820 1: ' Mri ). 

1 Prof. Sharma does not quote the actual words on which his conclusions 

are based. ;■ V’v yV\V 

2 This is the notation adopted by W. H, Moreland in his article Bank 

( mansah ) m the Mogul State Service ( J BAS. 1936 pp. 641-65). 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMIJRIDS (7) AURANGZEB 595 

Evidently, therefore, the history of Aurangzeb’s reign cannot 
have been written by him. It is conceivable that at a later 
period there may have been another official bearing the name 
Abu ’1-Facll Mahnfm, but judgment must be suspended until 
more evidence is available. The autobiographical details which 
Professor Sri Ram Sharma has found in the history may 
eventually lead to the identification of the author. “ Early in 
Aurangzeb’s reign,” says Professor Sharma, ^ he seems to have 
been appointed Darogha-i-Buyiitat which office he occupied for 
thirty years till the thirty-sixth year of Aurangzeb’s reign. 
Towards the end of the year 25 he was appointed W a qa ' -i-H aw is 
[><'c] of Burhanpur to hold it along with his old appointment as 
a Mlr-i-Sam.an. In the year 1686 he was sent to the army com- 
manded by Prince A c zam with some important instructions. 
In the year 36 of Aurangzeb’s reign, he was appointed Mir-i- 
Bahr. He seems to have either continued in the department of 
Buyutat or was again reverted thereto, as we find him visiting 
the army besieging Panhala with certain important papers in 
the year 44. In the year 46 he was employed as a negotiator on 
behalf of the besieging Mughal commanders to settle the terms 
of surrender with Parsrama, the . commander of the fort of 
Klielna, which they were besieging. He seems to have survived 
Aurangzeb.” 

History of Aurangzeb 3 s reign, beginning abruptly in the 
year 1068 and agreeing to a large extent with. Khafi Khan’s 
account : Rieu iii 10085 (a.h. 1244/1829), Rampur (modern. 
See JRAS. 1936 p. 281). 

754, ‘Inavat Allah Khan b. Mirza Shukr Allah Kashmiri was 
bom in Kashmir in 1063/1653 (. TdnTch i Mulmmmadl (B.M. MS. 
Or. 1824 = Rieu iii 895) fol. 260. Cf. Rieu iii 10835 ad mb). 
He became Waqai-nigur in the 28th year of Aurangzeb’s reign, 
a Han in the 35th year, Dlwdn i Tan in the 36th and Diwan i 
Khdlisah, in the 45th. In Jahandar Shah’s reign he was appointed 
Nazim of Kashmir. In Famihh-siyar’s reign he was Diwan i 
Khdlisah , Dmdn i Tan and also Subah-ddr of Kashmir, the last 
office being administered by a deputy. In the time of 



596 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Muhammad Shah he was Mir-Sdman and for a time deputy 
Wazir. He died at Delhi on 7 Kabl £ i 1138/1725 (according 
to the Tankh i Muliammadi, cited in Eieu iii 10835 ad 2705) 
or in 1139/1726-7 (according to the Ma’athir al-umara' i 
p. 831 5 ). 

According to the Ma’athir al-umara ii 831 1 'Inayat Allah 
Khan Kashmiri made a collection of royal orders issued through 
him. and addressed to the princes and amirs. To this collection 
he gave the title AMam i ‘Alamgiri, and, according to the 
Maldthir al-umara, it was a well-known (mutaddwal) work, 
like his other compilation, the Kalimat i taiyibdt , 2 a collection of 
letters written by Aurangzeb himself. At the present time 
there are only a few' recorded manuscripts bearing the title 
AhJeam i ‘ Almngin . One of these (1.0. 3887) begins with a short 
preface, 3 in which Tnayat Allah says that for some years it 
had been his duty to write orders on behalf of Aurangzeb to the 
royal princes, to sultans and amirs and that after Aurangzeb’s 
death he had collected these and given them the title Ahkdm i 
‘Almngin. -V: 

Ahkam l c Alamgiri (beginning of preface : Bald i hamd i 
nd-mahdud . . . wadih bad kill faqyr ‘ Inayat Allah . . . ; heading 
of first huhn : Ba-jandb i muqaddas i hadrat i Badshah i Khuld- 
Ardm-gdh . . . ; beginning of first hukm : Dar-m-wild az naivishtah 
i M. Aslam Khan maWud i 'pish-gah i falak-iHild gardid . . .), a 

1 Khuld-Makan inshu u imla i u rd mi-pasandtd. Alika mi kih ba-wasdtat 
i u ba-nam i padshdh-zddahd u umard sudur ytiflah faraham kardah ba-Ahkam i 
1 Alamgiri mausum mkhtah. U shuqqahd i dastkhaid i padaluih niz jam’ kardah 
Kalimat i taiyibdt mini gudhashtah . Har du nuskhah mutaddwal asi. 

2 For the Kalimat i taiyibdt, compiled in 1131, see Eieu i 401a, Etlie 373-4, etc. 

3 In view of the fact that I.O. 3887 was, according to W, Irvine’s note on a 
fly-leaf, transcribed from a manuscript in the Banklpur Public Library [evidently 
identical with no. 2017 in. ‘Abd al-Muqtadir’s Supplement, vol. ii], it is surprising 
to learn from ‘Abd al-Muqtadir’s description that “ The MS. is defective towards 
the. beginning, and neither the editor’s name, nor the title of the work, is given 
in the work. . . , The copy, without a preface, opens abruptly thus with a 
letter to Shah Alain Bahadur Shah before his accession to the throne 
Dar-m-iuild az nawisktah i Muhammad Aslam Khan . , .” Evidently the 
preface has disappeared since 1909, when the manuscript was copied, unless the 
copyist supplied it from some other source. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) TIIE TIMURIDS (7) AURANGZEB 597 


collection of letters 1 from Aurangzeb to liis sons and various 
officials : Bankipur Suppt. ii 2017 (19th year of M. Shah (a.h.1149/ 
1736-7), I.O. 3887 (= Irvine 469. Transcribed from the pre- 
ceding MS. in 1909. Described on fol. la as hissah i awwal, but 
there seems to be nothing to show definitely how much of the 
work is contained in the volume). 

The collection of anecdotes incorporating orders of Aurangzeb 
which has been published by Sir Jadunat’h Sarkar under the title 
Ahkam i ‘Alamgln is different from the work, or the part of it, 
described above. According to Sarkar (introduction p. 32) the 
work published by him is “ the Ahkam-i-Alamgiri, attributed 2 
to the pen of Hamiduddin Khan (surnamed Nimchah-i-Alamgiri), 
whose life is given in the Masir [sm]-ul-umara, i. 605-611. But of 
this authorship there is no proof, and none of the three MSS. 
bears his name”. 

Ahkam i ‘Alamgiri (?), beginning Dhu ’ l-Faqar Khan Bahadur 
Nusrat-Jang dar waqtl Jrih az fath i Jinjl amadah , 3 a collection 
of anecdotes incorporating the orders issued by Aurangzeb in 
respect of the circumstances narrated : I.O. 4071 (== Irvine 
340. 19th cent.), 3987 (= Irvine 252. Transcribed in 1898 from 
the preceding MS.), 3388 (a fragment. See Sarkar’s introduction, 
p. 32), Rampur Nawwab £ Abd al-Salam Khan (see Sarkar’s 
introduction, pp. 32-3). 

Edition : A hkam-i-A lamgiri (Anecdotes of Aurangzib). Persian 
text [rearranged], with an English translation, notes and a Life 
of Aurangzib, by Jadunath Sarkar . . . Ahkam i ‘Alamgln tasnlf 
i Hamid al-Dln Khan Nlmchah i ‘ Alamgln ma‘ah tar jamah u 
tafslr . . . , Calcutta 1912 J. 

English translation : see Edition above. The same translation, 

1 These arc actually letters, or extracts from letters, and quite different 
from the collection published by Sarkar, which, as stated below, consists of 
anecdotes or brief historical narratives leading up to the orders issued by 
Aurangzeb in respect of the circumstances narrated. 

2 Sarkar does not say where this attribution is to be found, or by whom it 
was made. 

3 This anecdote is the 28th in Sarkar’s (rearranged) edition. 


598 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

without the Persian text, was published in a volume entitled 
Anecdotes of Aurangzib and historical essays by Jadunath Sarkar 
at Calcutta in 1912* and 1925* (2nd ed., revised). 

755. Other works relating to Aurangzeb : 

(1) ‘Aitl al-jindn J or Waqa'% i Nawwdb Khan dar lashkar i 
Aurangzeb , in mixed prose and verse : Browne Suppt. 878. 

(2) Aurang-namahy “A poem by ‘Haqm 5 (a Roz-bihani 
soldier posted in Bengal), often agrees with Ma-sum ; ends with 
execution of Dara 55 : Asaflyah i p. 220 no. 603 (a.h. 1196/1782. 
See The Cambridge History of India, iv p. 582, from which the 
above description (by Sarkar) is quoted). 

(3) Detailed history of Delhi , particulars of the Emperors' 
movements, lists of mansabs, etc. from the time of Aurangzeb 
to that of Farrukh-siyar, with a summary account of preceding 
reigns : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, 
vol. ii no. 4 (Aug. 1926) p. 58 no. 70). 

(4) Gulshanf by M. Salih. “Dated 1070 by the author” : 
Eton 190. 

(5) Iftitah i sultani , a poetical account of Prince Aurang- 
zeb’s war with the Uzbaks and Nadhr M. Khan, the ruler of Balkh, 
written in 1057/1647 by “ ‘Alawi ” or '“‘Ulwl” : Buhar 394 
(a.h. 1150/1737-8). 

(6) Nasal ih of Aurangzeb to his sons and officials : Berlin 
82 (5) (a.h. 1199/17 84—5^. 

(7) N azm al-muluky a nmthuuei giving a history of India 
from the accession of Aurangzeb to the reign of Farrukh-siyar : 
Bleu iii 10566 (extracts only. Giro, a.d, 1850). 

(8) Salat i nahdat i { Alamglr Padshdh s time-table of 
Aurangzeb’ s marches from 3 Rabf ii 1066 to 4 Jumada ii in 
the 34th (36th 1} regnal year, a.h. 1103 : Blochet i 703 foil. 

1 This work is placed in Margoliouth’s catalogue among his histories of 
Aurangzeb, but, if it was “dated 1070 by the author”, it. cannot extend 
beyond the beginning of his reign/: ■y : ;'y:A'- v/y;y; ./ i-v 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA ! (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 599 

107-16 (cf. Ency. I si. Awrangzeb, bibliography. 19th cent.), 
Edinburgh 223. 

(9) Short extract dealing with Aurangzeb’s expeditions against 
Jaswant Singh : Ivanow Curzon 697 (19th cent.). 

(10) Short life of Aurangzeb (beginning Sipds i bi-qiyas i da ill 
Wahid) written apparently in the latter half of the 18th century : 
Blochet i 603 (late 18th cent.). 

(11) Tarikh i ‘Alamgiri, by ‘Abd al-Haiy : Asafiyah i 
p. 226 no. 764. 

(12) Tarikh i ‘Alamgiri, by Ahmad-Quli Safawi : ‘Aligarh 
Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 9. 

(13) Titles of the princes and amirs of Aurangzeb’s reign : 
Rieu iii 995a (circ. a.d. 1850). 

(14) WaqaH c i Dak?han y an account of events in the Deccan 
in Shah-Jahan’s reign: Blochet i 620 (18th cent.), Asafiyah i 
p, 258 no. 417 (a.h. 1287/1870-1). 

(15) Wasitat al-iqd , by Mir M. Fadl, “ on the events of 
his own time (Aurungzib’s reign) ” : Lindesiana p. 193 no. 793 
(a.h. 1114/1702). 

(16) Wasiyat-namah : Rieu ii 799a iv, iii 1007a, I.O. D.P* 
898, Ivanow 935(3). 

(17) Unidentified history of Aurangzeb: Caetani33 (ornate MS.). 

756. For the Muntalchab al-lubdb of Khafi Khan see pp. 468-70 
supra. 

For Sh. M. Murad’s history of Aurangzeb and his successors to 
the 21st year of Muhammad Shah’s reign see p. 610 infra. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA (c) THE TlMURIDS (8) THE 18 th 

CENTURY 

757. (1) Adz am aTharb , a detailed account of A c zam Shah’s 
brief reign (10 Dhu ’l-Hijjah 1118/15 March 1707-18 Rabf i 
1119/19 June 1708), by Kamraj : see p. 606 infra. 


600 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


(2) Jang-ncimah i Muhammad Mu' azzam Shah u A' gam 
Shah) by £ Ata’ Allah : Asafiyah i p. 236 no. 761 (defective at end). 

(3) Note on the struggle that followed the death of Aurangzeb : 
Ivanow Curzon 700 (19th cent.). 

(4) Waqcdi' ijang i Bahadur [Shah] Shah- Alam ghazi 
u M. A' gam Shah ghazi wa-ghairah shah-zadaha i wala- 
tabar wdqi‘ ba-tankh i yazdahum i sha.hr i RabV al-Thdm sanah 
i 1117 (? 1118) Iiijn Nabawiyah u panjdh u yah azjulus bud : 
Aberystwyth 9 (6). 

758. Mirza Nur al-Dln M. “ ‘All ”, entitled successively Ni‘mat 
Khan. Muqarrab Khan and Danishmand Khan, who died in 
1122/1710, has already been mentioned (pp. 589-92 supra) as 
the author of the W aqd’i* i Haidardbad and the J any-ndmah. 

(1) Jang-ndmah) an account of Aurangzeb ! s war against the 
Maha-raiia of Udaipur and of the hostilities between Bahadur 
Shah and M. A £ zam Shah after his death : see p. 592 supra. 

(2) {Bahadur- Shdh-namah) or (TariM i .Shah- Alam Baha- 
dur-Shdh ), the official detailed history of Bahadur Shah’s first 
two years : Ethi 1659 i (abridged recension. Collated a.h. 1136/ 
1723-4), 385 (not later than a.h. 1196/1782), 386 (an 
abridged recension, a.h. 1195/1781), 387 (the same abridged 
recension, a.h. 1217/1803), 1670 (abridged recension), Ross and 
Browne 10 (18th cent.), 1.0. 3933, 3990 (a.o. 1897), Bodleian 256 
(a.h. 1161/1748 ?), Lindesiana p. 204 no. 162 (circ. a.d. 174(U60)j 
Rieu ii 745a, (a.h. 1151/1738), i 272a (a.ii. 1196/1782), iii 937 b 
(a.h. 1849), 1028a (extracts only. Circ. a.h. 1850), Aumer 265 
(a.ii. 1198/1784), Browne Suppt. 189 (n.d.). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 568. 

759. Apparently in the reign of Jahandar Shall (a.h. 1124/1712) 
was written 

A florid, but circumstantial, work, of which detached fragments 
(20 foil.) relating to the reigns of Bahadur Shah and Jahandar 
Shah are preserved in Rieu Suppt. 79 (18th cent. Pictures). 


M. HISTORY OE INDIA *. (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18 tH CENTURY 6Q1 

760. Mlrza Mubarak Allah “ Wadih ” entitled Iradat Khan 
(‘Alamgrn) was the son of Mir Ishaq 1 entitled likewise Iradat 
Khan (Shah-Jahani, d. 1068/1658 m SubaMar of Oudh) who was 
himself the son of Mir M. Baqir Sawaji entitled first Iradat Khan 
(Jahanglrl) and afterwards A'zam Khan (see MFdthir al-umara* 
i 174—80). He must have been born in 1059/1649 (since he was 
67 in 1126/1714). In Aurangzeb’s 33rd year, a.h. 1100/1689, 
he was appointed Faujddr of Chaknah 2 3 and in the 40th year, 
a.h. 1108/1697, Faujddr of Aurangabad. It was in this year that 
he received the title of Iradat Khan. In the 47th year, a.h. 1114/ 
1703, he was QaVah-dar of Gulbargah, and subsequently he 
beeame QaVah-ddr and Faujddr of Mandu. When Prince Bedar- 
baMit, the son of M. A s zam, was appointed Governor of Malwah, 
Iradat Khan became one of his intimate friends. After Bahadur 
Shah’s death Iradat Khan espoused the cause of Azlm al-Shan. 
During Jahandar’s reign he remained in retirement. He died 
a.h. 1128/1716 in the reign of Farrukh-siyar (according to the 
Natd/ij al-afkdr ). 

In poetry he was a pupil of M. Zaman “ Rasikh 5! 3 (see the 
Safmah i Kfnu ushgu ( R ankipur viii pp. 93, 86)). He was the 
author of a mathnawl entitled A’inah i rdz (see Ethe 1674). 

For copies of his dlwdn, or of selections from it, see Etlie 
1674-5, Ivanow 834, Sprenger 551, etc. 

1 This pedigree seems so well attested that it is surprising to find after the 
fad al-khitab in some {most ?) MSS. of the Memoirs words in which the author 
ostensibly calls himself the son of Kif ay at Khan Shikastah-nctwls (the actual 
words are : . . . fa-ba'd chimin guyad jami 1 u mu’alUf i In sawanify u waqdH ‘ 
bandah i hhaksar i gunahgar Mubarak Allah mutakhaUis bi-Wadifr walad i 
maghfirat-mshan Kif an at Khan Shikasiah-nawis Mh chun Kalimat i ‘dliy&t etc.). 
There seems to be no evidence that Mir Isliaq ever bore the title Kifayat Khan, 
(though Beale and Ethe say so), and this title was borne by a celebrated writer 
of shikastah, M. Ja'far b. M. Muqim Khan, who was Dlwdn i Tan and Dlwdn i 
Khalisah to Shah- Jahan and who died at Delhi in 1095/1684 (see the Tadhkirah 
i klyimshnawlsdn p. 105, Ma'athir i Alamgln p. 247, Islamic culture, vol.ix, . 
no. 3 (July 1935) p. 421). 

2 “ Chalcna, a place frequently mentioned . . . lies a little north of Puna. 
See an. account of Chakna in Grant Duff’s History of the Mahrattas, vol. i, 
p. 61 ” (Elliot and Dowson vii p. 256 n.). 

3 According to the Safinah i Khwushgu Iradat Khan’s mother was a sister 
of “ Rasikh’ s ”, but this is contrary to statements made elsewhere. 


602 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Tarikh i Iradat Khan , completed A.H. 1126/1714, memoirs of 
tlie seven years from Aurangzeb’s death, in 1118/1707 to Farrukh- 
siyar’s entry into Delhi in Muharram 1125/1713 : Ethe 389 
(earlier than a.d. 1804), 390 ( 4{ copied from the original in the 
Possession of the King of Delhi ”), I.O. 3925 (a.ii. 1304/1886), 
4031 (foil. 46-64®. Fragment only, rather more than half of the 
work), Ivanow Curzon 34 (early 19th cent.), Banklpur vii 579 
(19th cent.), Rieu iii 938® (circ. a.d. 1850), 9386 (circ. a.d. 1850), 
10496 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

Urdu translation : Sawanili- C iimn i Iradat Khan by Ashraf 
Shams! HaidarabadI, Haidarabad (date ?) (see Haiderabad 
Coll. p. 23). 

Abridged English translation : A translation of the Memoirs 
of Eradut Khan . . . By J. Scott, London 1786°*, and, as part iv 
of Ferishtas History of Dekkan . . . By J. Scott, Shrewsbury 
1794°* (unsold copies printed in 1786 being simply bound in). 

Description and 28 pp. of translated extracts (from Scott's 
translation) : Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 534-64. 

[Mir at al-hhayal pp. 307-8 (Bodl. 374 no. 112) ; Hamishah 
bahdr (Sprenger p. 130) ; Safmah i Khmtshyu (Banklpur viii 
p. 93) ; Ma'dthir ai-umara' i 204 ult-205 11 ; Majma" al-nafd'is ; 
Sanv i Azdd ; <c Siraj ” Diwdn i muntakhab (Sprenger p. 151) ; 
Maqaldt al-sku‘ard > (Sprenger p. 160); Tadhkirat al-umand ; 
MaJchzan al-yhardiib no. 2990 ; Sprenger pp. 130, 160, 583 ; 
Rieu i 938.] 

761. Nur al-Din b. Burhan al-Din Faruqi was descended from 
a Balkhi who accompanied Babur to India, fought at Kama 1 
and settled at Multan. On Aurangzeb’s death, when Bahadur 
Shah instructed his son B!u £ izz al-Din, then Governor of Multan, 
to collect an army, Burhan al-Din Faruq! joined the army and 
took his son with him. Shortly after Bahadur Shah’s death 
(20 Muharram 1124) Nur al-Din Faruqi was present at the 
storming of \AzIm al-Sha’n’s entrenchment. He complains that 
although he had worked hard between the death of Bahadur Shah 
and that of Rafi' al-Sha’n, he received no promotion. When 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 603 

Jahandar Shall advanced from Delhi to Agrah to meet Farrukh- 
siyar, Nur al-Din and his father at the head of 600 horsemen 
were posted in the advanced guard. They were forced to give 
way, and took refuge with ‘Abd al-Samad Khan’s troops. In 
Farrukh-siyar’s reign Burhan al-Din Faruqi remained for some 
time in the service of ‘Abd al-Samad Khan. He then took part 
in Nawwab Husain ‘All Khan’s expedition against Ajlt Sing’ll, 
but when the army set out on the return march from Kajputana 
to Delhi, he parted company with them and returned home to 
Multan. Nur al-Din Faruqi then settled in the Mahallah Faruqi- 
yan in Old Delhi. When S. ‘Abd Allah Khan sent ‘Abd al-Samad 
Khan to be Subaddr of Lahore and to quell the insurrection of 
Gobind Sing’h, Nur al-Din Faruqi took, the opportunity of 
revisiting his home after eleven years and accompanied the army 
to the Panjab. His father was ill in bed when he arrived and 
died a month later on the 20th of Rabf ii [a.h. 1227 apparently]. 
Unwilling to remain in Multan on account of the oppression of 
the Sik’hs, Nur al-Din returned to Delhi, which he found in a 
disturbed state owing to the hostility between Farrukh-siyar and 
S. ‘Abd Allah Khan. After enduring troubles of various kinds 
for five months he visited the shrine of the Sultan al-Mashayikh 
[i.e. Nizam al-Din Auliya’, for whom see Ency. I si. under Nizam 
al-Din] and, invoking his help, started to write his account of 
the occurrences in which he had taken part. Already in the 
time of Bahadur Shah he had witnessed the official recording of 
events, and, feeling a strong desire to write history, he had 
composed a Jang-ndmah . Dissatisfied with it, however, he had 
destroyed it. When Yusuf Khan was instructed to record the 
events of Farrukh-siyar’s time, Nur al-Din Faruqi was often 
in his presence and took much interest in his writing. Yusuf 
Khan, however, told him that historiography was better avoided, 
since it produced only Dead Sea fruit. 

Jahanddr-ndmaky an account of the struggle between 
Jahandar Shah [Muhzz al-Din, the eldest son of Shah-‘Aiam 
Bahadnr Shah. See Ency. I si, under D jahandar Shah] and his 
three brothers after their father’s death, his brief reign in the 
year 1124/1712, his defeat by his nephew Farrukh-siyar and his. 



604 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

death, completed in DM ’1-Qa‘dali 1127/1715: LO. 3988 
(probably a.d. 1892). 

762. It was at the request of the Qutb al-aqtab Shah Shukr 
Allah that Sh. M. Mun‘im Ja‘farabadl wrote his 

Farnikh-namah) a history of the years 1124/1712 and 
1125/1713 in eighteen dastdns dealing with the struggles of 
Bahadur Shah’s sons until the accession of Farrukh-siyar : 
Ethe 388 (a.ii. 1128/1716). 

763. Khwaiah M. Khalil played an active part in the military 
events of the period which followed Aurangzeb's death. He 
displays a strong bias in favour of the Saiyids, Husain ‘All 
Khan and ‘Abd Allah Khan. 

( Tarikh i Shahanshahi ),* a history of the events following 
Aurangzeb’s death to the beginning of Farrukh-siyar’s reign : 
Buhax 79 (18th cent.). 

764. Mir M. Ahsan “Ijad” served for a time in Gujrat with 
the army of Prince M. A'zam and while there made the 
acquaintance of the poet Mlrza “Bedil” and the Naqshbandi 
saint Shah Gulshan [for the latter of whom see Bankipur viii 
p. 98]. Subsequently he became Faujddr of Etawah. In 
Bahadur Shah’s reign he entered the service of the Nawwab 
Nizam al-Mulk and through him obtained a mansab of 300 
under Prince ‘Azmi al-Shan. In Farrukh-siyar’s reign he was 
appointed to write a court chronicle. According to the Dvwdn i 
muntaMmb he died in 1133/1720-1 (according to the Hamishah 
bahdr in 1131/1718-19 or soon after). 

(1) Farrukhsiyar-'fidmahy a prolix and pompous history of 
Farrukhsiyar’s minority and the early years of his reign (to 
a.t-t. 1125/1713) : Rieui 273a (18th cent,), LO. 3958 foil. 167-210 
(extracts only. Late 18th cent.), Aumer 265 (2) (the first four of 
the same extracts = 1. 0. 3958 foil. 1676-1936, Called in the 


3 This title occurs on a fly-leaf. No title is mentioned by the author. 


M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 605 

colophon Tatimmah i Bahddur-Shdh-ndmaK a.h. 1198/1784), 
perhaps also Eton 193, which is described as a FanuJchsiyar- 
ndmah but of which the author’s name is not mentioned in the 
catalogue, and Asafiyah iii p. 96 no. 1 492 ( Tankh i Farrukh- 
siyon. Author not stated. Damaged, a.h. 1247/1831-2). 

(2) Tankh i futuhat i Asafi, manzum (Shah-namah i 
Dakan), a poem on the events of forty years in India and the 
conquests of Asaf-Jah : Asafiyah iii p. 96 no. 1493 (defective at 
both ends. a.h. 1133/1720-1). 

[Sarkhwush, Kalimat al-shibara ; Ilamtshah balm (Sprenger 
p. 117) ; Safmah i Khwushqu (cf. Bankipur viii p. 95) ; Biwan 
i muntalckab (Sprenger p. 149) ; Khulasat al-afkar (Bodl. 391 
no. 318) ; Makhzan al-ghard’ib no. 210; Rieu i 273a.] 

765. An author who was serving as Na’ib under £ Arif Beg 
Khan, Governor of Lahore, at the time of ‘Abd al-Samad Khan’s 
expedition against the Sik’hs wrote in Farrukh-sivar’s reign 

An account of Farrukh-siyar’s accession and of e Abd 
al-Samad Khan’s expedition against the Sik’hs (which ended 
with the capture and execution of Banda in 1126), being, accord- 
ing to Rieu, a fragment of a larger chronicle : Rieu ii 8606 (19th 
cent.). 

766. An author at present unidentified wrote 

Nazrn al-muluk, a mathiawi giving a history of India from 
the accession of Aurangzeb to the reign of Farrukh-siyar and 
concluding with a record of the honours conferred upon 'Abd 
al-Samad Khan, who is called Saif al-Daulah, a title bestowed 
upon him in 1127 as a reward for his victory over the Sik’hs and 
who died as Subak-ddr of Multan in 1150 : Rieu iii 10566 (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

767. The following is catalogued under the heading Musaw ~ 
wadat : 

A detailed history of Delhi, particulars of the Emperor’s 
movements, lists of mansabs, etc. from the time of Aurangzeb 


606 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

to that of Farrukh-siyar, with a summary account of preceding 
reigns : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, 
vol. ii no. 4 (Aug. 1926) p. 58 no. 70). 

768. Other works relating to Farrukh-siyar: 

(1) Brief account of Farrukh-siyar (beg. : Farrukh-siyar bad- 
shah shudah ) : Browne Pers. Cat. 76, I.O. 3955. 

(2) Farrukhsiyar-namah : Eton 193 (author not stated). 

(3) Tankh i Farrukhsiyari : Asafiyah iii p. 96 no. 1492 
(author not stated. Damaged, a.h. 1247/1831-2). 

769. Mirza M. b. MiPtamad Khan (Rustam), who was born 
in 1098/1687, has already been mentioned (p. 141 supra) as the 
author of the Tankh i. Muhammadi begun in 1124/1712-13. 

( £ Ihrat-namah 1 ), memoirs of the author from 1117/1705-6, 
the year before Aurangzeb’s death to the accession of Raff 
al-Darajat in 1131/1719 : Bankipur vii 623 (early 19th cent. 
Full analysis), Eth6 392, 2834, 1.0. 3741 (early 19th cent.), 
4031 (defective. 19th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 699 (begins with 
a.h. 1118. 19th cent.). 

The statement made by Ethe (and, presumably on his 
authority, by ‘Abd al-Muqtadir) that “ These memoirs were 
translated by Captain Jonathan Scott 1786 ” is apparently due 
to a confusion of the ‘ Ibmt-nmuih with the Tankh i I rddat 
Khan (for which see p. 602 supra). 

770. Kamraj son of Nain-Sing’h b. Bindraban, a Saksenah 
KayastTi and a resident of Phaphund (a town 36 m. E. of Eta wall 
in. the U.P.), calls himself a born servant of M. Aizam Shall, 
and says that Iris ancestors for three generations had been in the 
Imperial service. His father, Nam-SingJi, accompanied M. A‘zam 
to Maiwah in 1118/1706-7 as plsh-dast in the Imperial artillery. 

(1) A c gam al-harb} a detailed account of A'zam Shah’s brief 

1 The author does not formally give this title to the work, but he speaks 
of himself from time to time as raqhn i in ‘ ibrat-numah . Though not necessarily 
intended to he the title, it may be accepted, as a convenient substitute. 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURJDS (8) 18tII CENTURY 607 

reign (10 Dim M-Hijjah 1118/15 March 1707 — 18 Rabl : i 1119/ 
19 June 1708) : Rieu iii 937 a (circ. a.d. 1850. Copied from an 
autograph in the Mot! Mahall, Lucknow), iii 1053 (extracts 
only. From an autograph. Giro. a.d. 1850). 

(2) * Ibrat-namah} a history of India from a.h. 1118/1707 
onwards : Ethe 391 ( Daflar i (or parts of it) extending to the 
accession of M. Shah a.h. 1131/1719. Copied a.h. 1183/1769). 

771. In Aurangzeb’s reign Zorawar Sing’h lived with his 
father and mother at Haidarabad. At the time when he wrote 
his mathnawl he must have been a wealthy man, since there 
were not less than two hundred women in his house 

An account in verse of the downfall and death of 
Husain ‘All Khan and the appointment of M, Amin Khan (IHimcld 
al-Daulah ) to succeed Mm as Wazlr : Blochet iii 1927 (ornate 
MS. Circ. a.d. 1721). 

772. A certain “Rami ” wrote 

Majmufah i tdnkh i shahanshahan, a concise history from 
Aurangzeb’s death to the fall of the Saiyids : Lahore Panjab 
Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1226/1812. See Oriental College Magazine vol. ii 
no. 4 (Aug. 1926) p. 55). 

773. S. M. Qasim “ ‘Ibrat ” Husain! Lahauri left Lahore, his 
native place, in 1130/1718 to seek employment at Delhi. He 
there entered the service of the Amir al-umara’ S. Husain 'All 
Khan. 

t Ihrat-namahi 1 written in 1135/1722-3, a history of the 
Timurids from the death of Aurangzeb to the fall of the Saiyids 
in 1133/1721 : Rieu i 2316 (cf. Rieu’s Additions and corrections, 
p. 10826 ad 2316. Lacks preface. Merges towards the end into 
the anonymous “ SaMfah i iqbdl ” (seep. 609 infra). Late 18th 

1 The title and the author’s name do not occur in the work itself but in an 
epilogue transcribed from a MS. belonging to Faqir Niir al- Din Khan and 
prefixed to the B.M. MS. Or. 1934 (Rieu iii 939a). 


608 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

cent.), 2736 (a somewhat abridged recension, beginning . . . thcinay 
[>?'c] Kkuddwand i kdrsaz i haqiqi rci. Late 18tli cent.), iii 939a 
(19tli cent.), 9396 (18th cent.), 940a (a.d. 1847), 1008a (merging 
towards the end into the “ SaMfah i iqbal ” (see p. 609 infra). 
a.h. 1230/1815), R.A.S. 109 = Morley 104 (a.ii. 1202/1787), 
Ethd 393 (beginning : Hand i hi- add u thanciy [sic] Khnda - 
wand i kdrsaz i Jiaqufi rd. Cf. Rieu 2736. N.d.), I.O. 39346 

(merging into the “ SaMfah i iqbal ” (see p. 609 infra), a.d. 1874), 
4045 (a.d. 1895), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (defective at end. 
See Oriental College Magazine vol. ii no. 4 (Lahore, Ang. 1926) 
p. 55), probably also Eton 194 (“ Farrukhsiyar-ndmah ”, by 
" Sayyid Kasim a.h. 1156). 

Description and 2 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India vii pp. 569-73. 

[Autobiographical statements (see Rieu. i 273).] 

774. Shiv-Das Lak’hnawi was for long a munsM “ in the service 
of the great 

Shah-namah imunawwar-kalam, detached historical narra- 
tives and court news (with many official letters and farmdns) 
relating to the reign of Farrukh-siyar and the first four years of 
Muhammad Shall : Rieu i 274a (18th cent.), iii 9386 (a.h. 1211/ 
1797), 10496 vi (extract only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Blochet i 604 
(end of 18th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 35 (a.h. 1209/1794), Eton 192. 

English translation by Lieut. Iltudus T. Prichard : B.M. MS. 
Add. 30,785. 

Descriptions : (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 
p. 331 ( c£ The work contains a good deal of biography and 
anecdote ”), (2) The contemporary view of the court of Farrukh 
Syer [.she], by A. M. Daula ( in Journal of Indian history xv/2 
(Madras, August 1936) pp. 201-9). 

775. Mir M. Rida “Rida ” Phil T-Faqar was a Saiyid of 
Safidun (a village now in the State of Jind). He took part in 
an expedition under the command of Sharaf al-Daulah Iradat- 
mand Khan against Rajah Ajit Sing’ll, Subah-ddr of Ajmer, 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA .* (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 609 

who rebelled in the fifth year of Muhammad Shah’s reign (a.h. 
1135/1723. See Elliot and Dowson viii pp. 43-4). At the time 
when he wrote his poem in the hope that the Emperor’s liberality 
would relieve his urgent need he held a command (? mansab) 
of 500 men. 

Sharaf-namah i Muhammad Shah , a mathnawi on the 
history of Muhammad Shah’s immediate predecessors (Bahadur 
Shah etc.) and the early part of his reign (apparently to the fifth 
year) : Rieu iii 1002 (18th cent.), 10546 (extracts only. Circ. 
a.d. 1850). 

776. An anonymous author who had access to the court of 
Muhammad Shah wrote 

( Muhammad- Shah-namah) or ( Sahtfah i iqbal l * * * * * ), 
detached chapters relating to the fall of the Saiyids and the first 
fourteen years of M. Shah’s reign “taken from a full history 
which the author had not yet thought it advisable to publish ” 
(beginning : Biyd sciqi ai hCbat i smah-saf) : Rieu iii 940 a (18th 
cent.), 1008a (shorn of preamble and written in continuation of 
a passage towards the end of S. M. Qasim’s ‘Ibrat-namah (see 
p. 607 supra), a.h. 1230/1815), 10156 (a.d. 1850-1), 10556 viii 
(short extract only), i 2316 (shorn of preamble and written in 
continuation of a passage towards the end of S. M. Qasim’s 
‘Ibrat-namah (see p. 607 supra). Cf. Rieu’s Additions and 
corrections p. 10826 ad 2316. Late 18th cent.), Suppt. 80 (with 
two additional chapters at the beginning. M. Shah’s corre- 
spondence with Persia given more fully than in Rieu 940a. 18th 
cent.), I.O. 3934c (i.e. foil. 213a, 1. 4-2646, 1. 16. a.h. 1290/1873). 

777. M. Qasim, who is to be distinguished from S. M. Qasim 
“ Tbrat” Lahauri, the author of the ‘ Ibrat-namah (see p. 607 
infra), was for a time with Shak-’Alam’s sons in Bihar. Subse- 
quently he became Ba kksh i in the army of rSTizam al-Mulk. He 

1 The author refers to the work as in sahifah i iqbal. It is not, however, 

implied; thereby that Sahifah i iqbal is the title. The author of the £ Alamgir - 

namah, e.g., refers to his work as in sahifah i iqbal (p. 844 7 ). The B.M. MS. 

Or. 1900 (Rieu iii 940a) is endorsed ‘ Ibrat-namah and Lubb i tarikh. In the 

subscription of Or. 1747 vi (Rieu iii 10156) it is called Muh arum ad -Shah -na man. 

A; 4 'iV-W- . et : 



610 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

served under his schoolmate, S. Lashkar Khan, in the operations 
against the Marat’ha Sonina, brother of Appa Rao. He seems 
to have been an intimate friend of Mutawassil Khan (d. 1156/ 
1743-4, see Rieu iii 1084a), Nizam al-Mulk’s son-in-law, the 
Faujddr of Bagla nah. 

Ahwal dl-khawdQin , a history of Aurangzeb’s successors 
to a.h. 1151/1738-9, the date of completion, divided into two 
parts ((1) from Aurangzeb’s death to Farrukh-siyar’s deposition, 
(2) from the accession of Raff al-Darajat, this part being 
devoted mainly to Nizam al-Mulk’s conflict with the Saiyids 
and his wars with the Marat’has) : Rieu i 2766 (18th cent.). 

778. Sh. M. Murad b. Sh. Shihab al-Din b. Sh. Shams al-Dln 
b. Sh. Siraj al-Din b. Qutb al-aqtab Sh. M. ChishtI 1 is described 
by James Fraser, 2 who studied under him at Cambay and who 
mentions him in the preface to his History of Nadir Shah, as a 
man famous in those parts for his loiowledge of the Muham- 
madan civil and ecclesiastical laws. 

A history of Aurangzeb and his successors to the twenty- 
first year of Muhammad Shah’s reign a.h. 1151/1738 compiled 
at the request of James Fraser : Bodleian 262 (probably auto- 
graph). 

779. M. Shaft* “ Warid 55 b. S. M. Sharif was bom a.h. 1087/ 
1676-7 when his father, who had left Tihran and entered first 
the service of £ Abd Allah Qutb-Shah and subsequently that of 
Prince Shall-' Alam (Bahadur Shah), was governor of Naginah. 

1 It appears from the Mir' at i Ahmadl (Appendix tr. Nawab ‘All pp. 65-6) 
■that this Qutb al-aqtab Sh. M. OhishtI was the son of Shaikh M. b. Ahmad b. 
Na?Ir al-Din Ah madabadl known as Shaikh Hasan M, Chishti Ahmadabadi 
Gujrati, who wrote an Arabic commentary on the Qur'an entitled Tcif.nr 
i MulmvimmU (Loth 103) and annotations on al-Baidawfs tafnr and who died 
A.ir. 982/1575 (see Rahman ‘All 214). 

2 b. 1713, resided at Surat 1730-40, learnt Sanskrit and Zend, returned to 
England, became a factor in the E.l.Co.’s service and eventually a Member 
of Council at Surat, died 21.1.1754. His .collection of cire. 200 Sanskrit and 
Zend MSS. is now in the Bodleian (see Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography 
155). 


M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 611 


After his father’s death in 1117/1705-6 he served under Prince 
M. ‘Azina, but soon retired and, supported by the patronage 
of Bairam Khan 1 2 (Mlrza Baqir afterwards Baqir Khan), the 
son of Aurangzeb’s general Ruh-Allah Khan, devoted himself 
to literature. 

He was the author of a dlwan and four mathnawis, viz. the 
Gulistdn i nairang, the Mir’cit i farrulcln, the Ghaman i diddr, 
and a sdqi-ndmah. 

(1) Mir’ at i waridat } a stilted history of the Indian Tmiurids 
to M. Shah’s 16th regnal year, a.h. 1146/1733-4, the date of 
completion, followed by an account of the battle between 
Mubariz al-Mulk Sarbuland Khan and Maharajah Abhai Singh 
at Ahmadabad in 1141/1728-9 2 : Rieu i 2756 (late 18th cent.), 
Bodleian 424 (apparently the fourth tabaqah, completed a.h. 1142/ 
1730 and consisting of (1) a geographical and historical account 
of certain countries, (2) a short memoir on contemporary Indian 
history, defective at the beginning, (3) biographies of Indian 
poets and authors. Lacunse. N.d.), Bankipur vii 580 (part 
relating to M. Shah’s reign, a.d. 1811), I.O. 3881 3 (M. Shah’s 
reign. Probably a.d. 1885. Transcribed from the Bankipur MS.). 

(2) Tarikh i Chaghatay , apparently a later recension of 
the preceding work, the preface after a different exordium (which 
begins Jahan jahdn silayish) agreeing with that of the Mir’ at 
i waridat except that the title Tarikh i Qhaghatdy is substituted, 
the latter part of the history being more concise and brought 
down to Nadir Shah’s departure from India in 1152/1739 : 
Rieu iii 9246 (a.ii. 1217 /1802), 925a (transcribed from the 
preceding a.d. 1852), 10506 (extracts. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

1 d. at Delhi in 1145/1732-3. See Rieu iii 1084a, Tarikh i Muhammadi 
(presumably under the j^ear 1145), Ma'iithir al-umara' ii 815 1B (where the date 
is not given). 

2 According to the preface this is only the first of the four ictbnqahs of which 
the work was planned to consist (viz. (1) Kings and amirs, ( 2}faqirs , (3) t ulama\ 
(4) poets). 

3 In the colophon of this MS. the work is called Tarikh i Chaghata'i, but 
the sixteenth year of the reign is several times spoken of as the current year 
and the history is not brought down to a.h. 1152. 



612 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Description and 3 pp. of translated extracts (relating to 
M. Shah’s interviews with Nadir Shah) : Elliot and Dowson 
History of India viii pp. 21-24. 

[Safin ah % Khwushqu (cf. Bankipur viii p. Ill) ; Suhuf i 
Ibrahim, wow, no. 78.] 

780. Anand Ram “ Mukhlis ”, son of Rajah Hirde Ram, 
K’hatrl Lahaurl, 1 is described by “ Shafiq ” (Gul i ra-nd, Banki- 
pur viii p. 132) as the most eminent of all the Hindu poets [sc. 
who wrote in Persian]. He was a pupil of “ Bedil ” and a friend 
of “Arzu”. In 1132/1719-20 he was appointed WaJciil 2 for 
Nawwab Ptimad al-Daulah Qamar al-Dln Khan (Muhammad 
Shah's Wazir). He was also WaMl for £ Abd al-Samad Khan, 
Nazim of the subah of Lahore and Multan, and had the title of 
Rdy-Rdydn. He died at Delhi in 1164/1751. 

In addition to his Diwan (for which sec Ethe 1707, Nadhir 
Ahmad 194 (Rampur)) he is the author of (1) Raqa'dt % Mukhlis , 
a collection of his own letters redacted in 1149/1736-7 (MSS. 
Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Or. Coll. Mag. vi no. 4 (Aug. 1930) p. 99), 
Bankipur ix 882 i [?], I.O, 3981), (2) Mir' at al-isiildh, a dictionary 
of poetical phrases and proverbial sentences 3 completed in 
1157/1744 (MSS. Rieu iii 997, Bankipur ix 810), (3) Pari-khdnah, 
an introduction written in 1144/1731-2 to an album of calligraphic 
specimens and drawings (MSS. Bankipur ix 882 ii, Ivanow 
Ourzon 156), (4) a long letter written by order of Muhammad Shah 
to a Safawid king on the latter’s accession to the throne (MSS. 
Bankipur ix 882 iii, Ivanow Ourzon 156, I.O. D.P. 491 (<?)), 
(5) Chamanistdn written in 1159/1746, a collection of anecdotes, 

1 According to the Khizunah i ‘amirah the home of his family was Sod’harah 
“ az tawabi 1 i Lfihaur ”, i.e. apparently Sohdara (as it is spelt in the List of 
Indian post offices), near Wazirabad. 

2 In accordance with the Indian custom by which, according to the Khizunah 
i ‘ dmirah , amirs used to have representatives at court ( Dahituk i Hind ast kih 
dar darbdr i salatin az urnard' i ghii'ib u luulir vmkala ml-bashand). 

3 “In the Mir' at ul-Istilahut [sic] the author gives incidentally various 
historical notices relating to the Dehli court and to celebrated contemporaries ” 
(Itieu iii 9976). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 613 

accounts of some contemporaries, descriptions of trees, flowers 
and fruits, admonitions, witty sayings etc. (Edition : Lucknow 
1877°*. MSS. Banklpur ix 882 iv, Ivanow Curzon 156 [?]), 
(6) Hangamah i ‘ ishq , written in 1152/1739-40, the love- 
story of Kunwar Sundar Sen, of the Karnatak, and Rani 
Chand Parbha (MS. Banklpur ix 882 v), (7) Kar-namah 
:i ‘ishq, written in 1144/1731-2, the love-story of Prince Gauhar 
of China and Princess Mamlakat (MSS. I.O. Johnson Album 
38 (beautifully illustrated), Banklpur ix 882 vi), (8) Intikhdh i 
Tuhfah i Sami, an abridgment of Sam Mlrza’s tadhkirah (MS. 
I.O. DP. 718). 

(9) Tadhkirah i Anand-Ram “ Mukhlis ”, a history of the 
war of Muhammad Shah with Nadir Shah : ‘Aligarh (see Irvine 
Later Mughals ii p. 380). 

Description and 22 pp. of translated extracts 1 : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii 76-98 (from a MS. belonging to 
Nawwab Diya 5 al-Dfn). 

( 10 ) Account of a journey from Delhi to Muktesar 

in 1150/1737: Eth4 2724, Rampiir (see Nadhir Ahmad 61), 

English translation: Garh Muktesar Fair in 1747 ; or, A 
thirteen days’ trip. Translated by William Irvine (in The Indian 
Magazine and Review, 1903 pp. 66-71, 102-6, 116-21, 151-6, 
169-72). 

[Hamishah bahdr (Sprenger p. 129) ; Safvnah i Khwushgu 
(Banklpur viii p. 113) ; Muntakhab al-ash‘dr (Bodl. 379) no. 656 ; 
Riga (l al-shu'ara ; Majma‘ al-nafa is ; Nikdt al-shu c ara (cf. 
Sprenger p. 262); Maqalat al-sh^ard’ (Sprenger p. 159) ; 
Khizdnah i 'amir ah pp. 425-6 (Bodl. 381 no. 115) ; Jam i 
jahdn-numd by Maharat Khan ; Gul i ra‘na (Banklpur viii 
p. 132) ; ‘Iqd i Thuraiyd (Banklpur viii no. 709 fol. 60a) ; 
Ma khz an al-ghard'ib no. 2683 ; Safmah i Hindi (Banklpur 
viii no. 715 fol. 77 b) ; Nishtar i ‘ishq (one of the sources 
used by S. M. ‘Abd Allah in his article mentioned below) ; 
Natd'ij al-afkar ; Garcin de Tassy ii p. 376 ; Nizami BadayunI 

1 The translator was “ Lt. Perkins ”. 



614 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Qdmus ol-maskdMr (in Urdu) ii p. 207 ; Anand Ram “ MaJchiis ” 
(an Urdu article by S. M. £ Abd Allah, in the Oriental College 
Magazine v no. 2 (Lahore, Feb. 1929) pp. 46-66).] 

781. In the 22nd year of Muhammad Shah, a.h. 1153/1740-1, 
was composed 

A sketch {51 foil.) of the first 22 years of M. Sh ah's 
reign especially Nadir Shafts campaign in India and the doings of 
Nizam al-Mulk Amf-Jdh (beg. : Dar haydn i talab i Nizam 
al-Mulk ? . . . chun dar muhimmdt i saltanat Jcfddiw i qadar- 
qudrat . . .) : Blochet i 612 (latter half of 18th cent.). 

782. It was in 1153/1740-1 at the request of Shaikh £ Ala’ al- 
Din, an old associate of the Amir al-umara 5 (Khwajali M. £ Asim) 
Samsam al-Daulah Khan i Dauran (the commander defeated by 
Nadir Shah at Karnal), that M. Muhsin b. al-Hanlf Siddlql, a 
native of Bijnaur, wrote his 

Jauhar i samsam } a wordy and hyperbolic account of Nadir 
Shah’s invasion, based on information received from Sh. £ Ala’ 
al-Dln, with a brief history of Aurangzeb’s successors : Browne 
Suppt. 364 (King’s 132), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 929 (a.h. 1224/ 
1809), Rieu iii 941 (circ. a.d. 1850). 

Abridged translation by Major A. R. Fuller : B.M. MS. Add. 
30,724, foil. 1-80. 

Description and 3 pp. of extracts from Fuller's translation : 
Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 72-5. 

783. An anonymous dependent of Samsam al-Daulah Khan i 
Dauran wrote 

{Risalah i Muhammad Shah u Khan i Dauran % a turgid, 
fulsome and historically unimportant account of the life and 
times of Samsam al-Daulah Khan i Dauran (Khwajah M. ‘Asim, 
who was a trusted official with a command of 7,000 in Farrukh- 
siyar’s reign, was appointed Amir al-umara’ by Muhammad Shah 
after the fall of the Saiyids and in 1151/1739 was in command 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 615 

against Nadir Shah, at Karnal, where he received a fatal wound. 
See Ma'athir al-umarW i 819-23) : Browne Suppt. 675 (a.h. 1199/ 
1784-5), Rieu i 2776 (a.h. 1202/1788), iii 941a (a.ii. 1262/1846). 

784. Sh. M. 'All “ Hazin ” Lahiji Jllanl was born at Isfahan 
in 1103/1692 and died at Benares in 1180/1766 (for further 
information see the section Biography : Poets). 

(1) ( Tadhkirat al-ahwal ), an autobiography written in 
1154/1741 and containing a good deal of historical information 
about the Afghan invasion of Persia and Nadir Shah’s- invasion, 
of India (for MSS. and editions see the section Biography : 
Poets). 

(2) Waqi c at i Iran u Hind 5 on events in Persia and India 
from 1134/1722 to 1154/1741, beginning al-Hamdu U-waMyihi 
(probably the same as no. (1)).* Eth6 1714 (a.h. 1183/1769). 

(3) A short note on the Persian invasions of India, completed 
at Husainabad in 1180 and beginning Muwafiq i siyari mvJtabarah 
dafa‘dti kih lashkar i Iran ba-Sind u Hind dar amadah : Berlin 
p. 54 no. 11, Ivanow 1749, Bankipur Suppt. ii 2240 (19th cent.). 

785. A Persian who went to India and entered the service of 
Safdar-Jang wrote 

(1) A poem on Nadir Shah's invasion : Blochet iii 
1931 (defective at end. Mid 18th cent.). 

( 2 ) A poem on Muhammad Shah's operations against the 
Marathas or Rohelahs or both 1 after Nadir Shah’s departure 
from India : Blochet iii 1931 (mid 18th cent.). 

(3) Fath-namah i Safdari 3 completed in 1155/1742, a poem 
on the operations of Sa'adat Khan and Safdar-Jang against 
the Marathas : Blochet iii 1931 (mid 18th cent.). 

1 “ la guerre des Maliarattes du Rohilla [sic] contre Mohammed Shah . . . 
apres la rofcraite de Nadir Shah . . . 1’histoire commence, au folio 16 recto, 
avec le recit de la guerre que Bhakount [? Bhagwant] fit a Djansar [? Jan- 
nithar] Khan, et de la mort de ce personnage, apres lequel vient 1’histoire de 
la lutte quo Mohammed Shah soutint contre Bhakount.” 



616 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(4) A poem on Safdar-Jang’s return from the war against 
the Marathas and on Muhammad Shah's operations 
against Rajah Nazval : Blochet iii 1931 (mid 18th cent.). 

786. Mirza Muhammad-Bakbsh “ Ashob ” b. M. Ghiyath 
was bom at Delhi in Sha‘baii 1128/1716, the fourth year of 
Farrukh-siyar’s reign. After his father’s death he was brought 
up by his maternal uncle Mirza M. b. Rustam (for whom see 
pp. 141 and 606 supra ) and his grandfather Tnayat Allah Beg 
entitled Qaswar Khan. He entered the sendee of Muhammad 
Shah and remained in it until Nadir Shah’s invasion (a.h. 1151/ 
1738). Then for some years he served the Wazlr T'timad al- 
Daulah Qamar al-Din Khan (killed a.h. 1161/1748 at the Battle 
of Sirhind) and his sons the Khan i Ivhanan Intizam al-Daulah 
(d. 1167 /1753-4) and Mu c In al-Mulk, distinguishing himself in 
the operations against Ahmad Shah Abdall and in the contest 
of the Khan i Khanan against Safdar-Jang. Then for fifteen 
years he served the Wazlr Tmad al-Mulk GhazI al-Din Khan 
as Mir Mundn and in other capacities. Serious ill-health 
having caused him to sever his connexion with Tmad al-Mulk 
he lived successively at Farrukhabad, where he was ill for a 
year, and for some troubled years at Lucknow, Fyzabad and 
Allahabad. Then Asaf al-Daulah invited him to enter his service 
and leaving Farrukhabad for Lucknow and Fyzabad he enjoyed 
prosperity for five or six years. Subsequently he was for a short 
time in the service of Richard J olrnson (for whom he copied the 
I.O. MS. Ethe 224 in 1194/1780) and in 1196/1782 at the invita- 
tion of Jonathan Scott, whom he had met at Colonel Polier’s 
house at Lucknow, he went to Allahabad in order to write his 
history of Muhammad Shah. According to the Khuldmt al-afkdr 
he died in poverty at Lucknow in 1199/1784-5. 

He wrote a considerable amount of poetry, including (1) Saalat 
i Faruqi or Futuh al-Isldm ft bilad al-'Rum wa-l-Sham, a mathnawi 
based on the Pseudo- Waqidi and planned to consist of three 
volumes but probably never continued beyond the second, 1 

5 Only two volumes had been completed when he wrote his autobiography. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 617 


which was completed in 1160/1747 1 2 (MSS. : I.O. 3940 (vol. i 
of the Kulliyat), Lindesiana p. 192 no. 783, Bankipur Suppt. i 
no. 1801 (vol. i only) and doubtless also Bankipur iii no. 420 
(. Kulliyat i Ashob, much disarranged). Edition : A'zamgarh 
1252/1836-7 (see Qdmus al-alam i col. 45). 

(2) A diwan, for which see Sprenger p. 342 no. 115, Bankipur 
iii no. 420 (Kulliyat), Browne Suppt. 499. 

(%) Kar-namah, a mathnaivi on the war against Ahmad 
Shah Abdali, which terminated in 1162/1749 : Ivanow C-urzon 
302. 

(4) Falak-dshub, written at Bharatpur, a historical com- 
pendium in 700 distichs ending with the death of Hafiz Rahmat 
Khan (a.h. 1188/1774) : Eton 142. 

(5) ( Sawdnih i ahwal i Ashob)* a short and almost dateless 
autobiography written towards the end of his life : 1.0. 3940 
foil. l-9a (early 19th cent.), 4034 (a.d. 1888), 3938 (a.d. 1892). 

( 6 ) Tarikhi shakadat i Farrukh-siyar u julus i Muham- 
mad Shah, written in 1196/1782, a valuable but chronologically 
unprecise account of the life and reign of Muhammad Shah, 
apparently intended to come down to the date of composition 
but probably never finished, since the B.M. and I.O. copies end 
with the death of Nadir Shah, a.h. 1160/1747 : Kieu iii 944a 
(a.h. 1199/1785), 10516 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Eth6 
422 (a.h. 1200/1786), Browne Suppt. 239 (King’s 94). 

Description and a translated extract (Ip.): Elliot and Dowson 
History of India viii 232-4. 

[Autobiography (see above) ; Tankh i shakadat i Farrukh - 
siyar, preface and elsewhere; KJmldsat al-afkdr (Bodl. 391 
no. 479) ; Mahhzan al-ghard’ib no. 153 (?) ; Beale Oriental 

1 According to a statement at the end of the table of contents in Bankipur 
Suppt. i no. 1801. 

2 The author does not give this work any formal title, but he refers to it as 
Sawdnih i ahwal in some words prefixed to the ahazals which follow it in the 
I.O. MS. 3940 (Chun az taqrir u tahrir i sawdnih i ahwal fard ah at dast dad). 


618 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

biographical dictionary ; Elliot and Dowson History of India 
viii 232 ; Rieu iii 944 ; Bankipur iii p. 247 ; S. Shams Allah 
Qadiri Qamus al-aHam (in Urdu) i (Haidarabad 1935) coll. 44-5.] 

787. For further information concerning works dealing with 
Nadir Shah and his invasion of India see pp. 322-29 supra. 
In addition the following works and fragments may be mentioned : 

(1) A criticism of the actions of Muhammad Shah and his 
Amirs, especially Khan i Dauran, at the time of Nadir Shah’s 
invasion, beginning Kaifiyat i saltanat i mulh i Hindustan : 
Ivanow Curzon 36 (a.h. 1241 /I826). 

(2) Fragment relating to Nadir Shah’s invasion : Rieu iii 
10506 (circ. a.d. 1850). 

(3) Haldt i Nadir Shah , a very short (9 foil.) account of 
Nadir Shah’s invasion in Persian prose interspersed with Hindi 
verses, written in Samwat 1795 [a.d. 1738] by Amar, a resident 
of Chanderi : I.O. 4008 (probably a.d. 1896). 

(4) Tartkh i hamlah i Nadin, apparently an extract from 
some history : A§aflyah i p. 224 no. 544. 

788. Sh. Husain Allah wrote in 1161/1746 

Fath-namah, a matknawi on Ahmad Shah Abdalfs [first] 
invasion 1 : Blochet iii 1934 (late 18th cent.). 

789. It was for Mu‘in al-Mulk 2 that Ghulam-Muhyi d-Din 
Khan 3 wrote his 

Zafar~namah s an account of Ahmad Shah Durrani’s [first ?] 
invasion : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College 
Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 56). 

790. Other works relating to Muhammad Shah : 

1 For Ahmad Shah. AbdalTs later invasions see pp. 620-1 infra and also 
pp. 397-9 supra. 

2 Called Mir Mannu, son of 1‘timad al-Daulali Qamar al-DIn Khan, and 
Subah-dar of Lahore and Multan, d. Muljarram 1167/1753 (see Rieu i p. 2796). 

8 Possibly identical with the author of the Futuh'U-ndmah i Samadl (see 
p. 664 infra). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA .* (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 619 

(1) Concise history of Hindustan from the birth of Aurangzeb 
to the time of M. Shah : R.A.S. P. 345 (1) — Morley 100. 

( 2 ) Diary of events in the last few years of M. Shah’s 
reign from 18 Dhu ’1-Qa‘dah 1159/2 December 1746 to 11 
Jumada ii 1161/8 June 1748, by an anonymous eye-witness 
(beg. : Chun az buqalamun-ha i ruzgdr) : Eth£ 410 (perhaps 
incomplete. Autograph ?). 

(3) Extract relating to M. Shah’s reign, especially the 
inroads of the Marat’has and Nadir Shah’s invasion, the last date 
mentioned being a.h. 1157, the twenty-fifth regnal year 
(beginning Dhilcr i tahhallul dar subajat i mamalik i mahrusah) : 
Rieu iii 10086 iii (a.h. 1230/1815), I.O. 3934d (i.e. foil. 2646-2726. 
a.h. 1290/1873). 

(4) Istisal i Sadat i Barhah , a long letter describing the 
downfall of the Saiyids Husain ‘All Khan and Abd Allah Khan 
said to have been written by order of Muhammad Shah in answer 
to a letter from “ Tahmasp Mlrza, Ruler of Iran ”, i.e. Shall 
Tahmasp.II (a.h. 1135/1722-1144/1731), with a preface in 
which Munawwar ‘All Khan says that he obtained the dis- 
arranged sheets of the letter from the library of “ the late Siraj 
al-Dln ‘All Khan Arzu ” [who died in 1169/1756. See Rieu ii 
501-2, etc.] and, having arranged them in proper order, gave it 
the title mentioned above : I.O. 4002 (a.d. 1894 ?). 

(5) Lists of Wakils (or Wazrrs), Ditvans, Mir Ba khsM s etc. 
from the reign of Akbar to that of M. Shah : Rieu iii 926a 
(19th cent.). 

(6) Muhammad- Shah-namah : Eton 195 (author not stated 
in the catalogue). 

(7) Nadir al-zamani, or Tdrikh % Muhammad-Shahl . by 
Khwush-hal Chand : see pp. 136-7 supra. 

(8) Tdrikh i Muhammad-Shahl , by Ghulam-Husain b. 
Hidayat ‘All Khan 1 : A^aJiyah i p. 230 nos. 512 (a.i-i. 1210/ 
1795-6), 759 (a.h. 1231/1816). 

1 See p. 625 infra. This work, if it is not merely a part of the Siyar al- 
muta'a khkh irin , does not seem to be mentioned elsewhere. 



620 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(9) Tarikh i Muhammad- Shahid or Nadir al-zamam, by 
Khwush-lial Chand : see pp. 136-7 supra. 

791. Ghuiam-Hasan “ Thamin ” Siddiqi Far, shun BilgramI 
was for some years associated with S. M. Salih “Saiyah”, 
entitled Sher-andaz Khan, an employee (■ naulcar ) of Nawwab 
Safdar-Jang (chand sal ba-hamrdki i . . . S. M. Salih . . . budam, 
LO. 3958, fob 140a, 1. 6). In 1169/1755-6 the Saiyid left Shu] a' 
al-Daulah [Safdar-Jang’s successor as Nawwdh-Wazir of Oudh], 
and, with Ghuiam-Hasan, entered the service of Ahmad Khan 
Bangash at Farrukhabad. In 1173/17 59—60 Ghuiam-Hasan was 
in the employ of Nawwab Sa £ d Allah Khan b. ‘All M. Ivhan 
Rohelah. In 1197/1783 at the instigation of his friend 
(“ mitshfiqi”) Sh. Allah-Yar Bahadur b. Sh. Allah- Yar shahid 
(for whom see pp. 142-3 supra ) he went to Allahabad and met 
Captain Jonathan Scott [Sh. AUah-Yar’s employer]. In the same 
year at Captain Scott's request he wrote his account of Ahmad 
Shah Abdalfs invasion. His Shard’ if i ‘ Uthmdnl , a history of 
the ‘'UthmanI clan of Bilgram, was begun in 1159/1746 (MSS. : 
I.O. 3913a, Ivanow 277). 

(Bcfdi a% aJmdl i Ahmad Shah Badshah Abdali), an 
account of Ahmad Shah’s third invasion in 1169/1755-6 [as the 
author says, but actually in 1170/1756-7] written in 1197/1783 ; 
I.O. 3958 foil. 139-66 (late 18th cent..), 

[Autobiographical statements in the account of Ahmad Shah’s 
invasion.]/ 

792. Other works relating to Ahmad Shah Durrani’s invasions ; 

(1) Ahmad-namak s a more, or less metrical account com- 
pleted on 20 Juinada i a.h. 1184/1770 by : Abd al-Latif “ Latlf ”, 
of K’hark'haudah. [in the Eohtak division of the Panjab] : I.O. 
3964 (18th cent.). 

(2) Ahwdl i Bhdd Marhattah u sabab i amadan i u 
ba-Hindustdn u kushtah shudan i u ba tamdm ham- 
rahiyan dor muharabah i Ahmad Shah i Abdali bah 
hudud i Pani-pat : Etlfo 527 (12)— (13) (2 copies, one dated 
a.h. 1197/1783). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY C21 

(3) Kar-namahy a mathnawi on the war against Ahmad 
Shah Abdali which terminated in 1162/1749 by Mlrza Muham- 
mad-Ba khsh “ Ashob ”, who died at Lucknow in 1199/1784-5 
(see pp. 616-18 supra) : Ivanow Curzon 302 (18th cent.). 

A number of works relating to Ahmad Shah Abdalfs invasions 
have already been mentioned on pp. 397-9 supra. Of. also 
pp. 761-5 infra and Jadunath Sarkar An original account of 
Ahmad Shah Durrani's campaigns in India and the battle of 
Panipat ( from the Persian life of Najib-ud-daulah, British 
Museum Persian MS. 24,410) in Islamic culture vii/3 (July 1933) 
pp. 431-56. For the Persian life of Najib al-Daulah see 
p. 694 infra. . 

793. A contemporary resident of Delhi wrote the 

Tarikh i Ahmad-Shahi (beginning, without preface in the 
B.M. MS. : Chun zuhur i har umiir i ‘ uzmd ), a detailed history 
of Ahmad Shah (reigned 1161/1748-1167/1754, d. 1188/1775)*: 
Rieu iii 9416 (a.h. 1267/1851). 

English translation (omitting the last quarter of the work) 
by Sir D. Forsyth : B.M. MS. Add. 30,783. 

Extracts from this translation : Elliot and Dowson History 
of India viii pp. 104-23. 

794. M. ‘All Khan Ansar! has already been mentioned as the 
author of the general history Bahr al-mawwdj completed accord- 
ing to the preface in 1209/1794-5 but in fact extending to 1211/ 
1796 (see p. 144 supra) and of the Tarikh i Muzajfan , a history 
of the Indian Timurids composed originally in 1202/1787-8 
but subsequently continued to 1225/1810 (see p. 522 supra). 

Tarikh i Ahmad-Shahi, a short history of Ahmad Shah 
written in 1196/1782 : Eth6 423 (autograph ?). 

795. Shakir Khan was the fourth son of Shams al-Daulah 
Lutf Allah Khan Sadiq ( Khdn-sdmdn to Muhammad Shah, see 
Ma'dthir al-umard 5 iii 177-8) and a brother of ‘Inayat Khan 
‘ 4 Rasikh ”. At the time of Nadir Shah’s invasion he was Ba khsM 
in the Risdlah i Sultani. When Ahmad Shah Abdal! sacked 



622 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Delhi in 1170/1756, he escaped to Benares. Having failed to 
obtain the support of Mir Qasim, he sought the protection of 
British officials. 

Tdrikh i Shakir- Kh dni, a dateless, imprecise and disorderly 
history of Muhammad Shah and his successors down to the 
beginning of Shah-‘ Alain's reign: Rien i 2796 (18th cent.), 
I.O. 3973 (defective. Circ. a.d. 1884). 

796. Of unknown authorship is the 

(. Tdrikh i c Alarngir i Thani ) 5 a very full record of the reign 
of ; Alarngir II (a.h. 1167/1754-1173/1759) : Rieu iii 9426 (circ. 
a.d. 1850), Lindesiana p. 244 no. 873 (apparently. Circ. 
a.d. 1790). 

Description and 3 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii pp. 140-3. 

797. e Abd al-Qadir Khan, commonly called (’urf) Ghulam- 
Qadir Khan , 1 Ja’isi 2 was the son of Maulawl Wasil ‘All Khan, 
Qddl 5 l-Quddt of Bengal. In his youth he enjoyed the society 
of two well-known historians, ‘All Ibrahim. Khan (who was 
Chief Magistrate 3 at Benares and who died there in 1208/1793-4. 
See p. 700 infra) and S. Ghulam-Husain Khan (for whom see 
pp. 625-40 infra). Jonathan Duncan (who was Resident at 
Benares from 1788 to 1795) sent him more than once on 
political missions to Nepal and, according to his own state- 
ment in the Haskmat i Kashmir, his reports were submitted 
to Col. Kirkpatrick, translated and printed. Rieu adds that he 
is mentioned as a member of the 1793 mission by CoL W. Kirk- 
patrick in An account of the- Kingdom of Nepmd. Observations 
made during a, mission to that country in 1793 , pp. xi and 367. 

At the time when Wazlr ‘All Khan, Nawwub- Warir of Oudli, 

1 He ia called Maulawi Qhulam-Qadir Ktd ln. Ja’isi in the. ‘I a aid al-m'ddai 
p. 165 nit. ‘Abd al-Qadir himself mentions the '■urfl mini in the Tarikh i 'Imad 
ul-Mvlk but not in the Haskmat i Kashmir. 

3 Ja’is is an old town in the Ray Bareli District. 

3 “ Daroga ” of the Court at Benares, that is. President of the tribunal 
there, in the time of Warren. Hastings’ Governorship (Buck land Didiomry of 
Indian biography p. 10). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tII CENTURY 623 

was deposed in favour of Sa‘adat-‘AlI Khan [a.h. 1212/Jan. 
1798] ‘Abd al-Qadir Khan was rafiq (presumably meaning 
“ personal assistant ” or the like) to John Lumsden. Resident 
at Lucknow, and conveyed to Wazlr ‘All Khan the announce- 
ment of his deposition [‘ Imad al-sa‘adat p. 165 ult.]. 

He was for a time in the service of Maharajah Amrit Rao, 
who by order of the Governor-General Marquess Wellesley [and 
therefore not earlier than 1798, since Lord Wellesley was 
Governor-General from May 1798 to July 1805] took up his 
residence in Benares. Through the influence of the British Agent, 
Hashmat al-Daulah Wm. Augustus Brooke, ‘Abd al-Qadir’s 
personal jdglr w r as made hereditary, and to him he dedicated the 
Hashmat i Kashmir, a history of Kashmir completed at Benares 
in 1245/1830 (see p. 685 infra). 

In Jumada i 1250/1834 Mr [or rather Captain] Thoresby 
[Superintendent of the Sanskrit College at Benares] suggested 
that he should make a search for a biography of the Nawwab 
Ghazi al-Dln Khan ‘Imad al-MuIk written during a visit to 
Benares by one of the Nawwab’s confidants (mutawassildri). 
‘Abd al-Qadir Khan replied that, although for nearly fifty 
years he had been living at Benares in the Aiwan i Dara-Shukoh, 
which at that time (al-hdl) was Imown as the Haweli Rajah 
Shitab Ray or Adalat i Qadlmah, he had never seen such a 
person or heard of his book. He would, however, himself write 
a life of the Nawwab ‘Imad al-MuIk. 

(Tankh i c Imad al-MulU) 5 a history of ‘Imad al-Mulk Ghazi 
al-I)In Khan FlrSz- Jang, the Wazlr of Ahmad Shah (reigned 
a.h. 1161/1748-1167/1754) and ‘Alamglr II (reigned a.h. 1167/ 
1754-1173/1759), based partly on oral information from various 
persons including the Nawwab himself, who had recounted to 
the author at KalpI some of the events of his life, and also on 
written sources such as the Nawwab : s letters (Mutut), the 
Tdrifch i Shujd% of Harcharandas and the Hadiqat al-aqdlim of 
Sh. Ilah-Yar Bilgrami (see p. 142 supra) : Bankipur vii 615 
(19th cent.), I.O, 4000 (a.d. 1892. Apparently transcribed by 
the same copyist as the Bankipur MS.), 4001 (abridged Late 
19th cent.). 



624 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

[. Hashmat i Kashmir , preface (see Rieu iii 1016a) ; Tdrlkh i 
Tmdd al-Mulk, preface ; W. Kirkpatrick An account of the 
Kingdom of Nepaul pp. xi, 367 ; ‘Imdd al-sa‘ddat p. 165 tilt.— 
166° ; S. ‘Abid Husain Tdrlkh i Jd'is p. 14.] 

798. M. Salih “Qudrat ” is, according to the colophon of the 
Bankipur manuscript, the author of the Tdrlkh i ‘dllfl silk al- 
ia dll. 

( 1 ) Tdrlkh i ‘dll ft silk al~la 3 ali s written at the request 
of James Brown, a history (without dates) of Aurangzeb’s 
successors from Bahadur Shah to Shah-’Alam II, the account of 
the last reign being only summary and ending with Visvasa 
Rao’s death in 1174/1760: Bankipur vii 581 (a.d. 1785). 
Browne Suppt. 242 (a.h. 1199/1784-5. King's 73). 

(2) Najaf-ndmah) a poem (unfinished ?) in the ramal metre 
narrating the victorious operations of Nawwab Dint '1-Faqar 
al-Daulah Najaf Khan. against the Thdnah-ddr of Maidan 
K’liarl, against Chandti, Faujddr of Kol and the. Jat Rajah 
Nawal Sing’ll in the fifteenth year of Shall- 5 Alam, a.h. 1187/ 
1774 : I.O. D.P. 1277 (18th cent,). 

799. Mlrza Jawan-bakht , 1 afterwards known as Jahandar 
Shall, was the eldest son of Shall- 5 Alam. He was appointed 
Regent by Ahmad Shah Abdall in 1761 after the battle of 
PanTpat, and administered the empire until his father’s restora- 
tion in 1771. In April 1784, on account of the unsettled affairs 
of his father, he escaped from Delhi and went to Lucknow, From 
there he accompanied Warren Hastings to Benares, where he 
lived the rest of his life and died on 31 May 1788. 

Account of his own escape from Delhi , written at the 
request of Warren Hastings : no MSS. recorded. 

1 “The same prince, who, in the year 1784, made his escape from Dimly, 
and threw himself on the protection of Mr. Hastings ; who by his influence 
with the vizier, obtained for him an allowance of forty thousand pounds per 
annum. On his death a liberal share of this pension was continued to bis women 
and family, who yep reside at Banaras, under the English protection” 
{. Ferishta's History of Delckan ... By Jonathan Scott, vol. ii p. 241 «.), For 
his life see W. Franeklin History of Shah Autum , pp. 154-02, Beale Oriental 
biographical dictionary, pp, 190-1, etc. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 625 

English, translation by Jonathan Scott: Memoir relative to 
the state of India . . by Warren Hastings, London 1786*, pp, 
163-96. 

800. Tabmas Khan, bom near Bayazid in Asia Minor, was 
captured as an infant by Nadir Shah’s Uzbaks. Some years later 
he was taken by his Uzbak master to India, where he served in 
the army of Mu c m al-mnlk (d. 1167/1753-4), the Subah-ddr of 
Lahore. After a period in the service of Ahmad Shah Durrani, 
who created him a Khan, he returned to India and served 
successively under Dabitah Khan and Naiaf Khan at Delhi. 
At the time when he wrote his Tahmds-ndmah he was living at 
Delhi in great affluence, and had received from Shah- ’Alain the 
title of Muhkim al-Daulah Tahmas Khan 1‘tiqad- Jang. He 
mentions that he had previously written a sketch of his life in 
Turk! and a Turk! manual entitled Ahmad-ndmah. The 
Urdu poet ” Bangui ” was a son of his. 

( Tahmds-ndmah)^ discursive memoirs of his own life and 
an account of contemporary events written for his children and 
completed in 1193/1779 : Kieu iii 980 b (18th cent.). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 100. 

801. The precise subject of the Waqaii 1 i Shujal is not clear 
from the Eton catalogue, but it may be mentioned here since it 
can scarcely be entirely irrelevant. 

Waqalf i Shuja.% “ History written for Shuja‘ al-daulah, 
ending about 1193. Preface, three books and conclusion” 1 : 
Eton 197. 

802. Nawwab 2 S. Ghulam-Husain Khan Tabataba’i Hasan! 
was born at Shahjahanabad, i.e. Delhi, the home of his ancestors 
for some generations, 3 in 1140/1727-8 (Siyar al-muta 1 a khkh irin , 

1 Shuja/ al-Daulah, Nawwab -Wazlr of Oudh, died on 29 January 1775 
{i.e. 27 Dhu ’1-Qa‘dah 1188). , 

8 So according to th.e title-pages of the Calcutta edition: on the title-page 
and in the publisher’s colophon of the Lucknow edition he is called Munshi 
S. Ghulam-Husain Ivhan. 

3 Tawallud i faqir u maskin i aba u ajddd i pidari u madari dar al-khildfah 
SJiahjahunabad ast ( S . al-m. iii p. 94-8 11 ). 


626 IT. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Lucknow 1866, iii p. 948 21-22 , Raymond’s trans., reprint Calcutta 
1926, iv p. 88). In his fifth year under stress of poverty (‘ usrat 
zur award, S. al-m. iii p. 948 23 ) his mother’s grandmother, a 
paternal aunt of ‘Ab-Wirdi Khan Mahabat-Jang, 1 2 sold her 
house at Delhi and took Ghulam-Husain, his father and mother 
and some other relations to Murshidabad, where, according to 
Ghulam-Husain, ‘Ali-Wirdi Khan was then living 2 in the service 
of Shuja/ al-Daulah, the Nazim of Bengal (S. al-m . iii p. 948 23 ”- u , 
trans. iv p. 88). When ‘Ali-Wirdi Khan was appointed Governor 
of the province of ‘Azlmabad, Ghulam-Husain’s father, S. 
Hidayat-‘Ali Khan, accompanied him 3 and made the town of 
‘Azlmabad (i.e. Patna) his home (Ba‘d i chand ruz Mahdbal- 
Jang ba-ydwari-yi iqbdl nizdmat i subah i ‘ Azlmabad ydft walid 
i marlium ba-rafdqat i u dar baldah i madhkurah rasidah 
tawattun guzid; S. al-m. iii p. 948 25 ~ 26 , trans. (1926) iv p. 88). 
S. Hidayat-‘Ali Khan prospered at ‘Azlmabad and eventually 
became Naib of the province 4 ( S . al-m. ii p. 522 18 : walid i 
faqir rd hih na’ib i subah i ‘ Azlmabad bud). The houses and 
estates acquired by him were still in the possession of Ghulam- 
Husain, his eldest son, in 1195/1781, when he was writing the 
Siyar al-muta’ ahhhhi rm ( az-dn zamdn ild ’ l-dn hih sal i nawad 
u joanjum az mi’ ah i duwazdahum i Hijrat ast dar -in mahdn 

1 S. al-m. iii p. 948 19 : jaddah i madar i faqir “amrnah i Mahdljat-Jang. ‘All- 
Wirdl Khan was not a Bengali, but went to Bengal from Delhi. 

2 If, as is usually stated, ‘All-Wirdi Khan became Governor of ‘Azlmabad 
in 1729, it seems unlikely that he was living at Murshidabad when Ghulam- 
Husain, born in 1140/1727-8, was in his fifth year. 

3 If ‘Ali-WirdI Khan became Governor of Bihar in 1729 (see the preceding 

note), and if Ghulam-Husain. bom in 1140/1727-8, was in his fifth year when he 
and liis father went to Murshidabad, it follows that his father must have 
settled in ‘Azlmabad some years after * All-Wirdi Khan became Governor. 
Evidently some of the facts or the dates; given bv Ghulam-Husain are in- 
accurate. , - - , f ■ 

4 Apparently only for a short time. . He was holding this office when Safdar- 
Jang went to ‘Azlmabad towards the end of 1155/1742, In the next year 
he left Haibat-Jang’s service and went to Delhi. He had previously been 
BajchtM of Haibat-Jang’s army (<$>, al-m. ii p. 500 1 , trans. (1926) i p. 358) 
and Fctujddr of the pargamh of SNWT (S. al-m. ii p. 505 penult., trans, 
(1926) i p. 371). Subsequently he became Ba lchsh i to Shah- ‘A lam. As a poet 
he used the iakhalhis “ Damir” (cf. Sprenger pp. 219, 237 (under Hidayat)). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 627 

had Uitila ba-kdm u dram u ba- izzal u ihtishdm nigah-dasktdh 
buyut i mamlukah u mahalldt i mamluh u al-tamghd ba-qadr i 
qismat kill dar zdMr ba-sabab i ghufrdn-pandh Mahdbat-Jang 
muyassar umadali dar qabdah i tamrruf u auqdt dar giidhar ast, 
S. al-m. iii p. 948 antepenult,, trans. (1926) iv p. 88). His jdgir 
near Rohtas, where he founded the village of Husainabad and 
where he spent the years of his retirement before his death on 
3 Jumada .ii 1179/1765 ( S . al-m. ii p. 776 21 , trans. (1926) iii 
p. 16), is often mentioned by Ghulam-Husain. both father and 
son repeatedly visiting their relations at that place. 

In 1156/1743 Hidayat-AJl Khan, leaving the service of 
Haibat-Jang, the Governor of ‘Azimabad, migrated for a time 
to Shahjahanabad, and it was from there that Ghulam-Husain 
went in Muharram I158/Jan.-Feb. 1745 to ‘Azimabad for the 
purpose of marrying the daughter of his maternal uncle, ‘Abd 
al- c Al! Khan. In the following month, though he had no official 
employment (bi 'aldqah i nquJcan), he served with {ba-rafdgat i) 
his uncle in the army of Haibat-Jang, which defended ‘ Azimabad 
against Mustafa Khan (S. al-m . ii p. 536 11-17 , trans. (1926) i 
p. 449). At the end of 1161/1748 Ghulam-Husain presented 
himself before Sa‘id Ahmad Khan Baulat-Jang (‘Ali-Wirdi 
Khan’s son-in-law) at Monglr (“ Monghyr ”) and was taken into 
his service {mubdlaghah nmnud kill hamishah dar safar u liadar 
muldzim bay ad bud a wajhi ba-qadr i mb ash ba/rdyi bandali . . . 
muqarrar numudah dast-Matt farmud. S. al-m. ii p. 573 penult., 
trans. (1926) ii p. 72). Soon afterwards Saulat-Jang was ap- 
pointed Faujddr of Purniyah, an office which he held for seven 
years until his death in 1169/1754 (S. al-m. ii pp. 575 1 " 2 , 602 24 , 
trans. (1926) ii pp. 74, 141). Among the favours received from 
him by Ghulam-Husain was the right to collect by deputy the 
revenue of the parganah of Srrpur, a privilege which gave him 
an income of seven thousand rupees a year (S. al-m. ii p. 602 1-12 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 140). When Saulat-Jang was succeeded by 
his eldest son Shaukat-Jang, Ghulam-Husain resigned (S. al-m. ii 
p. 607 15 , trans. (1926) ii p. 153 (mistranslated) : bandahldh az‘aql 
u audci i u ittiW i tamdm ddsht bad i hdmyahi i u istifd-yi nau- 
ka-ri numitd). Some time later, however, he yielded to Shaukat- 
Jang’s entreaties and reluctantly entered the service of a man 



628 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

whom he disliked and despised (S. al-m. ii p. 623 ult., trans. (1926) 
ii p. 194). In Muharram 1170/Sept.-Oct. 1756 Shaukat- Jang, 
having conceived the absurd idea of wresting Bengal, Bihar and 
Orissa from Siraj al-Daulah, 1 who had recently (9 April 1756) suc- 
ceeded ‘Ali-Wirdi Khan, was defeated and slain in a battle with 
Siraj al-Daulalrs forces. Ghulam-Husain, who was regarded by 
Siraj al-Daulah as Shaukat-Jang’s instigator (S. al-m. ii p. 631 14 “ 15 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 214), escaped after some adventures from 
Siraj al-Daulalrs dominions and went to Benares, where several 
of his relations, some of them banished by Siraj al-Daulah, 
were living ( S . al-m. ii p. G32 17 , trans. (1926) ii p. 217). In 
Shawwal 1170/ June- July 1757 Siraj al-Daulah was defeated by 
Clive at Plassey, and Mir Ja £ far Khan, a brother-in-law of c AlI- 
Wirdl Khan, was proclaimed Governor of Bengal. 

Mir Ja'f'ar Khan had been a close friend of Ghulam-Husain' 1 s 
father, and in their early days Ghulam-Husain and his brother 
Naqi 2 ‘All Khan, especially the latter, had known him well 
(S. al-m. ii p. 642 19 24 , trails. (1926) ii p. 247). They felt, there- 
fore, that their star was in the ascendant, and that circumstances 
were favourable for their return to 'Azlmabad, where their 
homes and estates were situated ( S . al-m. ii p. 642 19 20 ). Mir 
Ja'far, however, showed himself hostile, and Naqi 'All Khan, 
having gone to ‘Azlmabad with some of his relations, soon 
received through Bajali Ram Narayan, 3 the Governor, an order 
to return. Only through the influence of Mir JaTar’s elder 
brother, Mir M. Ivazim Khan, was he permitted to stay. Ghulam- 
Husain himself soon afterwards went to ‘Azlmabad and obtained 
Ram Narayan’s permission to live there (S. al-m. ii p. 643 1 " 15 , 
trans. (1926) ii pp. 248-9). For some time he was in poor circum- 
stances (har chand ‘ usrat u tahi-dastl i bisydr dar-dn awdn lahiq 
hud. S. al-m. ii p. 647 ult., trans. (1926) ii p. 260), though at 
Ram Narayan's request Mir Ja'far restored to him some estates 
{jagirat i qadlm ) near Mongir (S. al-m. ii p. 649 15 , trans. (1926) 
p. 265). About this time he was introduced by his friend Mir 

1 The eldest son of Zain al-Din Ahmad Khan Haibat-Jang (already men- 
tioned p. 627 supra), ‘AU-Wirdi Khaivs nephew, son-in-law and adopted heir. 

2 fjo in the printed text, but perhaps a corruption of TaqI (see p. 635 infra), 

3 See Buekland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 348. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 629 

£ Abd Allah Safawi to Mr. Amyatt, the recently-appointed Chief 
of the Patna factory 1 (S. al-m. ii p. 651 10U , trans. (1926) ii 
p. 270). With Dr. Fullerton, the Medical Officer of the Patna 
factory, whom he often mentions and whom he came to know 
well, he was acquainted in 1173/1759-60, if not earlier (cf. S. al-m. 
ii p. 676 1 ” 2 , trans. (1926) ii p. 333). Ram Narayan was virtually 
the independent ruler of the province of ‘Azimabad (S. al-m. ii 
p. 651 ult., trans. (1926) p. 271 penult.). Ghulam-Husain, 
having accepted from him a small allowance (qalil wajlti. S. al-m. 
li p. 653 19 , trans. (1926) ii p. 276), was in his service, and before 
long he and his brothers were able to recover their estates (jagirat) 
near Rohtas, which had been seized by a neighbouring zamindar, 
when the brothers were banished by Sira] al-Daulah (S. al-m. 
ii p. 653 penult., trans. (1926) ii p. 276). 

In 1172/1759 the Shah-zadah ‘All-Guhar and Muhammacl-Quli 
Khan, the Nazim of Allahabad, made their unsuccessful invasion 
of Bengal. In the retinue of the Shah-zadah was Ghulam-Husain ’ s 
father, Ba khshi al-Mulk Nasir al-Daulah S. Hidayat-'Ah Khan 
Bahadur Asad- Jang (S. al-m. ii p. 657 22 , trans. (1926) ii p. 286), 
who, though living in some magnificence at Delhi, had for 
sixteen years contributed nothing to the support of Ghulam- 
Husain and his mother ( S . al-m. ii p. 660 6, s) , trans. (1926) 
ii p. 293). Ghulam-Husain was sent by Ram-Narayan to the 
enemy’s camp with a view to approaching his father and entering 
into negotiations with the Shah-zadah ( S . al-m. ii (iii) p. 661 3 " 4 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 296). He did not return to ‘Azlmabad, 
but, before the failure of the final attack on the town, retired 
with his mother, his wife and other female relations to Sahasram 
in the territory of Pahlawan Sing’h (S. al-m. ii p. 669 2 , trans. 
(1926) ii p. 316). Shortly afterwards the Shah-zadah and Ghulam- 
Husain’s father arrived at Sahasram. Ghulam-Husain and his 
brothers, having thrown in their lot with the Shah-zadah and 
incurred the hostility of the Nazim of Bengal and his British 
supporters, could not return to ‘Azlmabad, and at Ghulam- 
Husain’s suggestion they and their father attached themselves 

1 Amyatt became Chief of the Patna factory in 1759 (see Buckland Dictionary 

of Indian biography p. 13). 



630 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

to Pahlawan Sing'h, who was proposing to resist Miran, Mir 
Ja'far’s son, and the British. Pahlawan Sing’h wished the 
Shah-zadah to join him but failed to win his confidence. The Shah- 
zadah, deciding to write to Colonel Clive (S. cil-m. ii p. 670 ult., 
trans. (1926) ii p. 320 ult.), sent his munsfns to Ghulam-Husain’ s 
father with instructions to draft a letter. Their drafts failing 
to win approval, Ghulam-Husain at his father’s request drafted 
a letter which was approved. Soon afterwards Ghulam-Husain 
and his wife went to Benares and he remained there for some 
months (S. al-m. ii p. 672 s , trans. (1926) ii p. 323). When the 
Shah-zadah in 1173/1759, having just claimed the throne as 
Shall-' Alam II, appeared for the .second time near ‘Azimabad, 
Ghulam-Husain was again living there, having obtained the 
reluctant consent of Ram Narayan and a welcome from 
Mr. Amyatt and Dr. Fullarton (S. al-m. ii pp. 675 penult., 676 1 " 3 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 333). 

In 1174/1760 Mir Ja'far was deposed, and Mir Qasim appointed 
Nazim in his stead. In 1174/1761, when Major Carnac en- 
camped outside ‘Azimabad before marching against Shah- 
‘Alam and Monsieur Law and defeating them at Gaya, Ghulam- 
Husain joined Carnac, with whom were Rajah Ram Narayan 
and Raj Ballabh. Being unable on account of his straitened 
cricumstances (bind bar £ usrat i sal-hd. S. al-m. ii p. 699 ult., 
trans. (1926) ii p. 397) to provide his own equipment, he was 
provided by Carnac and Hay with a tent, horses and arms. 
Enjoying the confidence of the British and being at the same time 
a well-wisher (daulat-khmJi) of Mir Qasim Khan, he was sent 
from the camp to the latter at Bud'hgam with a request from the 
British Commanders that he would come to ‘Azimabad and decide 
between the contradictory advice given by Ram Narayan and 
Raj Ballabh. Mir Qasim Khan declined to come on that occasion, 
but not long afterwards he moved to ‘Azimabad and from there 
sent Ghulam-Husain on a mission to Calcutta. For two or three 
months he remained there ( S . al-m. p. 706 23 , trans, (1926) 
ii p. 416), trying to carry out his mission, which was to induce 
Mr. Amyatt (a member of the Calcutta Council. See Buckland 
Dictionary of Indian biography p. 13) to put Rajah Ram Narayan 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 631 

under the control of Mir Qasim Khan. Soon after Ghulam- 
Husain returned to ‘Azlmabad, he was summoned by Mir Qasim 
Khan, who was then at that place, and asked to surrender his 
estate at Monghyr in order that it might be conferred on a 
certain Gurgln Khan. Mir Qasim Khan promised to compensate 
him by giving him an estate elsewhere, but set out for Bhojpur 
and Sahasram without carrying but his promise, Ghulam- 
Husain, being heavily in debt and without camp equipage, was 
unable to accompany him (S. al-m. ii p. 709 13 ' 21 , trans. (1926) 
ii pp. 424-5). He was living thus in straitened circumstances at 
‘Azlmabad, when Dr. Fullarton suggested that he should go to 
Mir Qasim Khan at Monghyr, since the British could not protect 
him or openly help him in view of their agreements with Mir 
Qasim. Accepting the advice, Ghulam-Husain went to Monghyr 
in Dhu d-Hijiah 1175/June-July 1762. In Muharram 1176/ 
1762 Mir Qasim Khan gave him a present (in' am) of 5,000 rupees 
and ordered that the arrears of his salary should be paid and 
that thenceforward he should be paid regularly month by 
month (S. al-m. ii p. 713 1-10 , trans. (1926) ii pp. 434-6). For the 
moment, therefore, his circumstances were improved, but in 
view of his relations with the British his position was difficult 
and he lived in constant dread of Mir Qasim Khan’s suspicions 
(S. al-m. ii p. 713 15 ' 16 , trans. (1926) ii p. 436). 

When Amyatt was sent by the Calcutta Council in 1176 on an 
embassy to Mir Qasim, the latter deputed Ghulam-Husain and 
a friend of his to meet Amyatt on his way to Monghyr and find 
out his real intentions ( S . al-m. ii p. 722 2 , trans. (1926) ii p. 458). 
In 1177/1763 Ghulam-Husain accompanied Mir Qasim on his 
march from Monghyr to £ Azlmabad, was present at his defeat 
by the British forces and went with the defeated army to the 
neighbourhood of Benares ( S . al-m. ii p. 743 10 " 11 , trans. (1926) 
ii p. 513). At this point he left the army ( S . al-m. ii p. 743 23 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 517) and lived at Benares for some months 
(S. al-m,. ii p. 746 9 " 10 , trans. (1926) ii p. 524). In Ramadan 
1177/March 1764 the army of Shah- £ Alam and the Nawwdb- 
Wazir of Oudh, which Mir Qasim had joined, reached Benares. 
Ghulam-Husain attached himself to it ( S . al-m. ii p. 746 8 ' 10, 25_26 , 
trans. (1926) ii pp. 524-5) and he was present at the subsequent 



632 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

engagements without being actually in anyone's employ (Faqir 
kih sar-rishtah i naukari bd least na-ddsht bar aspl suwdr . . . 
ham-rdh i ishdn dar fait j i : All-Jdh bud,. S. al-m. ii p. 749 19-21 , 
trans. (1926) ii p. 532). Dissatisfied with Mir Qasim, he had 
joined the Emperor, but, seeing the inefficiency of the Nawwab- 
Wazlr's army, he disliked to stay with such a disorderly crowd. 
Dr. Fullarton, with whom he had remained in correspondence, 
had repeatedly suggested that he should induce the Emperor to 
throw r in his lot with the British. Ghulam-Husain transmitted 
the suggestion through intermediaries (8. al-m. ii p. 751 13-18 , 
trans. (1926) ii pp. 535-6), and the Emperor, weary of the 
insubordination of the Namvab-Wazlr, agreed to the proposal 
and sent Ghulam-Husain with a letter to the British Com- 
mander at ‘Azfmabad (S. al-m. ii p. 751 penult., trans. (1926) 
ii p. 537). Shortly afterwards (evidently in 1178/176h~5) Ghulam- 
Husain was asked by Major (afterwards Sir Hector) Munro 
whether he could contrive to put the fortress of Rohtas in the 
hands of the British. He wrote to the Qal‘ali-ddr, a man under 
obligations to his family, and pointed out the advantage of 
being on the winning side. The QaVah-dar accordingly arranged 
that Rohtas should be surrendered (8. al-m. ii p. 758 6 " 16 , trans. 
(1926) ii p. 553). 

In 1179/1765 Ghulam-Husain, having been recommended by 
Dr. Fullarton, was working under Mr. Sage, Chief of the Benares 
factory (dar -in auqat faqir ba-sipgrish i Ddktar FutkfHdfi. dar 
rafaqat % Mistar Sej ... shudah bud. 8. al-m. ii p. 776 17 , trans. 
(1926) iii p. J 6). On hearing of his father's death, he left Mr. Sage 
and went to Husainabad. Soon afterwards possession of the jdglr 
was confirmed to him as the eldest son ( S . al-m. ii p. 777 2 3 , trans. 
(1926) iii p. 17). In 1180/1767 Rajah Shitab Ray [Naih-Dlwdn 
of Bihar] went to Calcutta to meet Henry Yerelst, the new 
Governor of Bengal. Ghulam-Husain, desirous of entering his 
service, went with him (faqir ham bind bar hum i siduk ii u 
qdsid i rafaqat ash gashtah ham-rdh raft. 8. al-m. ii p. 780 13 , 
trans. (1926) iii p. 24). In 1 187/1773—4 (apparently) he spent two 
or three weeks in Calcutta making arrangements for a pilgrimage 
to Mecca (8. al-m. ii p. 797 2 " 7 , trans. (1926) iii pp. 70-1). In 
1188/1774—5, having become surety for a zamlnddr, whom he had 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 633 

known for many years, lie suffered a loss of fifty or sixty thousand 
rupees and was reduced to poverty. A month later Colonel 
(afterwards General) Goddard, 1 with whom he was already 
acquainted, arrived in ‘Azimabad on his way to assume the com- 
mand of Chunar Fort. Hearing of Ghulam-Husain’s plight, he 
took him with him to Chunar and put him in charge of the financial 
arrangements there (faqir rd dar Jcdr-hd-yi mail i dn-jd mukhtdr 
sakhtah). Not long afterwards Goddard was appointed to the 
command of Asaf al-Daulah’s army. Ghulam-Husain spent 14 
months with him at Lucknow and then returned to ‘Azimabad 
(S. al-m. hi p. 952 4 ). Early in 1192/1778, desiring to approach 
the British authorities with reference to a personal matter, 
which he does not particularise, he took the opportunity of 
accompanying Colonel Goddard from ‘Azimabad to Calcutta. 
Unfortunately, although he had two or three interviews with 
Hastings, whom he had known for some considerable time 
(S. al-m. ii p. 806 13-14 ), his journey was fruitless. The British, 
he says, were too much occupied with wars and personal quarrels 
to have any time to spare for the affairs of Indians, and Colonel 
Goddard, on whose support he had relied, was put in command 
of the Bengal contingent which marched across India to aid 
the Bombay army against the Marat’has (S. al-m. ii p. 805, trans. 
(1926) iii p. 98). He had declined Colonel Goddard’s offer to take 
him with the army as Mir Munsjn and envoy to the Marat’ha 
generals (S. al-m. ii p. 806 15 " 18 , trans. (1926) iii p. 101 : az 
Karnal Godard ma‘lum shud hih mi-Jchwdhad faqir rd muldzm i 
Jchwud gardanad ammd mashrut ba-du Jcar yaki dn-kih ba-taur i 
Mir Munsjn umur i dar al-inshd' ba-faqir ruju‘ bud-ah hi mulahazak 
u isldh i in aqall al-anam surat i irqdm na-yabad duwwum dn- 
kih safar i sifdrat i DaFhan 2 * ham ba-faqir muta‘alliq bashed 
bandah Tear i duwwum rd ba-Jchauf i girl u duri az ‘iydl u atfdl 

1 Thomas Goddard, who eventually became Commander-in-Chief of the 
Bombay Army and who died in 1783, raised “ Goddard’s battalion ” of sepoys 
at Murshidabad in 1764, was in command at Berhampur in 1774 and of the 
contingent at Lucknow in .1776. See Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography. 

2 For the meaning of this expression cf. p. 807 7 : dar hangdm i ashub i 

Marhaftah ba-sifdrai i Dah'luin nazd i sardaran i dn-jd raft % maurid i ‘ indyat 

i tarafain dar -in asfdr gardidah . . . 



634 


IT. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

u mahrumi az taqbil i qudum [s?c] i ivalidah . . . inter numud). 
In Kabr ii 1194/1780 lie found himself obliged to go again to 
Calcutta to settle some business ( ba-idtimr i infisal i mu‘amalah 
i khwud). During that journey he was preparing the brouillon 
of the Siyar al-nmta'a khkh inn ( S . al-m. ii p. 813 46 , trails. (1926) 
iii p. 118). While at Calcutta he had an interview with Hastings, 
who was sympathetic and promised that his wish would be accom- 
plished, but the promise was not fulfilled ( S . al-m. ii p. 816 ante- 
penult., trans. (1926) iii p. 129). 

The year 1195/1781 is several times mentioned as the current 
year in the Siyar al-muta’a khkh inn . but there is one passage 
(ii p. 320 u ) where 1198/1783-4 is described as “ last year 
If the Sharaf-namah mentioned below is a work of his, he was 
alive in 1221/1806-7, and, if the Banklpur MS. (No. 282) is really 
an autograph, he cannot have died before 1230/1815. In that 
case he must have lived to a very advanced age. 

Although Ghulam-Husain records the fact of his entry into 
the employ of several different persons, it is not his practice to 
state the precise designation of the office that he held. We have 
seen, however, that the position offered to him by Colonel 
Goddard was that of Mir Munsjn and it may be surmised that 
in at least some of the other cases lie was employed as a Munsjn. 
In one passage he mentions that 1; to the present day ” Mr. 
Hastings praises his letters (iva-ilal-dn Gaivarnar l Lmdd al-Daulah 
Mi-star Hasjdmg Bahadur J alddat-J ang muharrardt i faqlr rd 
mi-sitdyad. S. al-m. ii p. 674 16 " 17 , trans. (1926) ii p. 329, where 
the passage is inaccurately translated). 

In addition to the Siyar al-muta' a khkh inn he wrote (1) Bisjiarat 
al-immnahd a mathnaivi on the lives of his ancestors, especially 
the miracles of his great-grandfather S. Faid Allah Tabataba'I 
and his grandfather S. 'Alim Allah Tabataba 2 (MS. : Banklpur 
Suppt. i no. 1991), (2) a theological work oil the prerogatives of 
£ Ali and his descendants, being a Bhrite interpretation of certain 
traditions quoted in the Fawatih of Mir Husain al-Maibudhl 

1 Mentioned in the Slj/ur uUvntta'a khkln rui ii pp. 523 1 ®,- 613 19 .' 

3 S. ‘Alim Allah died at ‘Azlmubad in Shadmn 1 156/1743 {3. al-m. ii p. 613 u ' 12 , 
trails. (1926) ii p. 171). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 635 

(MS. Bankipur xiv no. 1319, defective at both ends and of 
unknown title), (3) an Arabic tafsir ( tafsir dor tdzl i bd-mulm- 
u'arah), (4) a commentary on the Mathnawi of Jalal al-Dln 
RumI, (5) other theological works (u digar hutub i kalmmyalt), 
(6) a diwdn (u diwdn i ash: dr). Nos. (3)- (6) are mentioned here 
on the authority of “ a short biographical account of the author 
by Sayyid ‘All Muhammad Shad (the well-known Urdu poet 
of Patna) written in his own hand ” 1 on a fly-leaf at the beginning 
of the Bankipur MS. of the Bishdrat al-imdmah. A work entitled, 
Sharaf-namah written in 1221/1806-7 by Ghulam-Husain Khan, 
MunsJn i Bar al-insha? i 1st Indiyd Kampam (Asaflyah iii 
p. 104 no. 1314, a MS. dated 1268/1851-2), may also be by him. 
It is included in the historical part of the Asaffyah catalogue, 
but its precise subject is not stated. 

Siyar al-mutcf a khkh irin, a history of India from Auxang- 
zeb’s death in 1118/1707 to 1195/1781, begun in Safar 1194/Feb. 
1780, completed in Ramadan 1195/Aug. 1781 and containing 2 

1 This short biographical note, for a transcript of which I am indebted to the 
kindness of the authorities of the Oriental Public Library at Bankipur, contains 
no information of importance about Ghulam-Husain Khan apart from the 
statement concerning his writings. It does, however, show that descendants 
of his father, Nawwab S. Hidayat-‘A1I Khan, were living at Patna quite 
recently. Thus his second son Nawwab Pakhr al-Daulah TaqI [so, but NaqI 
in the printed text of the Siyar al-muta'a lchkh iriri] ‘All Khan was the father 
of Nawwab S. Kazim ‘All Khan, who was the maternal grandfather of Nawwab 
al-Hajj S. Wilayat-'Ali Khan. C.I.E. 

2 The author regarded his work as consisting of three daftars, but only the 
third is clearly indicated as such by a colophon in which he returns thanks 
to God for the completion of the daftar i siwivum (Lucknow editions p. 961 16 . 
Of. pp. 61 1 1 and 657 ult., where he promises to deal with certain events in the 
daftar i siwivum). That the Muqaddimah is Daftar i and the rest of the work 
Daftar ii may be inferred from the fact that, like Daftar iii, they, and no other 
parts, begin with formal exordia. If the Bankipur MS. no. 282 is an auto- 
graph, this inference is confirmed by the author himself, since in that MS. the 
Muqaddimah ends with the words Tammat lcitab (? Idtabat) i daftar i awwal. 
The MSS. show some differences of arrangement. In some, for example, 
the continuation of the history of India from 1153 to 1195 (i.e. Daftar iii) 
precedes the history of Bengal. That is not the original order. In the preface 
to Daftar iii (Lucknow editions p. 846) the author says that, having narrated 
the events of Muhammad Shah’s reign to its twenty-second year and having 
afterwards dealt with the history of Bengal and ‘Azlmabad, he will fulfil his 
promise to give in another daftar ( daftar i digar ) the rest of that monarch’s 
reign and the history of subsequent times. 



636 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(1) a history of the Tlmurids from Aurangzeb's death to 
Nadir Shah’s departure in 1152/1739 (beginning Sipds i bl- 
qiyas u sitayish i sarmadi-asds and corresponding to pp. 374- 
486 in the Lucknow editions), (2) a history of Bengal from the 
death of Shuja < al-Daulah [in Dhu 5 1-Hijjak 1151/March 1739] 
to 1195/1781 (no separate basmalah. First heading: Dhihr 
i rihht i Shujd £ al-Daulah Subah-dar i Bangdlah etc. Corre- 
sponding to pp. 487-844 in the Lucknow editions), (3) a continua- 
tion of the history of India from 1153/1740 to 1195/1781 
(beginning : Ilamd u thana-yi Padshah i ‘ aid ’ l-itldq , and corre- 
sponding to pp. 846-961 in the Lucknow editions), (4) a Khatimah 
containing some remarks on Aurangzeb’s character and an 
account of his capture of Bljapur and Golconda (headed Khatimah i 
kitdh mutadammin i barkM az ahvdl iAurangzeb ‘Alamgvr in the MS. 
Aumer 240, but in the published editions this section is appended 
to the Muqaddimah (Calcutta 1836 pp. 400(?)-439, Lucknow 
editions pp. 337 (?)— 372) without any heading. In Mustafa’s trans- 
lation it occurs at the end of the work (Calcutta 1926, vol. iv 
pp. 124-234)), (5) a subsequently added Muqaddimah, which is in 
fact the Khulasat al-tawdnlch of Sujan Ray 1 (for which see p. 454 
supra) with slight alterations and a preface containing a dedication 
to Warren Hastings : Bankipur vii 582 (with Muqaddimah. 
Husainabad, a.h. 1230/1815. Apparently autograph 2 3 ), 583-4 
(with Muqaddimah. a.h. 1233/1818), Suppt. 1769 (Muqaddimah 
only. a.h. 1236/1821), 1770 (with Muqaddimah, but breaking 

1 There is no question of a plagiarism here, as Nassau Lees supposed. Ohulam- 
Husain does not claim the Muqaddimah as his own work, but states quite dearly 
that it was written by yakl az nmntasibdn i pishah i inyhu. The author of the 

Khulasat al-imcdnkh does not mention his name in the preface to that work 
(at least in the form of his preface which -occurs in nearly all the MSS.), He 
does, however, mention that his profession, was munnhujarl. 

3 As already stated (p. 627), Husainabad was a village founded by Ghulam- 
Husain’s father on his jitgir near Rohtas. The colophon, quoted by Abdul 
Muqtadir, does not contain the name of Ghuiam-Husain but states that the 
MS. was completed ba-dastyarl i aqlam i in aqall al-andm (a formula used 
elsewhere by (Shulam-Husain, e.g, at the end of .Daftar Hi), The MS. was 
bought for Bs. 150 in the belief that it was) an autograph, apparently by 
Nawwab S. Vilayat ‘All Khan, of Patna, whose maternal grandfather was 
Xawwafa Kitgim ‘All Khan, the son of Ghuiam-Husain Khan’s younger brother, 
Nawwiib Fakhr al-Daulah TaqI "All Khan. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 637 

off in the middle of Daftar ii. 19th cent.), Rehatsek p. 77 no. 17 
(Daftar ii (though described as jild i awwal). “ 20th Muharram 
a.h. 1195 ” [sic, but this is doubtless a misprint, or a mis- 
transcription, or a misreading, of the date of completion by the 
author, 26 Muharram 1195]. Analysis), p. 80 no. 18 (. Daftar iii 
(though described as jild i duwwum). Ending with the account 
of Aurangzeb and his expedition against Golconda. a.h. 1212/ 
1797-8. Analysis), Boss and Browne 13 (with Muqaddimah . 
Presented by Sir W. Jones in January 1792 1 ), Ethd 417 (without 
Muqaddimah and slightly defective. Not later than a.h. 1201/ 

1787) , 416 (without Muqaddimah. a.h. 1205/1791), 418 (without 
Muqaddimah. N.d.), 419-20 (fragments of Daftar ii), 421 (an 
index only), Oxford Ind. Inst. MS. Pers. A. I. 19-20 (a.h. 1202/ 

1788) , Bodleian 265 (without Muqaddinah. N.d.), Eton 199 
(not later than a.d. 1790), Berlin (without Muqaddimah. 
a.h. 1203/1789), Rieu i 2806 (without Muqaddimah. 18th cent.), 
2816 (without Muqaddimah but with Khatimak. Late 18th 
cent.), Edinburgh 225 (without Muqaddimah. Late 18th cent.), 
226 (without Muqaddimah. Late 18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 145 
nos. 432-3 (“ Yols. i. and iii.” Circ. a.d. 1800), nos. 150-3 
( ! ‘ Complete. 4 vols.” a.d. 1802), nos. 897-8 (" 3 vols. in 2.” 
a.h. 1224/1809), nos. 874-6 (“ Yols. i., ii. and iv.” a.h. 1227/ 
1812), Leyden iii p. 14 no. 926 (a.d. 1812), Amiri Efendi Pers. 
759-60 = Tauer 554-5 (with Muqaddimah. a.h. 1229-31/ 
1814-15), Ivanow 174 {Muqaddimah only. 19th cent.), 175 
(. Daftar iii. Early 13th cent. H.), A§afiyah i p. 242 no. 198 
(a.h. 1271/1854-5), Vollers 988-90 (inadequately described, but 
probably a single copy in three volumes, of which 989 appears 
to he the Muqaddimah and of which 990 is dated 1289/1872), 
Aumer 239-40 (without Muqaddimah), Browne Pers. Cat. 101-2 
(with Muqaddimah), Caetani 43, R.A.S. P. 110 — Morley 105 
(without Muqaddimah ), P. Ill = Morley 106, P. 112-13 — 
Morley 107-8 {Daftar s ii-iii). Presumably the Tarikh i Multam- 
mad-ShdM by Ghulam-Husain b. Hidayat~‘Ali Khan recorded 

1 The colophon of the Muqaddimah, is dated 1198 (26 Nov. 1783-13 Nov. 
1784), hnt it is not clear whether this colophon is due to Ghulam-Husain or to 
the copyist. No such colophon occurs in the published editions. 



638 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

in Asafiyah i p. 230 no. 512 (a.h. 1210/1795-6) and no. 759 
(a.h. 1231/1816) is a part of the Siyar al-muta’ aJchkM nn. 

Editions : (1) Seear-ool mutakh-reen. . . . The exploits of the 
moderns, or the history of the empire of Hindoostan , from, the year 
1118 to 1194 of the Hijrah (a.d. 1782) . . . compiled by Nuwwaiib 
Syed Gholam Hosein Khan, Tuba Tuba-ee, edited by Hulceem 
Abdool Mujeed . . . Calcutta 1248/1833* ( Daftars ii (422 pp.) 
and iii (115 pp.). 1 The B.M. has only Daftar iii in this edition). 
Preface to Seirool Mutahhirin. Or, The History of India. Con- 
taining the transactions of the reigns of the beginning of Goman 
and Pandivan, to the beginning of MohummudAurung-zeb Awlumgir. 
Compiled by Syed Gholam Ilusein Khan Tuba Tubaee . . . Edited 
by Hukim Mouluve Abdool Mujid . . . Volume i. (Muqaddimah i 
kitab i Siyar al-muta’a Mkh inn ) , Calcutta 1252/1836*. (2) Siyar 
al-muta' a khkh irm, Nawal Kishor [Lucknow] 1282-3/1866° (the 
whole work including the Muqaddiniah) 2 . (3) Nawal Kishor, 
Lucknow 1314/1897* (agreeing in pagination etc. with no. 2). 

English translation (omitting the Muqaddiniah but containing 
the Khdtimah) : A translation of the Seir Mutaqharin ; or, View 
of Modern Times , . . [by ik ' Nota Manus ”, i.e. Hajji Mustafa, 
originally Raymond (for whom see Buckland’s Dictionary of 
Indian biography p. 353)] Calcutta 1789°* (most of this edition 
was lost at sea), [1902-3°*] (a reprint with index), 1926* (another 
reprint with index). 

Partial translations : (1) History of Bengal from the accession 
of AUverdee Khan Mahabut Jung [to the year 1780, being part vi 
or, in other words, vol. ii, pp. 309-461, of Ferishta's History of 
Bekhan , . . By Jonathan Scott, Shrewsbury 1794°* (see p. 449 
supra), (2) The Siyar-ul-mutakherin . . . Revised from the transla- 
tion of Haji Mustefa . . . by J. Briggs. Vol, i. London 1832°* 
(Oriental Translation Fund. No more, published. This transla- 
tion, about one-fifth of the work, corresponds to vol. i pp. 1-369 

1 In the printer’s colophons of this eclition each daftar is called merely m 
jild, without mention of any number. Nothing is said on the title-page about 
volumes, daftars , or gilds. 

- The pagination runs continuously through the three jilds (i.e, daftars), 
jild ii beginning at p, 373 and jild iii at p. 845. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18tH CENTURY 639 

in the 1789 edition of Hajji Mustafa’s translation and ends with 
the defeat of Sarfaraz Khan by c Ali-WirdI Khan in 1153/1740). 

Extracts : (1) Selections from Sairul Mula-akh -kharin . . . 

Prescribed as a rapid reading course for B.A. Examination of 
Allahabad University for 1920-21. Allahabad 1919*. (2) Inlimb 
az Siyar al-muta? a khkh inn [with a glossary]. Allahabad 1922*. 
( 3 ) Intikhdb i Siyar al-muta? ' a khkh inn [the reign of Akbar 
from the MuqaddimaJi]. Lucknow [1928*]. 

Urdu translations : (1) Iqbdl-ndmah, by S. Ba khsh ish-' All 
Faidabadi, Delhi (see Garcin de Tassy i p. 284, where the 
authority for saying that this translation was printed at Delhi 
is given as the “ Report of public instruction, 1843-1844 ; 
append, cxv (2) Mid at al-saldfm. by Gokul Prasad, [Lucknow] 
1874°. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 194r-8. 

Abridgment : Mula khkh as al-tawdrikh or Zubdat al- 
tawdri kh by Farzand- £ Ali al-Husainl, of Mongir, or Maulawi 
‘Abd al-Karim, Head MiinshI of the E.I.Co.’s Persian Office 
{Ddr al-insha ?), or both, 1 in three daftars (i) from Timur to 
a.h. 1152/1739, (ii) Bengal and Bihar from circ. 1140/1727-8 
to a.h. 1195/1780-1, (iii) the Timurids from a.h. 1153/1740- 
1195/1780-1 : Ivanow Curzon 40 (a.h. 1250/1834), Bmkipur 
vii 585 (a.h. 1279/1862), Rieu iii 943a (19th cent,). 

Editions : Calcutta 1243/1827°*, Agrah 1247/1831 (see Rieu 
iii 943a). 

Description of the Mula khkh as al-tawarikh : Elliot and Dotyson 
History of India viii p. 199. 

[Siyar al-muta? a khkhi nn , Lucknow 1866, vol. ii (iii) pp. 948-52 
(the 10th, 9th and 8th sections from the end of the work) and 
many other places in vols. ii and iii (most, but not by any means 

1 The printed edition of 1827 contains prefaces by both of these persons, 
the former of whom calls the work Mula khkh as al-tawarikh , while the latter, 
giving 1825 as the date of writing, calls it Zubdat al-tawanhh. The English 
title-page calls it Moolukhlchus-ool-iuwareekh and says that it was “ prepared 
chiefly by Maulavi Abdool Kerim ”. On the Persian title-page the title is given 
as Zubdat al-tawarikh and ‘Abd al-Karim is named as the epitomator. 



640 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

all, of these passages can be traced with the help of the indexes 
to the [1902-3] and 1926 editions of Raymond's translation) ; 
An account of Gholaum Hossein Khan, Author of a very valuable, 
and interesting Work, intitled “ Seir Mutakharin, or a Vim of 
Modem Times ”, translated [or rather, summarised] from the 
Persic Original [i.e. the above-mentioned passage in the Siyar 
al-mutaia klikh inn (Lucknow 1866, vol. ii (iii) pp. 948-52)] (in 
The Asiatic Annual Register . . .for the year 1801 , London 1802, 
Characters, pp. 28-32) ; Riyad al-ivifaq (Sprenger p. 170) ; 
Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 194-7 ; Buekland 
Dictionary of Indian biography p. 164 ; Envy. I si. under Ghulam 
Husain Khan (unsigned and short).] 

803, According to Jonathan Scott “ The Persic Journal of the 
cruel proceedings of the unprincipled and inhuman Rhohilla 
chief, Gholaum Kaudir was written by an eye witness on the 
scene of their perpetration, and transmitted to me by my brother 
Captain Richard Scott.” 

Account of Ghulam- Qadir’s proceedings at Delhi : no 
MSS. recorded. 

English translation : Ferishta's History of Dekkan ... By 
Jonathan Scott, Shrewsbury 1794°* vol. ii pp. 285-306. 

804. Ghulam-‘Ali Khan b. Bhik’hari 1 Khan was the son of 

Nawwab Raushan al-Daulah Bhik’hari Khan Rustam-Jang, the 
friend and minister of Mifln al-MuIk (d. 1167/1753-4), the 
Subah-ddr of Lahore. He was Mimshi to Prince Jawan-bakht 
Jahandar Shah 2 and was living at Lucknow in 1798 when 
Captain W. Erancklin published his History of the reign, of Shah 
Aiilum „ 

(1) Shah- Alam-namah or A 3 m i i Alam-Shahi f a bom- 
bastic history of ‘Alamgir II (reigned 1167/1754-1173/1759) and 

1 Bhik'han is a Hindi word for a mendicant which is used also as a proper 
name. 

2 For whom see p. 624 supra. 

3 These are the titles by which the author refers to this work in the. preface 
to his Muqaddimdh i $hah- < Alam-namah. On the fly-leaves of manuscripts 
and elsewhere it is sometimes given other titles, such as T&rikh i ‘Alam-Shahi. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (c) THE TIMURIDS (8) 18TH CENTURY 641 

Shali-'Alam (‘Ali-Gauhar, 1 reigned a.h. 1173/1759-1221/1806) 
from tlie deposition of Ahmad Shall a.h. 1167/1754 to a.h. 1203/ 
1789 : Bodleian 266 (autograph), Rieu i 2816 (18th cent.), 2826 
(18th cent.), iii 945a (a.h. 1265/1849), 1027a (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), Blochet i 615 (18th cent.), Etbi 424 (vol, i, 
i.e. to a.h. 1185/1771. a.h. 1207/1793), 425 (vol. h, i.e. a.h. 1185/ 
1771-1203/1789. a.h. 1206/1792), I.O. 3924 (vol. ii. a.d. 1878), 
3976 (vol. ii. a.d. 1891), Ivanow 176 (vol. i only). 

Edition : Shah Alam Nama . . . Edited by . . . HarinatJi De 
[Fasc. i, 1912], A. al-Ma'mun Suhratvardy and Aqd M. Kazim 
SJiirazi [Fasc. ii, 1914, extending to a.d. 1761], Calcutta 1912- 
(Bibliotheca Indica). 

Text and translation of letter from Prince Jawan-bakhh to 
George III and Shah- Alarms lament on the loss of his sight : 
Francldi n op. cit. pp. 242-54. 

The history of the reign of Shah-Aulum . . . By W. Franclclin, 
London, 1798, is largely based on the Shah- 1 Alam-namah. 

(2) Muqaddimah i Shah- Alam-namah, a history of the 
Mughuls from the death of Aurangzeb to the accession of 
‘Alamglr II, a.h. 1167/1754, written after the Shdh J Alam-ndmah 
as an introduction to it : Bodleian 266 (autograph), Rieu i 
2786 (18th cent.), 2796 (18th cent.). 

805. Maulawi Khair al-Din Muhammad Ilahabadi, who was 

born in 1165/1751 and died about 1827, has already been 
mentioned (pp. 520-2 supra ) as the author of a sketch of 
Tlmurid history. 

‘ Ibrat-ncimahf the fullest and best extant history of Shah- 
‘Alam II (reigned 1173/1759-1221/1806) extending to a.h. 1206/ 
1791 and divided (in most MSS.) into a Muqaddimah and two 
Daftars : Rieu iii 946a (19th cent.), 9476 ( Muqaddimah and 1st 
Daftar only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 948a (detached sections. Circ. 
a.d. 1850), 10266 (extracts from a later recension, said to extend 
beyond the accession of Akbar Shah. Cf. Rieu iii 9476. Circ. 


1 Not ‘AH Djawhar, as in the Ency. 1st. 

- The book is so called in allusion to the warning conveyed bvGhulam-Qadir’s 


642 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

A.D. 1850), 10516 (extracts only), Ivanow 177 (a.h. 1217/1802-3), 
178 (to middle of 2nd Daftar), Ivanow Cnrzon 38 (part of 
Daftar i), Bankipur vii 587-9 (a.d. 1886), Suppt. 1768 (19th 
cent.), I.O. 3908-10 (latter half of 19th cent.). 

Table of contents of vol. ii with translated extracts : B.M. 
MS. Add. 30,710, foil. 368-85. 

Description and 16 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India viii 237-254. 

Abridged extracts : Padash i kirdar^ an account of Ghulam- 
Qadir Khan, by Amin al-Din Husain Khan b. Khair al-Dln 
M. Khan, the authors son : Bankipur xvii no. 1717 (19th cent.), 
LO. 3979 (transcribed from the preceding MS.). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (d) 19th CENTURY 

806. The forty-fifth year of Shah-‘Alam’s reign [a.h. 1218/ 
1803-4] is mentioned as the current year at the end of— - 

An anonymous history of the successors of Aurangzeb 
from his death to the thirtieth year of Shah-‘Alam II (a.h. 1202/ 
1787-8) beginning, without a preface, Rdwiydn i mcdni-pardaz 
u ndqildn i haqiqat-fjmz : Bankipur vii 590 (a.ii. 1238/1822). 

807. ghulam-Husain Khan b. M, Himmat Khan says in his 
history of the Zammdars of Benares (Bankipur vii 608, see 
below in the sub-section devoted to Benares) that he was in the 
service of Rajah Balwand Sing'h and his son Rajah Chait Sing’ll 
(deposed a.h. 1195/1780). 

Dhihr al-siyar (a chronogram — 1221/1800), a history of 
the Timurids from Nadir Shah's sack of Delhi in 1151/1738-9 
to the end of 8hah-‘AIam\s reign, a.h. 1221/1806 : Ethe 429, 
LO. 3971 (probably a.d. 1897-8), 3978 (an abstract only. Circ, 
a.d. 1891 ?), Blochet i 616. / 

808. M. Zahir al-Din Mirza ‘All Bakht Gurgani, called Mirza i 
Kalan and, as a poet, “ Azfari,” w T as the grandson of a daughter 
(nawasah-zadah) of M. Mu‘i zz al-Din Padshah (i.e. Jahandar 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (d) 19TH CENTURY 643 

Shah), son of Shah- ‘Alain Bahadur Shah. In 1211/1797 at 
Maqsudabad (an old name for Alurshidabad), nine years after 
leaving Delhi, he decided to write his memoirs, the Waqi'at i 
Azfan. In the khdtimah to these memoirs he mentions seven of 
his earlier works, viz. (1) Lughat i Turlti i Qhaghatd \y, a Chaghatav 
dictionary (MS. Rehatsek p. 54 no. 27), (2) an enlarged Persian 
translation of Mir 'All Shir’s Malibub al-qulub, (3) Nisdh i Turk T t, 
(4) Tengri-Tan, a Turkish-Hindi imitation of the Khdliq-Bdn 
ascribed to Amir Khusrau, (5) a Persian metrical translation of 
the Risdlah i qabnyah 1 [or ' Ala-mat al-qaddyd ], a treatise on the 
signs of approaching death ascribed to Hippocrates, (6) Nushhah 
i semihat, a parsenetic work, (7) a second Chaghatav Nisdb in 452 
verses written at ‘Azlinabad. Another work, Fawd'id al-mubtadi, 
is mentioned earlier in the memoirs. For his Urdu dm cm see 
Sprenger p. 602 no. 599. 

Wdqi c dt iAzfari, an account of the overtlirow of the Gurganls 
(i.e. the Tlmurids) by Ghulam-Q.adir, the Bohilla who captured 
Delhi in 1788, the author’s escape from captivity and his wander- 
ings until A.i-i. 1221/1806 : Berlin 496 (a.h. 1227/1812), Rieu 
iii 10516 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Madras. 

Urdu translation 1 2 : Tarjamah i Wdqi‘at i Azfan . . . mutar- 
jamah i c Abd al-Sattdr . . . bah tashih u lartmm i Muhammad 
Husain “ Malrni ” Siddiqi . . . Madras (Bangalore printed) 
1937 (Bulletin of the Department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu 
[Aladras University], No. I). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 234. 

[Subh i watan p. 35 ; Garcin cle Tassy i p. 265 ; Sprenger 
p. 208 ; Berlin Pens. Cat. no. 496.] 

809. AlunshI Munna Lai, or Mannu Lai, the son of Bahadur 
Sing’h, tells us (in a passage quoted by 'Abd al-Muqtadir) that, 
having passed his fiftieth year and lost his sight, he had ended 
the detailed narrative of Shah- £ Alam’s reign with the 30th year 
and had given only a summary account of events from the 31st 

1 For editions of the Arabic text see Ellis. 

2 From a MS. (location unspecified, but presumably that recorded in the 
Madras catalogue). 



644 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

to the 48th [and last] year. A TdnMi i Dakan by Ray Munna 
Lai, who may of course be a different person, is mentioned in 
Asafiyah i p. 224 no. 797 (Edition : place % 1303/1885-6). 

[Shah- Alam-ndmah) or (Tarlkh i Shah- Alam ),a history 
of Shah- ‘Alarms reign (a.h. 1173/1759-1221/1806) : Bankipur 
vii 586 (the only recorded MS. containing the whole reign. 
a.h. 1226/1811), Rieu iii 9436 (breaks off in the 24th year, 
1196/1782. 19tli cent.), 1027a (extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850), 
10526 (extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850). 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 393. 

W. Francklin used this work for his History of the reign of Shah 
Aulum and describes it (p. 198) as a “ MS. of Munnoo Loll, a 
Hindoo, containing the thirteen first years of the reign ”. 

810. Ray Tek Chand was AJchbar-nawis to the East India 
Company at Shah- ‘Alain's court. The Ruz-ndmchah i Shah - 
‘Alam was transcribed from his newsletters ( akhbar ). 

(Ruz-namchah i shah- Alam), a journal of events at the 
court of Shah-‘Alam from the beginning of the 31st regnal 
year (1 Jumada i 1173/28 Jan. 1759) to his death on 7 Ramadan 
1221/19 Nov. 1806 in the 49th regnal year : Bankipur vii 
no. 620 (19th cent.), I.O. 3921-2 (a.d. 1885). 

811. Bhagwan-Das Pandit Shivpuri began his MaHhzan al~ 
futuh in the time of Shah- ‘Alam II (reigned 1173/1759-1221/ 
1806) and finished it in the first year of his successor M. Akbar 
Shah (reigned a.h. 1221/1806-1253/1837). 

Makhzan al-futuh (a chronogram = 1222/1807-8), an 
account of Lord Lake’s operations against the Marathas from 
his advance upon Delhi, 7 Aug. 1803, to his treaty with Holkar, 
Dec. 1805, and his return to Calcutta : Rieu iii 9486 (a.d. 1849), 
10506 (extract only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

812. For a poem, or poems, describing Lord Lake’s operations 
against Bharatpur see p. 689 infra. 

813. Mulla Firuz bin Kawus was born at Broach in 1758. 
At the age of ten he accompanied his father, a Parsee priest, on a 


645 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA I {<&) 19TH CENTURY 

journey to Persia for tlie purpose of obtaining answers from tlie 
Zoroastrians of Persia to a number of religious questions. They 
went first to Yazd, afterwards to Isfahan and Shiraz and re ma ined 
in the country for twelve years. On tbeir return they settled 
at Bombay. Prom 1794 he acted as a Parsee priest of the 
“ Kadmi ” sect. In 1807, at the suggestion of Jonathan Duncan, 
he undertook to write on the model of Firdausi’s Shah-namah a 
poem dealing with the history of the British power in India. 
He completed this work when over seventy years of age but he 
did not live to see it in print. In 1818 he published an edition 
and translation of the Dasdtir (see Edwards col. 187). In 1822 
he helped to found the Bombay Samdchar, a newspaper to which 
he made frequent contributions. In 1828 he published a work 
on intercalation (see Edwards col. 213), a subject on which there 
was much controversy at that time among the Parsees. His 
Pand-ndmah (Behatsek p. 132 no. 20) was published at Bombay 
in 1342/1923* and in the Qa'idah i Fdrsiydn, a collection of three 
works by different authors, at the same place in 1880*. For 
other works of his, which are all in Persian and mostly in verse 
and which include a Din-hard i manzumah, see Behatsek’s 
Catalogue raisonne of the Arabic , Hindustani, Persian and Turkish 
MSS. in the Mulla Firuz Library, e.g. pp. 181, 215. 

He died on 8 October 1830, bequeathing his library to the 
Elders of the “ Kadmi ” sect of Zoroastrians for the benefit of 
all castes and creeds. In 1854 the Mulla Firuz Madrasah was 
founded to commemorate his name and to this madrasah the 
library was for a time attached, but in 1857 it was detached 
and came under a separate committee. 

Jarj-namah 5 an epic poem on the history of British power 
in India to a.d. 1817 : Sprenger 218, Behatsek p. 97 nos. 46-8 
(autograph). 

Edition : The George-Ndmah of Mulla, Feruz bin Kdwus. 
Edited by his nephew Mulla Rustam bin Kaikobdd. 3 vols. 
Bombay 1837°*. 

[Behatsek Catalogue raisonne of the . . . MSS. in the Mulla 
Firuz Library pp. vii-viii, 215 etc. ; Buckland Dictionary of 
Indian biography p. 146 ; Portrait in the Jarj-namah.] 


646 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

814. Maulawi M. Fadl i ‘Azim. “ ‘Azim ” gives some account 
of liis life at the beginning of his Afsdnah i BJiartpur, which he 
wrote in 1241/1826 (see p. 689 infra). He became secretary to 
"William Fraser 1 at Delhi, served him for twenty years [which 
included the time spent on Fraser’s staff, 2 when the latter 
accompanied General MartindelTs army as Political Agent in 
the Nepalese War of 1814-16, returning to Delhi in August 
1815 3 ], and then by his influence obtained employment in the 
office of “ the Board Unfortunately this employment proved 
disappointing, since his chief continually found fault with him. 
He resigned and was reduced to sore straits. Happily Fraser 
returned to Delhi, and on the outbreak of hostilities against 
Bharatpur, Fadl i ‘Azim accompanied his old master on the 
campaign. Subsequently he became a Deputy Collector in the 
Saharanpur District. 4 In addition to the Afsdnah i BJiartpur 
and the Waqd/i ( i Kuhistdn he wrote a romantic mathnam 
entitled Sham* ishabistdn, which was published at Shahjahanabad 
[i.e. Delhi] in 1269/1853*. 

Waqdifi 1 i Kuhistdn 3 an account of the Nepalese War in 
prose interspersed with narratives of the same events in mathnam 
verse : I.O. 4020 (transcribed from the lithographed edition). 

Edition : Shahjahanabad [i.e. Delhi] 1269/1853*. 

815. M. Ashraf Khan was the second son of Nawwab Dunde 5 
Khan, a Lai- Khan! Rajput 6 * * rads of Kamaunak (now in the 
Bulandshahr District), who in his fort at Kamaunah offered a 

1 For whom 8ee Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography pp. 155-6. 

2 Waqa’i’' i Kuhistdn p. 4 : dar an zamdn ba-hamrdhl i Aqd-yi mausuf ba-lcdr 
i nawisht u kkwdnd i khutut u pancamh-jdt u intizara i muhimmat masruf ... 
bud. 

3 W. i K. p. 76. 

•A IF. i K., title-page. 

5 For the spelling of Duiide see 'I mad visa 1 Mat p. 40 10 ; Duhie Khan bd 
dal i muhnalah u waw i maruf u nun i maahnunah u dal i muhmalah u yd i 
majhul. 

6 This Duiide Khan is to bo distinguished from the Bohillah chieftain of the 

same name, who was associated with Bisauli in the Badayuii District and who 

died in 1770 (see the Badaun District Gazetteer, p. 148). 



647 


M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (d) 19TH CENTURY 

stubborn resistance to the British at the time of the conquest 
of the Doab in 1803-6. In the VikramI year 1860 (a.:d. 1803) 
Ashraf Khan was twelve years old. When his father evacuated 
Kamaunah and afterwards Gannaurl, they crossed the Jumna to 
Rajputanah and took part in military operations in Jaipur and 
elsewhere. 

Ashraf-namah, an account of Dutide Khan’s military 
exploits. 

Edition: Kol 1271/1854°*. 

816. “ Farasu ”, who wrote the F ath-ndmah % Angrez, is 
probably identical with the Farasu or Faransu, who is mentioned 
as an Urdu poet by Sprenger (p. 227) on the authority of the 
Urdu tadhlirahs ‘Iy dr al-shidarct and Gulshan i be-khdr 
and also by Garcin de Tassy (i pp. 444-5, iii p. 373). He was 
in the service of the Begam Samru (who died in 1836 : see p. 691 
infra) and was a European. His surname is given in corrupt 
forms (Captain Francois Akden (?) a son of Gobinet ; Farapu 
ou Fransu, fils de Gust (Auguste) ou de Gustin (Augustin)) by. 
Sprenger and Garcin de Tassy, but there seems to be little doubt 
that he is Farasu Gotlib, i.e. Francis Gottlieb, a German born in 
Poland and educated in India, who wrote in Persian a history of 
the Jat Rajahs of Bharatpur (see p. 690 infra). 

Zafar al-zafar, or Fath-namah i Angrez 3 a poetical 
account of the Indian Mutiny, begun on 9 May 1857 : Bankipur 
Suppt. i no. 1949 (19th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 317 (19th cent.). 

817. Mlrza Asad Allah Khan “ Ghalib ”, who was born at 
Agrah in 1212/1797 and died at Delhi in 1285/1869, has already 
been mentioned (pp. 525-7 supra) as the author of the Mihr i 
nim-ruz. 

Dastanbuy 3 reminiscences of the Mutiny at Delhi. 

Editions: Bareilly 1871* [Lucknow,] 1871°* (in the Kulliydt 
i na.thr i Ghalib pp. 377-416), Cawnpore 1884f (in the ICuMydt i 
natfvr i Ghalib), 1888* (in the Kulliydt i nathr i Ghalib). 

818. A Muhammadan, who conceals his name, wrote his 



€48 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Zafar-namah i waqai c i Ghadr in 1276/1859 for the information 
of the Secretary of State for India and the Members of Council. 

Zafar-namah i waqaH ‘ i Ghadr , a short history of the 
Indian Mutiny : Ethe 431 (a.h. 1285/1869). 

819. M. Bashir Lak’hnawi 1 . 

Tadhkirah i ghadr i Hind . . . mausum hah Sahifah 
i wala-qadn u A'inah i hairat-numa^ a history of the 
Indian Mutiny. 

Edition: Lucknow 1282/1865°. 

820. Nawwab Amir ‘All Khan Bahadur was born at his 
ancestral home, Barh near Patnah, in 1810. In 1829 he became 
Assistant (at Calcutta) to the Ambassador of the King of Oudh, 
Nasir al-Dln Haidar, in 1845 Government Pleader in the Sadr 
Dhodnl ‘ Adalat , in 1857 special Assistant to the Commissioner 
of Patnah and in 1864 Khan Bahadur (a title conferred by the 
Government) and Member of the Bengal Legislative Council. 
In 1867 he entered the service of the deposed King of Oudh, 
then living near Calcutta, and rendered valuable service in 
connexion with the settlement of his debts. He was appointed 
Maddr al-mahdmm and received the title of Wazir al-Sultdn. 
In 1875 he was made a Nawwab and in Nov. 1879 he died. For 
his Wazir-namah, a work on the history of Oudh and especially 
the life of Wajid ‘All Shah, see p. 712 infra. 

(1) Amir-namahy memoirs of the author, preceded by a brief 
history of British rule in India, with an abstract translation in 
English. 

Editions: Calcutta 1870[-71]°, 1874°* (enlarged). 

(2) Bering-namahy a life of Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl 
of Northbrook, Viceroy of India 1872-6. 

Edition : Calcutta 1876 # . 

[. Amir-ndmah ; Wazir-namah ; Sham‘ i anjuman pp. 73-4 ; 

1 The nisbah is followed by a query in the B.M. catalogue, but whether this 
indicates doubt concerning the nisbah or concerning M. Bashir’s authorship of 
the Tadhkirah i ghadr i Rind is not clear. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (e) THE TIMURIDS, ETC. : APPENDIX 649 

Lokc Nath Ghose The modern history of the Indian chiefs, rajas, 
zamindars, etc., pt. ii, Calcutta 1881, pp. 14--18 ; Buckland 
Dictionary of Indian biography p, 12.] 

821. Munshi Bishan La‘l “ Nazir ” completed his Qaisari- 
ndmah iix 1297/1880. 

Qaisavi-ndmah 3 a poetical account of events in India under 
'.Lord Lytton and Lord Ripon : Bleu Suppt. 372 (circ. a.d. 1880). 


HISTORY OF INDIA: (e) THE TlMURIDS Etc.: 
APPENDIX 

822. (1) Biographical notices of M. Khan Bangash and his 
sons, on S. Sa‘adat Khan Burhan al-Mulk and his successors, 
on ‘All M. Khan Bohelah, Najib al-Daulah, Mirza Najaf Khan, 
Ja'far Khan Naslrl, afterwards Murshid-Quli Khan, and his 
successors in Bengal, and some other amirs, followed by an 
account of the Marat’has, Sik’hs, Jats and the English, written 
circ. a.h. 1197/1783 by an unnamed author : Bieu ii 7986 xi 
(foil. 120-5. a.h. 1197/1783). 

(2) Jang-ndmah i Dakan s a detailed diary of the operations 
in southern India under Colonel Camae, without author’s name 
or preface : Bodleian 282 (defective at end). 

(3) Poem on the wars between the British and the states of 
Central and Southern India at the beginning of the 19th century 
(beginning Ba-nam Tcih ndm-ash har ndmah [shf]) : Vollers 991 
(defective at end). 

(4) Riydd al-muluk^ a collection of historical anecdotes 
relating mainly to India compiled by M. Ghauth b. M. Fa’iq for 
Timur Shah b. Ahmad Shah Abdali and divided into a muqad- 
dimah, two raudahs and a Miatimah : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. 
(a.h. 1249/1833. See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii no. 4 
(August 1926) p. 48). 

(5) Tuhfah i Akbari y a history of the Nizams, of the 
Timurids from Ahmad Shah to Shah-‘Alam, and of the Panjab 



G50 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

from the rise of the Sik’hs, written apparently in 1219/1804-5 
by Khwajah ‘Abd al-Hakfm : see p. 753 infra. 

(6) Work of unknown authorship and title divided into three 
babs , of which the first two treat of the relations between the 
East India Co. and various Hindu rulers since the Fasli year 1182 
(= a.d. 1775), while the third is devoted to the art of siege- 
warfare among the Indians of former days ( sarddrdn i salaf ) : 
Berlin 521. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (/) SIND 

823. ‘AH b. Hamid b. Abi Bakr al-Xufi, having been com- 
pelled by adverse circumstances to leave his native land, settled 
at Uchh. In his fifty-eighth year, a.h. 613/1216-7, or not long 
after, he conceived the idea of writing an account of the 
Muhammadan conquest of Sind and went to Alor and Bhakkar 
with a view to obtaining information on the subject. Maulana 
Qadi Ismail b. ‘All Thaqafi, a descendant of one of the conquerors, 
showed him an Arabic book composed (or transcribed) by one 
of his ancestors. 'All b. Hamid translated this book into Persian 
and dedicated the translation to ’’Ain al-Mulk Fakhr al-Din 
Husain b. Abi Bakr al-Ash‘ari, who was Wazir to the ruler of 
Sindh, Nasir al-Din Qubachah. 

Chach-ndmahf as it is usually called, or TanJck i Hind 
or Fath-namah, as it is called in the preface, a historical romance 
telling the story of Chach, the Rajah of Alor, and the conquest 
of Sind by M. b. Qasim al- Thaqafi, a.h. 92/710 : Lahore Panjab 
Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1061/1651. See Oriental College Magazine, 
vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 56), Rieu i 2906 (a fragment 
(foil. 25) only. 19th cent.), iii 9486 (a.h. 1248/1832), Blochet i 
630 (1st half of 19tli cent.), Bankipur vii 597 (a.h. 1272/1856), 
Ivanow 184 (a.d. 1871), Eth6 435 (n.d.). 

1 Rieu states that according to the Tabaqat i Akban [beginning of Tabaqah 
viii] the original title was Minhaj al-viamlik. 



651 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (/) SIND 

According to Elliot and Dowson History of India i p. 137 the 
Chach-ndmah is common in India. 

English translation : The Chachnamah, an ancient history of 
Sind, giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest. Trans- 
lated . . . by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. . . . Karachi 1900° (a con- 
tinuation translated from other Persian sources and entitled 
A history of Sind. Volume II was published by Mirza Qilich Beg 
in 1902, The Chachnamah being by an afterthought regarded as 
A History of Sind. Volume I ). 

Translated extracts : (1) Account of the expedition ofChach . . . 
extracted from the Chach Nameh . . .by Ensign Postans 1 (in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, y ol. vii (1838) pp. 93-96, 
297-310), (2) Of the early history of Sindh, from the “ Clinch 
Namuh ” and other authorities. [Translated] By Lieut. Postans 1 
(in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. x (1841) 
pp. 183-97, 267-71), (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India 
i pp. 138-211. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India i pp. 131-7. 

824. Mir M. Ma‘§um “ Nami 55 b. S. Safa’i al-Husaini al~ 
Tirmidhi al-Bhakkari, the son of a Shaikh al-Isldm at Bhakkar, 
went to Gujrat some time after his father’s death, which 
occurred in 991/1583, and became a friend of the historian 
Nizam al-Din Ahmad (for whom see p. 433 supra). He entered 
Akbar’s service and in the 40th regnal year, a.h. 1003-4/1595-6, 
was given a mansab of 250. In 1012/1603-4 he was sent on a 
mission to Shah ‘Abbas, and after his return Jahangir gave him 
the title of Amin al-Mulk. He returned to Bhakkar in 1015/ 
1606-7 and died there soon after. 

According to c Abd al-Qadir Bada’uni he was the author of 
a diivdn and of a mathnawi in the metre of [“ Jami’s ”] Yusuf u 
ZaUkhd , According to Taqi Kashi [as summarised in Sprenger 

1 “ Even the later professed translations by Lieutenant Postans, in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (No. LXXIV., 1838, and No. CXI., 
1841) give merely an abridged account of the transactions, which is moreover 
unfortunately disfigured by many misprints ” (Elliot and Dowson i p. 137). 



652 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

p. 37] lie wrote two diwdns of ghazals, two sdqi-ndmahs and five 
mathnawis ((1) Husn u Naz in the metre of Yusuf u ZaliJchd, 
(2) Pan-surat in the metre of Laild Majnun, (3) -(5) [titles 
not stated] in the metres of the Haft paikar, the Sikandar-namah 
and the Mqlchzan al-asrdr). In the Mai dthir al-umard 5 the title 
of the last, the only one there mentioned, is given as Ma‘din al- 
afkar. There seem to be no recorded manuscripts of these works 
except possibly the Diwan i Naim described by Fliigel (i no. 629), 
which is shown by the chronograms which it contains to be by a 
poet of the tenth century, and less probably the apparently 
different Dhvdn i Ndmi described by Dorn (no. 475 (1) tran- 
scribed in 1043 /1634). A short medical work of his, the Mufraddt 
i Ma‘suml or Mufraddt i Nairn, has been preserved (see Banldpiir 
xi no. 985, Ivanow 1550). 

Tarikh i Sind , often called Tanhh i Ma‘sunii, a history of 
Sind from the Muhammadan conquest to its annexation by Akbar 
divided into four chapters called juz’ ((1) the conquest of Sind, 
(2) its history under the governors appointed by the Kings of 
Hindustan to 801/1399 and under the Sumrah and Samrnah 
dynasties to 916/1510, (3) the Arghun dynasty to the death of 
Sultan Mahmud Khan in 982/1574 and some rulers of Tattah 
to 993/1585, (4) history of Sind from 982/1574 to Akbar’s 
annexation and of the subsequent governors to a.h. 1008/1599- 
1600) : Ivanow 185 (a.h. 1046/1636-7), Rehatsek p. 71 no. 7, 
(a.h. 1080/1669-70), Rieu i 291a (17th cent.), 292a (17th cent.), 
292a (18th cent-.), iii 949a (a.d. 1849), 949a (with some additional 
matter, a.d. 1851), Lahore Panjab IJniv. Lib. (a.h. 1159/1746. 
See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1926), p. 56), Ethe 436 (a.h. 1186/1772), 437 (a.ii. 1216/1802), 
Ross and Browne 239 (circ. a.d. 1864), I.O. 3747, 3873, 3916, 
R.A.S. P. 70 = Morley 59 (a.h. 1233/1817), Asafiyah i p. 226 
nos. 292 (a.h, 1227/1812), 674, iii p. 96 no. 1373, Lindesiana 
p. 194 no. 377 (a.h. 1247/1831-2), Bloehet i 632 (a.ii. 1260/ 
1844), Bankipur vii 599 (19th cent.). 

Edition : Ta’nkh-i-Sind, best known as Ta’nhh-i-Ma'sumi, 
by Sazzid Muhammad Ma ( sum Bakkarl . . . edited ... by 
U. M. Daudpota. Poona 1938 (Bhandarkar Institute). 



653 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA: (/) SIND 

English translation 1 * * * : A history of Sind . . . written ... by 
Mahomed Masoom ; cmd translated . . . by Captain G. G. Malet 
, . . assisted by Peer Mahomed . . . Edited by R. H. Thomas. 
Bombay 1855°* (Selections from the records of the Bombay 
Government. No. xiii. — New series). 

Sind 5 hi translation : by MunshI Nandlram, place ? 1861 
(see The Chachnamah . . . translated . . . by Mirza Kalichbeg 
Fredunbeg , Karachi 1900°. p. ii). 

Translations of extracts : (1) Elliot and Dowson History of 
India i pp. 215-52, (2) A history of Sind. Volume II (in two parts). 
Part I. — Giving the Mussulman period from the Arab Conquest 
to the beginning of the reign of the Kalhorahs [from the Tdrikh 
i Ma'simu and the Tuhfat al-Jdrdm], Part II — Giving the reigns 
of the Kalhorahs and the T dipurs down to the British Conquest 
[from the Tuhfat al-kirdm, the Fath-namah of M. ‘Azlm, and the 
Fnr-ndmah]. Translated [or summarised] from Persian boohs 
by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg . . . Karachi 1902°. 

{Tabagdt i AJcbanii p. 500 ; Muntahkab al-tawdrikh iii pp. 364- 
75; Akbar-ndmah iii p. 424 (continuation), p. 836; A'in % 
Ahbari p. 230 no. 329 (merely his name in the list of Du-sad-u- 
panjdhis), Blochmann's trans. p. 514 (the fullest biography in 
English) ; TaqI Kashi Khuldsat al-ashdr, appendix ix (sum- 
marised Sprenger p. 37) ; Safmah i Khimshqu (Bodl. 376 
no. 460) ; Riydd al-shuiard ’ (Ivanow Curzon 57 no. 1635) ; 
‘All Sher “Qani £ ' ! Maqaldt al-sb i l ard\ near the end; Idem 
Tuhfat aCkirdm, towards the end of Mujdllad iii ; Mct'dthir 
al-umanV iii pp. 326-9 ; Suhuf i Ibrahim ; Makhzan al-gkam'ib 
no. 2754 ; Morley pp. 72-3 ; Sprenger pp. 37, 65 ; Elliot and 
Dowson History of India i p. 213 : Haft dsmdn pp. 126-7 ; 
Rieu i p. 291 ; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 269; 
Nizami Badayum Qdmus al-mashdliir (in Urdu) ii p. 201.] 

1 For some remarks on this translation see Elliot and Dowson i pp. 214-15 : 

“ This work has been translated by Capt. G. Malet . . but so literally, as 

not to be fit for publication in its present shape. [There is a copy of this transla- 

tion in Sir H. Elliot’s library, which, on examination, is found to contain 

matter that is entirely absent from all the five MSS. above specified. . . .] ” 



654 II. HISTORY j BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

825. “Idiakl” Beg-Larl Tattawi, of the Arghfm tribe, was 
the author of a mathnawl entitled CHN YR-namah, 1 which he 
composed in 1010/1601-2, as is shown by a hemistich quoted 
in the Maqalat al-shu‘ard’ by ‘All Sher “ Qani‘ ”, who had seen 
no other poems by this author. ‘All Sher “ Qanr ” does not 
mention the Beg-Lar-namah in his short notice of “ Idraki ”, 
nor is the author’s name mentioned in the Beg-Lar-namah itself. 
The work is, however, ascribed to Idraki T’hattawl in a manu- 
script (B.M. Or. 2073, Rieu iii p. 1061) containing notices of 29 
MSS. in the library of the Mullas of Tattah, which was drawn 
up for Sir H. M. Elliot in 1266 by S. Sabir ‘All, a grandson of 
‘Ali Sher cc Qani‘ 55 . 

Beg- Lar-namah, a biography of Khan i Zaman Amir (or 
Shah) Qasim Khan b. Amir S. Qasim Beg-Lar, a military com- 
mander who flourished under the Tarkhan rulers in Akbar’s 
time and who had reached his seventieth year in 1017/1608-9, 
the date of composition (though there are later additions) : 
Blochet i 631 2 (a.h. 1078/1667), Bankipur vii 598 (a.h. 1233/ 
1818), Rieu iii 9196 (a.h. 1265/1849), I.O. 4398 (lacunae. 
a.h. 1269/1852), Three copies in Sind were known to Sir H. M. 
Elliot. 

Description and 7 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India i pp. 289-99. 

[‘All Sher “ Qani‘ ” Maqdldt al-shu c ara’ (I.O. 4398 fol. 46) ; 
Pdeu iii 10966 (ad p. 9496).] 

826. Mir Tahir Muhammad “ Nisyani ** b. S. Hasan, of 
Tattah, was in the service of Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan “ Waqari ” 
(Governor of Sind a.h. 1008/1599-1018/1609), and was in his 
twenty-fifth year when at the time of Akbar’s death, a.h. 1014/ 
1605, he received permission to return to Tattah, his native 
town. He there devoted himself to the study of the Persian 

1 It appears from what “ Qani‘ ” says about this mathnawl that CHNYR 
[? — Chunair, possibly an arbitrary diminutive of Chandar] is the name of 
a person, the husband of Lila. The name does not occur in the verses quoted 
by “ Qani‘ ” from the mathnawl. 

2 The reference in the Bankipur catalogue to “ Rosen, p. 366 ” seems to be 
a mistake for Blochet pp. 364-6, i.e. vol. i no. 631. 



655 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (/) SIND 

poets under Maulana Ishaq al-Bhakkarl. It was at the request of 
Mirza Shah Muhammad Beg ‘Adil Khan, eldest son of Shah 
Beg Khan Arghun (Governor of Qandahar a.h. 1002/1593-4 — 
1028/1619 and of Tattah a.h. 1028/1619), that he began in 
1021/1612-13 his TariJch i Tahiti, which he completed in 1030/ 
1620-1, being then in his fortieth year. 

Tafikh i Tahiti) a history of Tattah from the earliest 
times to a.h. 1018/1609 : Bankipur vii 600 (a.h. 1223/1808), 
Rieu i 2926 (lacuna near beginning. 19th cent.), iii 9496 (19th 
cent.). 

Description and 33 pp. of translated extracts : Elliot and 
Dowson History of India i pp. 253-88. 

827. Mirza M. Salih Tarkhan b. Mirza ‘Isa Tarkhan (who became 
Subah-dar of Tattah in 1061/1651 and who was a great-grand- 
son of Mirza ‘Isa Tarkhan, the founder of the Tarkhan dynasty 
extinguished by Akbar), desiring to read an early history of his 
ancestors entitled TarJchan-ndmah, asked S. Jamal b. Mir Jalal 
al-Dln al-Husaini al-Shirazi to find a copy of this book. S. Jamal 
was unsuccessful, and therefore he wrote in 1065/1654-5 1 2 a 
TarJchdn-namah of his own, which he compiled from a number 
of works mentioned in his preface, but mainly, according to 
Elliot and Dowson i p. 301, from M. Ma'sunTs Tdrihk i Sind 
(for which see p. 652 supra). 

Tarkhan-namah? a history of the Arghun and Tarkhan 
rulers of Sind (a.h. 926/1520-961/1554 and 961/1554-1000/1592 
respectively) preceded by an account of their Mongol ancestors 
and continued to the death of Mirza ‘Isa Tarkhan in 1061/ 
1651 and the succession of his son Mirza M. Salih to the Subah- 
dati of Tattah: Rieu iii 950a (a.h. 1265/1849), 950a (cire. 
a.d. 1850), 9506 (19th cent.), 1.0. 3871 (19th cent.). 

Description and 23 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and 
Dowson History of India i pp. 300-26. 

1 According to Rieu this date is mentioned incidentally in the genealogical 
tables. There are no such tables in I.O. 3871. 

2 Sometimes called Arghun-namah. 



656 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

828. Mir *A1! Sher “ Qani* ” Tattawl was born in 1140/1727-8 
and was still alive in 1202/1787-8 (see p. 138 supra). In addition 
to the works mentioned on p. 138 he wrote Flan i gham, an account 
of the martyrs of Karbala’, Maldi-namah, notices of the saints 
of Mount Makll, and a MiiJjMcir-ndmah (see Rieu iii p. 10616). 

(1) Tukfat al-kiram (a chronogram = 1180/1766-7, the 
date of inception, a.h. 1181 being given as the date of com- 
pletion, but later dates (e.g. 1188) occur), a history in three 
volumes (mujalhd ) , of which the first is a general history from 
the earliest times, the second an account of the seven climates 
in the maimer of the Haft iqlim with notices of the celebrated 
men of the principal countries and cities, and the third a special 
history of Sind 1 : Bankipur vi 479 (a.h, 1233/1817-18), Rieu 
ii 846a (a.h. 1246/1830), iii 9506 (vol. i only. a.d. 1851), 9506 
(vol. ii only. 19th cent.), 9506 (vol. iii only. a.h. 1261/1845), 
9506 (vol. iii only. a.h. 1266/1850), 1.0. 4535 (vol. iii only. 
a.h. 1295/1878). 

Edition (of vols. ii and iii only) : Lucknow 1304/1886-7* 
(3 vols.). 2 

Translations of extracts : see p. 139 supra. 

(2) Tafikh i 4 Abbastyah, two histories of the Kalkorab. 

1 More than half of this volume is predominantly biographical. 

2 The first volume of this edition, though ostensibly a part of the Tukfat 
al-kiram, has in reality nothing to do with that work, being a topographical 
account of Ahmadabad followed by biographies of Gujrat! saints. It is in 
fact approximately the first half of the khatimah of the i) lir'at i Ahmadi and 
corresponds to pp. 1-129 14 in the Baroda edition. There are two copies of this 
lithograph in the India Office. They differ in the title-page of vol. ii, the 
inscription in the one case giving the Matba £ i Hasan! [?] IthruVA^iarl, 
Mahallah Farrash-khanah. Wazlr-gani, Lucknow. as the place of printing and 
in the other case merely the Matba‘ i Hasan! [so] Ithna-‘Aghar! without any 
further topographical information (Dar Matbat i Tlamni It]vm- i Afhari raimaq 
i tab s yaft). It is only on the title-page of vol. ii in its first-mentioned form 
that Lucknow is specified as the place of printing. Vol. in has the imprint 
Nafjiri Press, Dalha’i [presumably a part of Lucknow]. No press or place of 
publication is mentioned on the title-page of vol. i (which title-page is missing 
from the first I. O. copy). The edition is mentioned by MIrza Qillch Beg in his 
translation of the Ohach-namah (see p. 650 trupnt), preface, p. iiin.: “This 
hook was printed some years ago without the permission of the heirs of the 
author, and several copies were disposed of secretly.” 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (/) SIND 657 

dynasty, one in prose and the other in verse, both unfinished : 
Rieu iii 1061& (extracts only). 

829. M. ‘Azim al-Din Husain! Shiraz! Tattawi lived in the 
reign of Mir Fath-‘Ali Khan Talpur, ruler of Sind from 1197/ 
1783 to 1216/1801. 

Fath-namahs a metrical history of the ‘Abbas! or Talpur 1 
Amirs of Sind, written in 1199/1785 2 and dedicated to Mir 
Fath- c Ali Khan 3 4 : Ivanow Curzon 303 (defective. Early 19th 
cent.), Rieu iii lOdla (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 1056a xv 
(extracts only). 

Condensed English translation : A history of Sind. Volume II. 
. . . Translated from Persian books by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. 
Karachi 1902°, pp. 165-202. 

830. Of unknown authorship is 

(Tawarikh i c Abbasiyan)f a sketch of the history of the 
Kalhorah dynasty to about 1226/1811, the last event for which 
a date is given being the death of Miyan M. e Al! Khan b. M. 
‘Arif Khan b. Miyan ‘Abd al-Nab! Khan in that year : I.O. 
D.P. 755 foil. 13-20. 

831. Muzaffar ‘All. 

Short account of the decline of the Kalhorah dynasty 
and the rise of the Talpur s : no MSS. recorded. 

English translation : A. narrative of events which led to the 
decline and subversion of the Sovereignty of the former Rulers of 
Sind,— and to the usurpation of that State by its present possessors, 
who are of the tribe of Bulooch— originally from Talpoor. Trans- 
lated from the Persian by Captain Pogson ( extracted from the 
Calcutta Magazine). Pp. 272-88. [Calcutta 1831*.] 

1 So called as the descendants of Talo Khan. 

2 In 1191 according to Rieu, but this seems to be incorrect, perhaps a mis- 
print. 

3 According to Rieu the poem “ has been subsequently continued to his 
death in a.h. 1203 ”, but there is evidently some mistake here, since Mir 
Fath-‘AlI Khan died in Mufiarram 1217/1802. 

4 This title or description is scrawled at the top of the first page. 


v u 


658 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

832. Mu'izz al-Daulali Mu‘in al-Mulk Firuz-Jang Mir Subadar 
Khan was the son of Mir Fath- c Ali Khan Talpur, ruler of Sind 
from 1197/1783 to 1216/1801. A mystical mathnawi entitled 
Juda’l-namah by “ Mir Soubdarkhan, emir du Sind ” is described 
in Blochet iii no. 1933, but it is not clear whether its author was 
the same Subadar Khan. 1 

Fath-namah, a metrical history of the Talpurs, especially 
of Mir Fath- £ AlI Khan, completed in 1254/1838 (?) : Bankipur 
Suppt. i 1931 (Bengali year 1253/1846). 

833. Mir Yar-Muhammad Khan was a son of Mir Murad 
‘All Khan Talpur, Ruler of Sind from 1244/1828 to 1249/1833, 
and on his father’s death became, like each of his three brothers, 
the ruler of a quarter of Sind. In 1259/1843, after the conquest 
of Sind by Sir Charles Napier, Mir Yar-Muhammad Khan was 
taken, like the other Mirs, as a state prisoner first to Bombay 
and then to the village of Sasur, about 24 miles from Poonah. 
In 1260/1844 they were taken to Calcutta and shortly after 
Mir Yar-Muhammad Khan accepted the choice of living at 
Hazaribagh. In 1270/1854 the Bast India Company gave the 
Mirs permission to return to Sind, if they liked, and in Rajab 
1273 /Feb. -March 1857 Mir Yar-Muhammad Khan reached 
Haidarabad. 

Frir-namahy a history of Sind in the time of the Talpur 
dynasty based in its earlier part on the Fath-ndmaJi and in its 
later part on personal experience, written in 1857 [1859 ?] 2 
and dedicated to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Bartle Frere, with whose 
Commissionership the work ends : no MSS. recorded. 

Condensed English translation : A history of Sind. Volume II 
. . . translated from Persian books by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg 
. . ., Karachi 1902°, pp. 202-39. 

1 Mir Fath-‘A1I Khan’s father was called Subadar Khan. 

2 Mirza Qilioh Beg says that the Frere-iutmah was written in 1857 but it 
apparently extends to 1859, since the last sentence of his “translation” is 
“ Mr. Frere became Governor of Bombay and left Sind in 1859, when he was 
succeeded by Mr. Inverarity ” (with the footnote “ The Frerenamah which we 
have been translating, ends here ”). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (g) BAHAWALPUR 659 

[A history of Sind. Volume II . . . translated from Persian 
hooks by Mirza Kalichheg Fredunbeg, pp. ii, 220, 221, 237, 238.] 

834. Khan Bahadur Khuda-dad Khan son of Rado Khan 
(otherwise Rida M. Khan), an Afghan of the Tarin tribe, entered 
the service of Government in 1853, and in 1855 he was employed 
in the Jagir and Political Department. He served for many 
years with credit as Mir Munshi to the Commissioner in Sind. 
In 1892 he received the title of Khan Bahadur and on his retire- 
ment in 1899 to his home at Sukkur he was given a jagir. He 
says that in 1862 he published a Mahrdn-ndmah and in 1867 a 
Khaltj-ndmah on the Persian Gulf. In 1869 he was ordered to 
write an account of the famous ruined places in Sind. This 
account, he says, was translated into English and published. 
Another work of his, Waqd'i' al-sair i Jaisalmer, an account 
of a tour in 1859, was published at Karachi in 1875*. 

Lubb i tarikh i Sindh (on English title-page Lab [sic] tarikh 
Sind), a history of Sind from the earliest times to a.h. 1318/ 
1900, the date of completion, with a summary in English. 

Edition : Amritsar 1318/1900°*. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Lubb i tarikh i Sind; 
Sahifah i zarrin (in Urdu) by Prag Nar avail Bhargava, Lucknow 
1902, Bombay section, pp. 52-3 ; Portrait, ibid, facing p. 49.] 

' ; 835. Other works : . v U AU: ■ ah' 

(1) Nazdrat al-Sind 3 i.e. Personal observations on Sindh 
by Lieut. T. Postans (London 1843*) translated into Persian by 
Bishan Narayan, who added a few notes on subsequent events 
down to 1858 : Ivanow 186 (a.d. 1859). 

(2) Tawarikh i tazah~nawa% a history of Sind, by 
Mirza *Ata Muhammad Shikarpurl : Rieu iii 10406 (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (g) BAHAWALPUR 

836. Lalah Daulat Ray, son of Lalah Tzzat Ray, whose 
father had been in the service of Nawwab M. Mubarak Khan, 
was deprived of his ancestral madad i ma‘dsh, the ta : alluq of 



660 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Jalalabad, by Rukn al-Daulah Bahawal Khan II (a.h. 1186/ 
1772-1224/1809). He migrated to Multan and there he con- 
tinued the history of Bahawalpur on which he had been engaged. 
In consequence of the periodical invasions of Ranjit Sing’ll he 
went to Haidarabad in Sind, and served under the Amirs Karam- 
‘All Khan and Murad-‘AlI Khan. Subsequently, however, he 
returned to Bahawalpur and was living there under Bahawal 
Khan and Sadiq Khan (a.h. 1224-41). He died in 1246/1830. 

Mir* at i daulat i i Abbasi (a chronogram = 1224/1809, but 
the work was completed in 1227/1812), a history of the ‘Abbas! 
Dawud-putras, the ruling dynasty of Bahawalpur, down to 
1224/1809 1 : R.A.S. P. 90 = Morley 88 (a.h. 1247/1831-2), 
Bankipur Suppt. i no. 1774 (a.h. 1262/1846), Rieu iii 951a (19th 
cent.). 

Edition : Delhi 1850°* (differs materially from the B.M. MS.). 

[Autobiography in Mir' at i daulat i ‘Abbasi, appendix (ap- 
parently absent from the B.M. and Bankipur MSS.) ; M. A‘zam 
Iqbdl-namah i sa‘adat-dydt (cf. Rieu iii p. 951rr 2 :JU ) ; Morley 
pp. 90-1 ; Rieu iii 951a.] 

837. WDYRH 2 Jan Muhammad Khan Ma‘rufani. 

Tarikh i Bahawal Khan } a history of Bahawal Khan II 
(a.h. 1186/1772-1224/1809) : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see 
Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Aug. 1926), p. 57). 

838. M. A‘zam b. Maulawl M. Salih Asadi Hashiml Earuql 
Bahawalpur! tells us that in Nawwab Sadiq Khan’s second year, 
a.h. 1225-6/1810-11, he was sent by the Nawwab on a mission 
to the Talpur Amirs, who were then threatening Bahawalpur, 
and subsequently to Multan. His Iqbal-ndmah i sa‘ddat-dydt 
was undertaken by order of Sadiq Khan, who instructed him 
“ to embody in the same a record of the first two years of the 
reign left in an unfinished state by Lalak Daulat Rai ” (Rieu iii 

1 “ It is not merely a history of the Nawabs of Bhawalpur, but comprehends 
that of Sind, Afghanistan, Multan, Jiidhpur and the Sikhs, during an eventful 
period as regards our western, frontier of India ” (Morley p. 92). 

2 Vocalisation and meaning of this word not ascertained. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (g) BAHAWALPUR 661 

p. 952a). According to the Bahawalpur Slate Gazetteer, p. 62, 
he was appointed Tawankh-nawls, or Chronicler, by Nawwab 
Sadiq M. Khan II in 1809. In the B.M. MS. Or. 1740, foil. 98-9 
(Rieu iii p. 1013a iii), are the beginnings of a TadJi/drat al~ 
kkawaqm, written in 1251/1835-6, and a TdnJch i Kashmir J 
both by Hajji M. A'kam Pashawari, who, according to Rien 
(iii p. 1097a), is called at the end M. A/zarn Asadi Hashirm, and 
who is evidently therefore identical with the historian of 
Bahawalpur. 

(1) Iqbal-namah i sa c adat-ayat (beginning : ZTb % fihrist i 
nuslchah i mafakhir), a history of Sadiq Khan’s reign, detailed 
for the first four or five years extremely brief for the years 
1230/1815-1241/1826 : Rien iii 952a (19th cent.). 

(2) Jawahir i 1 2 Abbasiyah 5 “History of Bhawalpur [sic] ” 2 : 
Lindesiana p. 192 no. 924 (“ 2 vols. in 1.” Circ. a.d. 1845). 

839. In the time of M. Bahawal Khan III was written 

Khuldsah i tawarikh i e Abbasiyah , called in the colophon 
Tawanlch i Jawahir i 'Abbasiyah 3 (beginning: Johan jahdn 
siidyish ), abridged from a work by S. Nur Allah and divided into 
a muqaddimah (on the genealogy of the Khans) and three qisms 
((1) from Sultan Ahmad II to the death of Mubarak Khan, 
(2) M. Bahawal Khan II, (3) M. Sadiq Khan) : Browne Hand- 
list 347 (88 foil. a.h. 1258/1842). ’ 

840. Mubariz al-Daulali Pir Ibrahim Khan Khweshgl 4 
Qasurl was born in 1794 at Qasur, 34 miles S.E. of Lahore. In 


1 For a Tarikh i Kashmir written about 100 years earlier by a different 
M. A‘zam see p. 683 infra. 

2 By M. am Asad! al-Hashimi according to the Lindesiana catalogue. 
For a Khuldsah ' i tawarikh i ‘‘Abbasiyah called in the colophon Tawarikh i 
Jawahir i ‘ Abbasiyah , and therefore possibly identical with M. Adam’s work 
(though the latter, consisting of “ 2 vols. in 1 ”, seems likely to be a larger 
work than the former, which extends only to 88 foil.), see p. 661, 1. 17, infra. 

3 This title suggests the possibility that the work may be identical with the 
Jawahir i ‘ Abbasiyah which has just been mentioned, but the latter, consisting 
of “ 2 vols. in 1 ”, would seem to be a larger work than the former, which 
extends to only 88 leaves. 

4 This is the name of an Afghan elan. 



662 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


1808, the year following Ban] It Sing’h’s annexation of Qasur, 
he migrated with, his father and other relatives to Mamdot. 
In 1817 he entered Ranjit Sing’h’s service, but failing to win 
such promotion as he desired, he went to Delhi and studied 
medicine. In 1837 he entered the service of the East India 
Company, and in 1840 he was appointed British Agent at the 
court of Bahawalpur. At the time of the First Sik’h War 
(1845-6) he rendered valuable services, for which he was rewarded 
with a MdVat and the title of Khan Bahadur. In 1848 he took 
the Bahawalpur forces to support Herbert Edwardes in the 
operations against Multan, where Mulraj was besieged after the 
murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson. Edwardes speaks highly 
of him in A year on the Punjab frontier in 1848-9. 

In 1851 he visited England, but a breakdown in health forced 
him to leave the country in January 1852. Soon after his return 
to Bahawalpur the title of Mubariz al-Daulah was conferred 
upon him. He died in 1856. 

A brief account of his visit to England together with a short 
history of his tribe was published by him in 1854° 1 under the 
title Sairistdn (see Islamic culture iii no. 3 (July 1929) pp. 454, 
472). His autobiography 2 published in English by E. B. East- 
wick in January 1852, that is to say, just about the time when 
he left England on his return to India, was presumably written 
in Persian. 3 

( Tarikh i Bahawalpur) f “ an abbreviation of the family 
annals of Nawab Bahawal Khan ” (see p. 663, n. 1, infra) written 
at the request of Captain J. D. Cunningham : MS. at one time 
in the possession of Capt. Cunningham. 

Abridged translation : The History of Bahawalpur, with notices 
of the adjacent countries of Sindh , Afghanistan, Multan, and the 

1 At [Bahawalpur] according to the British Museum catalogue, at Multan 
according to M. ShafP. In the B.M. catalogue the work is mistakenly entered 
under “ Mubariz ul-Daulah, Nawab of Bahawalpur ”. 

2 See the list of authorities below. 

3 That Plr Ibrahim Khan had little, if any, knowledge of.' English is shown 
by the fact that ori bis visit to England he was accompanied by an interpreter 
(see Oriental College Magazine v, no, 3, p. 3 U ). 

4 Correct title unknown. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (h) THE PANJAB 


663 


West of India. [Abridged and translated 1 from Pir I. Khan’s 
history] By Shahamet AH. 2 London 1848°*. 

[ Memoir of Peer Ibraheem Khan , Bahadur , British Agent at the 
Court of Bhauwalpur, London 1852* (an autobiography. The 
I.O. copy bears on a fly-leaf the inscription “ Presented to the 
Library of the E.I. College by E. B. Eastwick, Author of the 
Memoir, Jany 1852 ”, which presumably means that Eastwick 
translated the work, probably from a manuscript) ; Sairistan 
(see above), Multan 1854; H. B. Edwardes A year on the Punjab 
frontier in 1848-9. London 1851, vol. ii, pp. 314, 319, 344, 377 ; 
Gazetteer of the Bahawalpur State, Lahore 1908, pp. TO, 71, 72, 74, 
78, 80 ; Mubdriz al-Daulah Pir Ibrahim Khan Kkweshgl Qasun 
(an Urdu article by M. Shaff in the Oriental College Magazine, 
voL v, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1929) pp. 1-3. Portrait facing p. 1) ; 
Islamic culture, vol, iii, no. 3 (July 1929), p. 172 (in an article 
by M. Shafi‘ entitled An Afghan colony at Qasur).] 

M. HISTORY OE INDIA: (h) THE PANJAB 

841. The Janam-sdh’hi, written in Panjabi, is a life of Guru 
Nanak, the founder of the Sik’h religion. For information 
concerning it see Rieu i 293 b and the works on the Sik’h religion 
cited by him. 

1 This work is not expressly said to be a translation from the Persian. 

According to Shahamat ‘All’s Preface “ The Work, of which the following is 
an abstract, is an abbreviation of the faniil}' annals of Nawab Bahawal Khan. 
It was abridged at Bahawalpur by Peer Ibrahim Khan, the British native 
agent there, at the request of Captain J. D. Cunningham . . . who is now our 
political agent at Bhopal. On his appointment to the latter agency in 1846, 
I became aware that he had some valuable Oriental MSS. in his possession, 
and asked him to give me some work, in which I might employ my leisure 
hours usefully to myself and to the public. He most liberally and readily 
gave me two MSS. ; viz. one, the present work, and the other a religious 
book . . .” .■ ■ . 

2 Shahamat ‘All was Persian Secretary to Sir C. M. Wade, whom he accom- 
panied on missions to Bahawalpur (1833) and Peshawar (1839), and was 
afterwards Mir Munshi to the Political Resident in Malwah. He is the author 
of The Sikhs and Afghans, in connexion with India and Persia, immediately 
before and after the death of Ranjeet Singh ; from the journal: of an expedition 
to Kabul, through the Panjab and- the Khaibar Pass (London 1847*, 2nd ed. 
1849*). 


664 


21. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Janam-sak’hi : for the numerous editions of the Panjabi 
original see the catalogues of Panjabi books in the British 
Museum and the India Office. 

Persian translation: Janam-sdk’hl, a condensed translation 
completed in 1806 by Khwajah. £ Abd al-Haklm Khan 1 at the 
request of Col. (afterwards Sir) John Malcolm and with the 
assistance of Agl Barn, a Nanakpant’hl darwish : Rieu i 293a 
(19th cent.). 

Another Sik’h work translated presumably from the Panjabi 
and presumably by the same Khwajah ‘Abd al-Haklm 'Khan is 

Tar jamah i Mulaqdt i Ndnak } an account of Guru Nanak’s 
interviews with a number of holy personages of various times 
and countries : Rieu i 2936 (19th cent.). 

842. A certain Ghulam-Muhyi ’l-DIn 2 wrote 

Futuhat-namah i Samadi (a chronogram = 1135/1722-3), 
a florid biography of Saif al-Daulah ‘Abd al-Samad Khan 
Bahadur Biler-Jang, 3 who in Farrukh-siyar’s reign ( a . h . 1124/ 
1713-1131/1719) became Governor of Lahore, crushed the Sik’hs 
and captured their leader Bandah in 1127 /1715, became Governor 
of Multan in Muhammad Shah’s seventh or eighth regnal year 
( a . h . 1137-9/1724-6) and died a . h . 1150/1737-8 (see Ma'dthir 
al-umard ’ ii 514-17, Beveridge’s translation pp. 71-3) : Rieu 
iii 9706 (circ. a . d . 1850). 

843. The Ahwal i Bind Beg Khan was written by “ an old 
Gooru at Khurturpore, who has also written a Punjabie dictionary, 
in which he has introduced no end of Hindu [? Hindee] words ”. 4 

1 Possibly identical with the author of the Tulifah i AJcbari (see pp. 752-3 
infra). 

- Possibly identical with Ghulam-Muhyi ’1-Din Khan who wrote a Zctfar- 
uumah on Ahmad Shah Durrani’s [first ?] invasion of India (see p. 395 supra). 

3 For a fragment of a chronicle written in Farrukh-sivar’s reign and containing 
an account of that Emperor’s accession in Delhi and of the expedition of 
‘Abd al-Samad Khan against the Sik’hs, by an author who was serving at that 
time as Na'ib under ‘Arif Beg Khan. Governor of Lahore, see p. 605 supra 
and Rieu ii 860 /a 

* According to a letter from J. G. Blagrave to Sir H. M. Elliot preserved 
with the MS. 


665 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA 1 (h) THE PANJAB 

Ahwal i Dina Beg Kh an , a life of Adlnah Beg, who served 
under Mu In 'al-Mulk, Governor of Lahore, against Ahm ad 
Shah Durrani in 1162/1749, was Governor of the subah for 
twelve years in the reign of ‘Alamgir II and died in 1172/1758 : 
Rieu iii 1044a (a.d. 1847 ?). 

Edition : Oriental College Magazine vol. xiv, no. 2 (Feb. 1938), 
damnnah pp. 3-21 (edited, with notes, by M. Baqir Malik). 

English translation : B.M. MS. Add. 30,780 foil. 215-92. 

Summary : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 167 n. 1 

844. Major James Browne was sent from Calcutta to Delhi 
in 1784 as “ English Minister at the Court of his Majesty Shah 
Alum”. “ Having met, 5 ’ he says, “ with two Hindoos of con- 
siderable knowledge, who were natives of Lahore, where they 
had resided the greater part of their lives, and who had in their 
possession, accounts of the rise and progress of the Sicks, written 
in the Nuggary (or common Hindoo) character, I persuaded 
them to let me have a translation of one of them in the Persian 
language, abridging it as much as they could do, without injuring 
the essential purpose of information. . . . This Persian sketch of 
an history, I have translated into English.” The Persian sketch 
referred to was the Risalah i NdnaJc Shah of Bud’h Sing’h K’hatri, 
commonly called (‘urf) Arorah (or Arora), who describes himself 
as a servant of the Delhi court and an inhabitant of Lahore. 
He says that he was attached to the service of Major James 
Browne (Nawwab Mu'In al-Daulah Naslr al-Mulk Major James 

: 1 The summary is short enough to quote. This Adina or Dina Beg KMn, 
whose name will frequently recur in these pages, was by caste an Ar4tn, and 
son of a man named Channti, an inhabitant of the village of Sarakpur, near 
Lahore. He was brought up in a Mughal family, and in early life spent 
a good deal of his time at Allahabad, Cawnpore and Bajwara. He became 
a soldier, but seems to have thrown aside that profession for revenue work. 
He was an able man and a good accountant, and he began as collector of the 
village of Kanak near Ludhiyana, from which humble position he advanced 
till he was made Governor of Sultanpur, an office which he held at the time 
of Nadir Shah’s invasion. He died without heirs at Khanpur near Hashiyarpur, 
where a fine tomb- was erected over his remains. These particulars are extracted 
from a little work called Ahwal Adina Beg Khan. ...” 


666 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Browne Sahib Angrez Bahadur Salabat-Jang) and that he was 
helped in the composition of his work by Lalah ‘Aja’ib Sing'll 
Suraj. 

Risalah i Nanak Shah ■> an account of the Sik’hs to a.h. 1178/ 
1764-5 : Bodleian 281 (a.h. 1198/1784), I.O. 39596 (a.h. 1209/ 
1794), Blochet iv 2331 pp. 272-3 (late 18th cent.), Rieu ii 860a 
(early 19th cent.), Mehren 65, Browne Coll. H. 23 (11) (3) 
(defective at end). 

English translation : History of the origin and progress of the 
Sicks (the second of James Browne's India tracts, London 1788*). 

845. M. Afdal “ Afdal ” b. M. Hafiz was born at Sod’hrah in 
the Siyalkot District and died in 1210/1795-6 at Talwandi 
Musa Khan, in the Gujranwala District, to which his father, 
" a man of great piety and learning,” had been invited by 
Musa Khan, a local chief. A collection of his Persian and Urdu 
poems is in the possession of his descendants. 

Tdrlkh i Jan Muhammad, a poem giving an account of a 
battle fought in 1204/1790 near Gujranwala between Khan 
i Jahan entitled Sardar Khan and the infidels (i.e. probably the 
Sik’hs), in which Jan Muhammad b. Musa Khan was killed : 
Eth6 2901 (circ. 1270/1853-4). 

[M. Nazim in the JRAS. 1927 pp. 846-7.] 

846. Lalah or Pandit Bakht-Mal was the grandfather of 
Diwan Amar Nat’h “ Akbarl ” (for whom see pp. 668-70 infra). 
His father had migrated from Kashmir to Lahore, where he had 
attained high position, but on the Governor’s dismissal he had 
gone to Delhi. It was there probably that Bakht-Mal was born. 
It was at any rate from there that he went for a time to Oudh. 
Declining offers of employment from Asaf al-Daulah, he returned 
to Delhi. At the end of 1805, when Lord Lake drove Jaswant 
Kao Holkar to the Bias and sent John Malcolm on a mission 
to Kanjlt Sing’h, Bakht-Mal accompanied Malcolm and wrote 
for his information a work on the Sik’hs. This work is referred 
to by him in the preface to his Khalsah-ndmah, where he says 
that “ during the days of leisure he had enjoyed in the com- 
panionship of Bhai La‘1 Singh ” he had written a detailed history 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (A) THE PAN JAB 667 

of the Sik’hs, which was stolen by thieves when only half finished, 
and a short history, which was taken away by John Malcolm, 1 
and that he had now written a third work of moderate size on 
the same subject. His grandson, Dlwan Amar Nat’h, says 2 
that he wrote works entitled (1) Tilasm i shakar-nz, (2) Bdgh i 
bd-bahar , (3) Lui-ndmah (sic ?), and (4) Sing’h-namah (? SiFh- 
ndmah). 

(1) A short history of the Sik’hs from the time of Nanak 
to a.d. 1806, written for John Malcolm : R.A.S. P. 74 (2) — 
Morley 85. 

(2) Khal\i\sah-namah, a history of the Sik’hs to A.H. 1222/ 
1807-8 : Rieu’i 294a (a.h. 1229/1814). 

[Autobiographical statements in the Khdlsah-namah (see 
Rieu i 294a ; Amar Nat’h Zafar-ndmah i Ranjit Sing’h pp. 36 u ~ 
37, 93, editor’s introduction pp. iii-iv.] 

847. Khwush-waot Ray was, according to H. T. Prinsep 
(Origin of the Sikh power in the Punjab, Calcutta 1834, preface, 
p. x), “ formany years the Agent and Intelligencer of the British 
Government at Umritsur.” He himself says that he was in 
the service of the East India Company, and that he had been 
appointed official Hews-writer, Waqd’i'-nigdr, for the Panjab. 
According to the B.M. manuscript his history of the Sik’hs was 
written at the request of Colonel (afterwards General Sir) David 
Ochterlony. In the 1. 0. manuscript a space left for the name 
of the person at whose suggestion the work was written has been 
filled with the name and Persian titles of Charles Theophilus 
Metcalfe 3 (afterwards Lord Metcalfe). 

1 Malcolm’s Sketch of the Sikhs (London, 1812*) is based partly on this work. 
Amar Nat’h calls it the Sing'h-namah (? SiBh-namah) and says that “ Malkam 
Sahib Bahadur an kitab ra ba-narn i.khvmd bastah mangush i alw&h numudah 
ba-sawdd i Hind fir i-stddand". 

2 Zafar-ndmah p. 37. 

3 Cf. Prinsep’ s statement in the preface to his work mentioned above : 
“ A Persian account of the affairs of the Sikhs in the Punjab was obligingly 
communicated to the compiler by Sir Charles Metcalfe. The manuscript had 
been delivered to Sir Charles by its author, Khooshwuqt Raee, who was for 
many years the 



668 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


(Ahwal i firqah i Sik’han), 1 a history of tlie Sik'hs from 
their origin to a.d. 1811, the date of composition 2 : Rieu i 
2946 (a.d. 1835), I.O. 3897 (early 19tli cent.). 

848. Daya-Ram Pandit, originally resident in Kashmir, 
migrated with his father to Delhi and thence after a time to 
Lahore. In 1228/1813 when Dlwan Ganga-Ram. marched against 
the fortress of Punchh Daya-Ram accompanied him and it was 
there that he wrote his Shir u shaJckar. A Persian dlwan of his 
is preserved in the Panjab University Library. 

Shir u shakkar , a history of Ranjlb Sing’ll to a.h. 1228/ 
1813 : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine , 
vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 57). 

849. Lalah Mohan was in the service of Ranjlt Sing’ll, who 
in the year v.s. 1881 /1824-5 ordered him to go to Multan and 
bring Mir Ghulam-‘All to court. 

Ruz-namchah i Ranjlt Sing’h, a history of Ranjlt Sing’h to 
the year v.s. 1886/1829-30 : Bankipur Suppt. ii 2020 (19th cent.). 

850. Dlwan Amar Nat’h £: Akbarl ” was the son of Dlwan 
Dina Nat’h, Ranjlt Sing’h’s Finance Minister. His grandfather, 
BaUit-Mal, has already been mentioned (pp. 666-7 supra) as the 
author of two historical works. Amar Nat’h was born in VikramI 
Sambat 1879/1822-3 ( Zafar-namah p. 155 1G ' 19 ). In v.s. 1885/ 
1828-9, at the age of six, he went to a maidah where he was 
taught by Maulawl Ahmad-Bakhsh “ Yak-dil ” Chishtl Lahauri 3 

1 No formal title is given to the work by its author either in his preface 
or at the end, but lie describes it in his preface as a yudhdrish i almiil i bid 1 at 
i firqah i Sik'hdn u yaiahambaran i Tshan ha-tanq i intikhdb u mujmal (so in the 
I.O. MS., where bid'ai i seems to be an addition not found in the B.M. MS.). 

2 According to G. L. Chopra The Punjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, 
pp. i, iii, the work was written in August 1834, but in the I.O. MS. the year 
1811 is mentioned at least twice (in the preface and in the last sentence) as 
the date of composition. 

3 b. Lahore 1212/1795, d. 1284/1867, the author of a diary in 20 volumes 
which contains valuable information concerning the history of the Panjab 
from 1236 to 1277 (1819 to I860) and which is now in the possession of his 
grandson Maulawl Hamid ‘All Chishtl (see Sir Abdul Qadir's article An un- 
published diary of Sikh times in the Journal of the Panjab Historical Society 
vol. vi, no. 2 (1917), pp. 82-7, Sita Ram Kohli’s introduction to the Zafar- 
namah p. v., and his note on p. 123 of that work). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (Jl) THE PANJAB 


669 


( Z.-n . pp. 185-6). At an early age he had acquired considerable 
skill in Persian composition. He was only in his eleventh year 
(dar ( ahd i yazdah-salagl, Z.-n. p. 213), when, in v.s. 1889/ 
1832-3, 1 * he wrote a series of bombastic laudations of gardens in 
Lahore to which he gave the title Raudat al-azhar and which, or 
part of which, he included in the last (forty-first) chapter of the 
Zafar-ndmah.- In v.s. 1891/1834-5, at the age of sixteen, he 
wrote a fath-nmnah on the conquest of Peshawar wich whas 
published throughout Ranjit Sing’h’s dominions (ba-tamdm 
mulh i mahrusah sharaf i isddr ydftah, Z.-n. p. 231 9 ) and which is 
incorporated in the Zafar-ndmah (pp. 231-6). According to 
Slta Ram Kohl! he was one of the B akhsh is , or Paymasters, of 
the irregular cavalry of the Khalsah Government and is men- 
tioned several times in the pay-rolls. From £t family traditions 
and a few other indirect sources ” Slta Ram KShll has learnt 
that Diwan Dina Nat’h had his son removed from his office in 
1845 ” for reasons which are rather obscure ”, and that he spent 
the rest of his life in intellectual pursuits until his death from 
cholera on 1 August 1867, at the age of forty-five. A collection 
of his Persian poems was published by his son Diwan Ram 
Nat’h in 1873 under the title of Diwan i Ahbari. 

(Zafar-ndmah i Ranjit Sing'h ), a history of Ranjit Sing’h 
to the year v.s. 1892/1835-6 : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. 
(defective at end, breaking off in the year v.s. 1884/1827-8. 
See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (August 1926), p. 57, 
and Sita Ram Kohli’s introduction, p. xiii). This MS. and two 
others, one belonging to the author’s family and the other to 
Ray Sahib Pandit Wazir Chand, were used in the preparation 
of the edition mentioned below. 

Edition : Zafarnama-i-Ranjit Singh of Diwan Amar Nath. 
Edited with notes and introduction by Sita Ram Kohli. Lahore 
19281 (Punjab University). 

Description and translated extracts : The Calcutta Review, 
December 1858, pp. 247-302. 

1 The chronogram Bagh i Irani (Z.-n, p, 287) indicates the date 1244/1828-9, 

an unexplained discrepancy. 



670 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

[Zafar-ndmah pp. 36 14 , 115 16 , 155 16 ' 19 , 174 7 ’ 14 ' 15 , 176 ult., 
177, 185 19 ~ 23 , 186, 195 10 ' 17 , 213 1S ~ 23 , 214, 221 penult, (for ta’kid 
read ta'lif ), 231 s-9 , 248 1 * * 4 ; Sita Ram Kbhli’s introduction pp. 
iii-ix.] 

851. It may perhaps be worth mentioning here that a beauti- 
fully illuminated manuscript at Bankipur (Catalogue, vol. vii 
no. 622) contains the financial accounts of Ran] it Sing’h’s 
army. 

852. Ghulam-Muhyi d-Din surnamed ( mulaqqab ) BUtl Shah 
LM’hiyani ‘Alawi Qadirl wrote his TanJch i Panjab in 1258/ 
1842 1 at the request of Captain Murray, Resident at 
Lud’hiyanah, in "whose office he was a Munsjji,* 

Tartkh i Panjab 5 in a muqaddimah (geographical), five 
daftars ((i) Hindu Rajahs, (ii) Muslim Sultans to a.h. 1183/ 
17 69-70, (iii) Sik’h Gurus, (iv) Sik’h Sardars and Rajahs, ( v) Ranjit 
Sing’h), and a Ickdtimah (British conquests in India) : Rieu iii 
953a (a.d. 1848. Corrected by the author), Eth6 503, 1.O. 3893 
(a.h. 1264/1848), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (one copy lacking 
part of Daftar ii and a second of Daftar v only. See Oriental 
College Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 58). 

853. The Ranjit- Sin gli-ndmah mentioned below was written 
not later than 1846, since, according to Ethe, the MS. contains 
“ Two entries, dated 1846, Lahore, on the last fly-leaf 55 . 

Ranjit- Sing' h-namahy a short modern mathnaivi in honour 
of Ranjit Sing’h and his sons, giving the principal events of 
their lives : Bodleian ii 2365 (Pictures). 

854. M. Naq.1 Pashawari b. Mulla Khwaj ah-Ba khsh went to 
Lahore, the city of his forefathers, and was an eye-witness of the 

1 The chronogram in the preface is 

Ch.li jmtarn sal i talifash kkirad guft * hih turlkhash ham az itumanh birun ar. 

Wa-li ghair az mi' 1 at ai ddnish-agm * zi-a‘dad i nuhhustia juzw ma-shmar. 
This seems to indicate 1258, not 1264, as liieu supposed. 

4 This statement concerning Captain Murray comes from the author’s 
colophon in the I.O. MS. 3893. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (k) THE PAN JAB 671 

events which followed the death of Ranjit Sing’h. At the request 
of Ba khsh i Bhagat-Ram he composed a record of those events. 

(Sher-Sing'h-namafi), 1 a diffuse and stilted account of events 
at Lahore from 1255/1839 (death of Banjit Sing’h) to 1259/1843 
(assassination of Sher Singh and accession of Dalip Sing’h after 
the restoration of order by Rajah Hira Sing’h, to whom the work 
is dedicated and in whose service the author probably was) : 
Rieu iii 9526 ("19th cent. 9 pictures), Ethe 505 (12 Pictures), 
2991 (a. II. 1270/1853-4), Bodleian MS. Pers. e. 30 (n.d.). 

Description and translated extracts : Sher Singh Nama ' . 
By . . . J. F. Bruce (in the Journal of Indian history , vol. xvii, 
pt. 1 (April 1938) pp. 83-93). 

855. Mir Taiyib Allah Ruhtasi. 

Jawdhir-namah) an epic poem on the reign of Sher Sing’h : 
Eth6 ii 3041 (autograph ?). 

856 . Lalah Sohan La‘I Suri, son of Lalah Ganpat Ray, son 
of Lalah Hukumat Ray, was Wakil 2 at the court of Banjit 
Sing’h for twenty-seven years, and he held the same position 
during the reigns of his successors until the deposition of Dalip 
Sing’h in 1849. Ranjit Sing’h more than once rewarded him for 
his historical writings. In 1851 the Panjab Government granted 
him a jdgir for life with an annual value of Rs. 1000. 3 According 
to Sir B. Temple he died in 1852. 

Sir Richard Temple say's “ His habit of noting down 
what passed seems to have been hereditary, for his father, Lala 
Ganpat Rah who before him had been vakil not only to Maharaj a 
Ranjit Singh, but also to his father and grandfather Mahan 
Singh and Chhart Singh, had kept similar records of all he 
saw for some 40 years previously. He died hi very advanced 
life in a.d. 1828, and has left many MSS. behind him, but they 

1 TMs title does not occur in the text, but in an English note in Ethe 505. 

2 In an English notice prefixed to the fifth daftar in the published edition 
of the ‘ Umdat al-tawankh he is described as “ official diarist to the Court of 
the Sikh Maharajas”. 

3 1 Umdat al-tawdrikhi p. 171. 



672 


IT. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


are not of any special value, as his son used them all in his great 
compilation ”. 

(1) 4 Umdat al-tawdr ikh , a large and important history of the 
Sik’hs, divided (in its final form 1) into five daftars and extending 
from the time of Nanak to the author’s own time (to 1.831 in 
the R.A.S. MS., to 1849 in the published edition) : R.A.S. 
P. 89 = Morley 87 (“ Tarikh-i Maharajah Ranjit Singh” 1 
Presented by Ranjit Sing’h to Sir Claude Wade in 1831), Ross 
and Browne 137 (Daftars ii and iii only. a.k. 1260/1844). 

Edition: Lahore 1885-9°*. 2 

(2) c Ibrat-namah) a poem on the events following the 
assassination of Sher Sing’h until the accession of Dalip Sing’h. 

Edition : Lahore [1885*. Supplied gratis to purchasers of the 
‘Uondat al-tawdn 7ch] . 

[Autobiographical statements in the c Umdat al-tawdrikh (which 
has not been examined for biographical purposes) ; a note by 
Sir R. C. Temple printed on the inside of the cover of vol. i of 
the Lahore edition.] 

857. Granesh Das, called ( ! urf) Bad’lirah, 3 was Qdnungo of the 
chaklah of Gujrat in the Panjab, when Maharajah Gulab Sing’h 
took him to Jamun and appointed him to the claftar of that 
province (probably not long before 1847, when the Rdj-darshanl 
was completed). On a sheet of paper attached to fob la of 
Ethe ii 3020 (Char hdgh i Panjab) just before this MS. was sent 
to the Paris Exhibition of 1855 by the Panjab Committee at 
Lahore he is described as “ an Official in the service of the 
British [Indian] Government ”. 

1 According to G. L. Chopra The Panjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, 
pp. i, ii, “ the author called it Umdat-ut-Taimrikh (f. 199), the title which he 
applied to his enlarged work, written subsequently, and published by his son 
in 1884. . . . Both the language and the facts differ, though only to a slight 
extent, from the author’s published work, called Umdat-ut~TawarikhP 

s The B.M. catalogue describes the work as “ including the diary of Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh ”, but that is misleading, since the “ diary ” ( ruz-namchah ) is 
Sohan LaTs account of Ranjit Sing’h’s doings. 

3 This surname (vocalisation, uncertain ?) came to Ganesh Das by inheritance 
from an ancestor, Kaka Mai Bad’hrah, a descendant of the Rajahs of Ajmer, who 
was Governor of Siyalkot and Bahlolpur circ. a.h. 894/1489 (see Rieu iii 955). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (k) THE PANJAB 673 

(1) Qhirdgh i Panjdb (a chronogram = 1262), a history of 
the Panjab from the earliest times to a.h. 1262/1846 written 
in a very short time at Lahore and presented to the Nazim of 
the Panjab 1 : Rieu iii 9526 (a.d. 1851), 2 Etbi ii 3019 (a.h. 
1270/1854). 

(2) Char bagh i Panjdb (a chronogram = 1265/1849), or 
Risdlah i Sahib-numd, a greatly expanded recension of the 
preceding work extending to a.d. 1849 (Lord Dalhousie) : 
Ethe ii 3020 (a.d. 1854). 3 

858. Munshi ‘AM-al-Karim ‘Alawi has already been mentioned 
(pp. 402-4 supra) as the author of the Muhdrabah i Kabul u 
Qandahdr and of the TdriTch i Ahmad. 

Tarikh i Panjdb tuhfat an 4 li-l-ahbdb, an account of the 
British conquest of the Panjab in the First (1845-6) and Second 
(1848-9) Sik’h Wars. 5 

Edition : Muhammadi Press (Hajji M. Husain), [Lucknow ?] 
1265/1849*. 

859. Mufti ‘All al-DIn b. Mufti Khair al-Din Lahaurl left 
his native place Lahore in 1239/1823 on account of the oppression 
of the Sik’hs and settled at Ludhiana. He was serving under 
Charles Raikes, 6 Commissioner of Lahore, in 1854, when he 
compiled his ‘Ibrat-ndmah. 

c Ibrat-namah u c Umdat al-tawari kh , a large and 

1 Sahib i Nazim i Panjab , presumably Henry Lawrence, who was appointed 
President of the Board of Administration in 1849. 

2 Rieu gives the title of this MS. as Risalah i S&hib-numa, but is reproved 
by Ethe for doing so on the ground that that title properly belongs to the 
Char bagh i Pav jab. 

3 In the preface to this copy the dedicatee Is Mr. Richard Temple, the words 
Sahib i Nazim i Panjdb not being used. 

4 So in the preface to the lithographed edition, which has T&nlch i Panjab 
tuftfah \i] dffbab on the title-page. 

s It does not appear that ‘Abd al- Karim was an eye-witness of events in 
these wars or even resident in the Panjab. His account is derived mainly from 
English and Urdu newspapers but partly from oral information. 

0 See Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 347. : 



674 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

important 1 work on the geography, statistics and history of 
the Panjab, especially the Sik’hs, to a.d. 1849 : Eth6 504 (a.h. 
1270/1854. Autograph). 

860. £ AM al-Haqq “ Hadhia ”, who mentions his name on 
p. ll u and his takhaUus on p. 113 of the Haldt i jang i Malkah u 
Sit’hanah, tells us on p. 12 that Hindustan was his home but 
that, owing apparently to the successive encroachments of the 
British, he had migrated first to Sind and then to the mountainous 
[frontier] region where he wrote his poem. 

{Haldt ijang i Malkah u Sifhdnah), a versified account of 
hostilities between the fanatical Hindustani emigrants settled 
at Sit'hanah and Malkah 2 and the British-Indian army from 
Sir Sydney Cotton’s expedition in 1858 to the “ Umbeyla 
[Anbelah] campaign ” of 1863. 

Edition: Patnah 1901°*. 

861. Ray Bahadur Kanhaiya Lai ** Hindi” was Executive 
Engineer at Lahore, to which he had migrated early in life from 
Jalesar, his birthplace in the Agrah District. 

Among his Persian works were (1) Bandagl-ndmah, religious 
poems, Lahore 1870*, 1295/1878*, Cawnpore 1873°*, 3 (2) Gulzdr 
i “ Hindi ” (English title : Poetical Essays, in Persian , on Moral 
Subjects, entitled Go o Izar- i -Ilindee), Lahore 1283/1867°*, 1286/ 
1869*, 1870°, 1873°*, (3) Yadgar i “ Hindi 55 (English title: 
Poems in Persian entitled Yadgar-i-Hindee, containing a brief 
account of the great Prophets, Kings, Rulers, and Philosophers of 
the world), Lahore 1290/1873°*; 

For his Urdu works, much more numerous than his Persian, 
see Garcin de Tassy, ii pp. 159-61, and Blumliardt’s catalogues 
of Hindustani printed books in the British Museum (under 

1 See G. L. Chopra The Punjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, pp. ii-iii. 

2 Two villages situated respectively at the foot and on the north side of Mt. 
Mahaban. See Sir Sydney Cotton’s Nine years on the North-West, Frontier of 
India, from 1854 to 1863 (London 1868), Col. J. Adye’s Sitana : a mountain 
campaign on the borders of Afghanistan in 1863 (London 1867), and other works. 

3 This Cawnpore edition is included, presumably by mistake, in the I.O. 
catalogue of Hindustani books. 



675 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA,: .(/*) THE PAN JAB 

Kanhaiya Lai, called Alakhadhari) and the India Office Library 
(under Kanhaiya Lai, Executive Engineer, Kanhaiya Lai, Pandit, 
Kanhaiya Lai (Alakhadhari) and Kanhaiya Lai (Hindi)). 
One or two of these works are probably not by Kanhaiya Lai 
“Hindi”. 

Ranjit-namah, or Zafar-namah i RanjU Sing’h 3 a 

mathnawi on the history of Ranj it Sing’h written, or begun, 
in 1874. 

Edition: Zafar-namah i Ranjit Singh al-ma'ruf RanjU- 
ndmah , Lahore 1876°*. 

[Ranjit-ndmah pp. 28-32, 603 ; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 159-61.] 

862. M. Ahsan Allah Khan “ Thaqib ” wrote 

A task i bi-dud 3 a history of the British conquest of the 
Panjab. 

Edition: Agrah 1297/1880°. 

863. Duni-chand Bali wrote when Dilawar Khan was head 
of the Gak’har tribe 1 (i.e. 1117/1705-6—1139/1726-7) 

Kai-Gauhar-namah 5 composed a.h. 1137 /1724-5, a history 
of the Gak’hars (G'hak’hars or Gak’hars), a Muhammadan and 
mainly Shfite tribe, who (or some of whom) believe themselves 
to be descended from Kai-Gauhar, a Kayanian prince, and who 
live now in N.W. India (Rawal Pinrli, Atak, Jihlam and Hazarah 
Districts and in Jammu), from their origin to the date of composi- 
tion with special reference to their saints : Rieu iii 10126 (circ. 
a.d. 1850), Ivanow 188 (mid 19th cent.), 2 Eth6 ii 3021 
(“ Ghakkar-ndmah ”). 

864. Rahim ‘All Khan son of Hafiz al-Dln Khan known as 
JLfy, a Kayani Gak’har resident in the village of Domeliyan 
(Parganah Rohtas), wrote in 1256/1840-1 his 

1 On the Gakhars see Ency. Id . ii 1286-1 29a, Delmeriek History of the 
Qakkhars (in J.A.S.B. xl, pt. 1 (1871) pp. 67-101), Griffin Panjab Chiefs 
pp. 574-581. 

2 The opening words given by Rieu and Ivanow do not agree. 



676 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Rahim-ndmah, a history of the fortress of Rohtas and of the 
tribe of the Gak’ liars : Rieu iii 9546 (circ. a.d. 1850). 

865. Granesh Das, the author of the Risalah i Sdkib-numa 
(see p. 673 supra) and the Rdj-darshani (see p. 687), sent to 
Sir H. M. Elliot 

A notice of Rajah Jaipdl and the Gafthar tribe : 
Rieu iii 1037a vii foil. 41-3 (circ. a.d. 1850). 

866. Tadhkirah i Gak’haran 3 an account of the chiefs of 
the Gak’hars : Rieu iii 10546 foil. 180-5 (extracts only). 

867. Mahtab Sing’h, a Kayast’ha, was a native of Mlrlipur, 
a village in the Bliognipur-Musanagar parganah of the Cawnpore 
District. Having gone to Lahore in search of employment he 
entered the service of Prince IGharak Sing’h, Ranjit Sing’h’s 
eldest son. For five years he worked in the secretariat {daftar) 
of the parganah of Sahlwal i Balochan. In the VikramI year 
1881 (a.d. 1824-5) he was put in charge of the secretariat {daftar) 
of Hazarah. 

Tawdnkh i rnulk i Hazarah or Tdrilch % Hazarah, a history 
of Hazarah and the neighbouring districts especially in the 
thirty years v.s. 1876/a.d. 1819-v.s. 1906/a.d. 1849 : Ethd 506 
(a.d. 1854), Ivanow 187 (not later than a.d. 1852). 

868. Nur Muhammad, commonly called Chela, of the Sayal 
tribe, was a highly respected landowner in the Jhang district 
and an Arabic and Persian scholar. He died in January 1862. 

Tarikh i Jhang Sayal , written for Major G. W. Hamilton 
and completed in Sept. 1862 by the author’s son, a history of the 
Jhang District (between Lahore and Multan) and of its chief 
inhabitants the Sayals, a Rajput clan who migrated in the 13th 
century from Jaunpur to the Panjab, where their chief Ray 
Sayal became a convert to Islam : Rieu i 295a (a.d. 1862), 2956 
(same hand). 

Editions : (1) The history of Jhung Siyal By Noor Mahomed 
Chela of Wasoo Ustana [with an English preface by Col. G. W. 
Hamilton], Meerut 1863°, (2) Tarikh i Jhang Sayal , Mag’hianah 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (ll) THE PANJAB 677 

[1912*] (reprinted from the 1863 edition with omission of the 
English translation). 

[TanJch i Jhang Sayal , khdtimah ; Hamilton’s preface to the 
Meerut edition.] 

869. Miscellaneous works relating to the Panjab : 

(1) Account of the origin of some towns in the Panjab : 
Rieu iii 954a (a.d. 1848). 

(2) Account of the Sardars of Ballabhgarh (Faridabad) from 
the death of Sura j -Mai Jat to the departure of Mr. Metcalfe, 
a musawwadah by Munshi Khalil Allah Khan : Rieu iii 10386 
(circ. a.d. 1850). 

(3) Account of Ballabgarh, a musawwadah by Munshi Khalil 
Allah Khan : Rieu iii 1041a (perhaps identical with no. (2). 
Giro. a.d. 1850). 

(4) Ahwdl i Baba Nanak : Rehatsek p. 72 no. 9 (2). 

(5) Brief history and topography of Hisar Firozah, a musaw- 
wadahhy Munshi Khalil Allah Khan : Rieu 10386 (circ. a.d. 1850), 
1041a (perhaps different. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

(6) Haqiqat i bind u ( uruj i firqah i Sik’han , a short 
history of the Sik’hs (circ. 20 foil.) from the time of .Nanak to 
Timur Shah Abdali’s conquest of Multan : R.A.S. P. 69 (7) — 
Morley 83, P. 69 (8) = Morley 84. 

(7) Kaiflyat i Sirmur , a short account (15 foil.) of the 
Rajahs of Sirmur : Rieu iii 9576 (19th cent..). 

(8) Legendary history of Parasrur and Siyalkot, by M. Muqim 
b. Sh. Rahmat Allah : Rieu iii 954a (18th cent.). 

(9) Notice of Rajah Jagat Sing’h, son of Rajah Basu and 
zaminddr of Mau and Pat’han, Panjab, relating chiefly to the 
expedition sent against him under the command of Khan i 
Jahan S. Muzaffar Khan in the 15th year of Shah-Jahan’s reign : 
Rieu ii 8376 (a.d. 1690). 

(10) Personal statement addressed by the Rajah of Rewari 
to the Indian government with the object of proving his loyalty 
during the Mutiny : Rieu Suppt. 134 (circ. a.d. 1860). 

(11) Reports of the waqa%‘~nawisdn of Derail Isma/il Khan 



678 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

and Peshawar for the years v.s. 1896/1839, 1898/1841 and 
1902/1845 : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College 
Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 58). 

(12) Tadhkirat cd~umara\ historical notices of some 
princely families of Rajputanah and the Panjab, completed in 
1830 by Lt.-Col. J. Skinner : see p. 688 infra. 

(13) Tawarlkh i Rajagan i Hindur , a short history of the 
state of Hindur or Nalagarh in the Simla district followed by a 
number of farmdns and sanads received by the Rajahs from the 
time of Humayun to a.d. 1862 : Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. 
(see Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 
1926) p. 60). 

(14) Tuhfah i Akbarly a concise history of the Nizams of 
Haidarabad, of the Tlmurids from Ahmad Shah to ShahAAlam, 
and of the Panjab from the rise of the Sik’hs written apparently 
in 1219/1804-5 by Khwaiah £ Abd al-Haklm (cf. p. 664 supra, 
n. 1) : see p. 753 infra. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (j) KASHMIR 

“ In Mughal times and later, a host of Muslim and Hindu 
historians writing in the ':'offici^I;/ : ; : BOrspa|i'''' /li£aig^age :; '-';reeorded 
the events that occurred in their own life-time, as well as the 
traditions which they heard from living witnesses. None of 
them, however, reached the standard of Kalhana. What little 
they tell of the Hindu period they borrowed from him, and 
borrowed in a most perfunctory manner. The most important 
among these later historians are Haidar Malik of Tsodur, a 
contemporary of the emperor Jahangir ; Narayan Kaul, who 
compiled his history in a.d. 1721 ; Hasan, who wrote in. the 
last quarter of the eighteenth century; and Rirbal Katsur, 1 
who is still more recent 55 (Ram Chandra Kak Ancient mon uments 
of Kashmir, p. 15). 

870. Kalhana was the son of a certain Canpaka probably 
to be identified with one of the chief officials of King Harsa 

1 Spelt Kafcsar on p. 172 of R. C. Kak’s work. 



679 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (j ) KASHMIR 

(a.d. 1089-1101). The family probably belonged to the town 
of Parihasapura. It was in the year 4224 of the Laukika era 
(a.d. 1148-9) that he wrote the introduction to his Raja-tarangim 
and he completed the work in the following year. [For the 
scanty facts concerning the author which may be derived 
from his work see Stein’s translation pp. 6-21.] 

Raja- tarahgini, a metrical Sanskrit history of Kashmir 
in eight cantos. 

Sanskrit text 1 : (1) Kalhana's Rajatarangini, or Chronicle of 
the Kings of Kashmir. Edited by M. A. Stein. Bombay 1892°*. 
(2) The Rajatarangini of Kalhana. Edited by Durgdprasdda, son 
of Vrajaldla (and (vols. 2-3) P. Peterson). Bombay 1892-6°* 
(Bombay Sanskrit Series , nos. 45, 51 and 54). 

English translation : Kalhana’s Rajatarangini. . . . Translated 
... by M. A. Stein. 2 vols. Westminster 1900°*. 

Persian translation (perhaps that made for Akbar by Mulla 
Shah-Muhammad ShahabadI and rewritten in an abridged form 
by ‘Abd al-Qadir Bada’unl in 999/1590-1 1 2 ) : Ethe 508 (incom- 
plete), Rieu i 296a (portions only. 18th cent.), Ivanow 1698 
(late 18th cent.). 

871. For the Tankh i RasJndi of Mirza Haidar Dughlat see 
pp. 273-6 supra. 

872. An anonymous author, apparently a dependant of Saiyid 
Shah Abu T-Ma £ ali, 3 whose exploits he records at some length, 
completed the Baharistdn i Shahi in 1023/1614. 

j Baharistan i Shahi) a history of Kashmir, especially of the 
Muhammadan period, to a.h. 1023/1614, events from a.h. 986/ 
1578-9 being treated very fully i Rieu i 297a (defective. 18th 
cent.), 2976 (defective at both ends. 17th cent.), iii 9556 (Or. 

1 For further bibliographical information see the British Museum Sanskrit 
catalogues. 

2 A translation by Maulana ‘Imad al-DIn is mentioned among the sources 
of Sujan Ray’s Khulasat al-tawarikh (see Rieu i 230). 

2 S. Shah Abu ’1-Ma‘alI was prominent in the disturbances preceding Akbar’s 
conquest of Kashmir, and subsequently after serving under Rajah Man Sing’h 
for twenty -four years he received from Jahangir a mansab and a jagir in Tattah. 



680 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

1799) foil. 786-254a (tlie Muhammadan period. a.h. 1264/ 
1848), Ethi 509 (n.d.). 

873. Mulla Husain Qari is mentioned by M. A‘zam in the 
preface to his Wdqi‘dt i Kashmir as the author of a concise history 
of Kashmir earlier than that of Haidar Malik. 

Wdqi c dt i Kashmir 1 : Lindesiana p. 153 no. 818 (circ, 
a.d. 1735—40). 

This may perhaps be identical with 

Tdrikh i Kashmir , a history of Kashmir to a.h. 1024/1615 
written by Hasan ( sic 1) b. ‘AlI Kashmirl at the request of Jalal 
al-Dln 1 2 Malik M. Na/ji b. Malik Nusrat (i.e. apparently the 
grandfather of Haidar Malik, see § 874 infra): Bodleian 315 
(defective at beginning, the first words being : ma‘dilat-shi‘dr 
u huhumat i hdhimdn i nasafat-dithdr). ■; 

874. Haidar Malik b. Hasan Malik b. Malik M. Najl Charwarah 
(or Chadwarah), 3 * a member of a noble Kashmiri family having 
its hereditary seat at Charwarah, a village near Srinagar, was 
for twenty-four years in the service of the penultimate King of 
Kashmir, Yusuf Shah Chak (reigned a.h. 986/1578-9 — 993/1585), 
whom he followed in liis banishment to his jdcjir in Bengal. As 
Faujddr of Ja’is he led a successful expedition against Rajah 
Balbhadra. In 1016/1607 he protected Mihr al-Nisa 5 (afterwards 
Nur-Jahan) after the death of her husband, Sher-afgan. Jahangir 
gave him the titles Chagjiatdy and Ra’is al-Mulk and appointed 
him Governor of Kashmir. 

(Tdrikh i Kashmir), begun a.h. 1027/1618 but not com- 
pleted before 1030/1620-1, a history of Kashmir from the earliest 

1 It is not clear from the Lindesiana catalogue whether this is the correct 
title or a mere description (assuming that it is not a copy of M. A ‘gam’s 
work). 

2 The laqab of Haidar Malik’s grandfather is given by Aumer as Kama! 

al-DIn. *■ 

3 “ Haidar Malik takes his epithet Cudura, rede T*<id u r, from the Kasmir 

village of that name situated in the Nagam Pargana, some ten miles south of 

Srinagar, close to the village of VahHor ” (Stein’s translation of the Itaja- 
tarangiiii, vol. ii, p. 374 n. 111). 



681 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (j) KASHMIR 

times to its conquest by Akbar, mainly an abridgment of the 
Rdja-tarahgini but with some additions in the later period : 
Ethe 2846 (a.h. 1046/1636), 510 (containing a second part 
which is divided into six bdbs and deals with the history of 
contemporary dynasties in Iran, Turan, etc. N.d.), Rieu i 
29 SI (a fuller text, defective at beginning. 17th cent.), 297 b 
(a.h. 1216/1802), iii 9556 (Or. 1799) foil. 106-786 (Hindu period. 
a.h. 1264/1848), Aumer 266 (lacmne. a.h. 1131/1718-19), 
Bloehet i 625 (late 18th cent.), 626 (an abridgment, perhaps = 
Aumer 267, see § 875 infra), Browne Suppt. 245 (a.h. 1197 / 
1783. King’s 81), Bodleian 316 (n.d.), 317, Eton 200. 

[Autobiography in the Tankh i Kashmir, Khdtimah, Qism i ; 
J ahangir-ndmah pp. 304 15 , 347 28 == Rogers and Beveridge ii 
pp. 154, 238 ; Iqbdl-ndmah i Jahangiri p. 159 3 ; Rieu i 2976- 
298a.] : 

875. By order of Jahangir was written 

An anonymous history of Kashmir (beginning al-Hamdu 
li-lldhi Rabbi 5 l-alamin . . . wa-ba'd ba-hukm i amr i dil-padMr 
i Shahanshah Jahangir shuru‘ dar iahrir i intiMdb i Tankh 
i Kashmir mi-rawad), agreeing closely in the earlier part with 
Haidar Malik’s history and ending with Akbar’s conquest : 
Aumer 267, Bloehet i 626 (?) (described as an abridged redaction 
of Haidar Malik’s history, without preface or author’s name. 
Early 18th cent.). 

876. In 1094/1683 “Sa^dat” composed 

Sulaimdn-Bdghj a metrical history of Kashmir : A§afiyah 
i p. 228 no. 205 "(a.h. 1278/1861-2). 

877. In the fourth year of Shak-‘Alam, a.h. 1122/1710-11, 
‘Arif Khan. Nd’ib and Dlwdn of the Subah of Kashmir, wished 
to become acquainted with the contents of the Sanskrit chronicles 
of Kashmir, which he had collected. Harayan Kaul “ ‘Ajiz ” 
accordingly compared Haidar Malik’s florid and diffuse transla- 
tion (see p. 680 supra) with the Sanskrit originals and prepared 
an abridgment in simple style. 



682 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

( Tarikh i Kashmir), a history of Kashmir from the earliest 
times to a.h. 1122/1710-11 : Rieu i 2986 (a.h. 1127/1715), 
299a (a.h. 1222/1807), 2996 (a.d. 1814), iii 957a (extracts only. 
Circ. 1850), I.O. D.P. 762 (a) (a.h. 1170/1757), I.O. 3992 
(a.h. 1903), Ethe 511 (a.h. 1215/1800), 512 (a.h. 1217/1802), 
2847 (a.h. 1263/1847), Lindesiana p. 201 no. 820 (a.h. 1198/ 
1783-4), Bloehet i 627 (late 18th cent.), 628 (with a continua- 
tion to 1847. a.d. 1856), ‘Aligarh Subhan Allah MSS. p.. 58 
no. 954 (13) (a.h. 1201/1786-7), Bodleian 318 (a.h. 1229/1814), 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (two copies, one dated a.h. 1230/ 
1815. See Oriental College Magazine , vol. ii, no, 4 (Lahore, 
August 1926), p. 58), Buhar 80 (20th cent.), Berlin 512 (modern), 
Browne Pers. Cat. 103 (with a continuation to Sambat 1903/ 
a.d. 1846), Fliigel ii 970 (not later than a.d. 1835. Pictures), 
Philadelphia Lewis Coll. p. 65. 

878. Aha [.sic] Rail 6 al-Din Ahmad 1 “ Ghafil ” b. ‘Abd al- 
Sabur b. Khwajah M. BalkhI Ka Amiri completed his Nawadir 
al-akJibar at Shahjahanabad in Safar 1136/1723. 

Nawadir al-akhbar, a history of Kashmir, mainly of the 
Muhammadan period, to Akbar’s conquest, professing to dis- 
regard the statements of unbelievers like “ Kalhan Pandit ” : 
Rieu i 2996 (a.d. 1820). 

879. Mulla M. Tauflq “ Taufiq. ” Kashmiri died at the age of 89 
towards the end of the twelfth century of the Hijrah. According 
to c Abd al-Muqtadir the latest date found in the Buhar MS. 
of his dhvdn (catalogue, no. 414) is 1188/1774. 

Ahwal i Kashmir, a mathnawi describing the valley of 
Kazimir and the political events which led to the subjugation 
of the country in Akbar’s reign : Ethe ii 3035 (a.ii. 1267/1851). 

[. Makhzan al-ghara’ib no. 465 (?) ; Sham‘ i anjuman p. 99.] 

1 In M. Aslam’s list of his authorities as quoted by Ethe (Bodleian, col. 172 
ult.) the author of the Nawadir al-akhbar is said to be M. Amin BalkhI. H. H. 
Wilson ( Asiatic Researches xv p. 5) and von Hiigel ( Kashmir p. 3) give his 
name as Raft al-Din Muhammad. 



683 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (j) KASHMIR 

880. Khwajah M. A‘zam Didah-mari (?) 1 b. Khair al-Zaman 
Khan Kashmiri MujaddidI must have been born circ. 1101/ 
1689-90 or 1102/1690-1. He was a pupil of Mulla 'Abd Allah, 
Murad Beg, Kamil Beg, Mir Hashim and others and, as a Sufi, 
the disciple of M. Murad Naqshbandi (d. 1134/1721-2 according 
to M. A'zam (see Rieu i 300a) or on 17 Rajab 1131/1719 according 
to the Khazmat al-asfiya ’ i p. 659 3 ). He died a.h. 1185/1771-2. 

Works of his entitled Faid i Murad , on the life and sayings 
of his pir, Fawa’id al-mashayikh, on faqr, Risdlah i ithbcit al- 
jabr, Tajribat al-talibm, Ash jar al-khuld, Thamardt al-ashjdr and 
Shark i Kibrit i ahmar are mentioned by Rahman ‘All. 

(1) Wdqi ( at i Kashmir (a chronogram = 1148/1735-6, the 
date of inception, but 1160/1747 was the date of completion), 
called also Tdrikh iAzami and Tawankh i DWMRl 2 a history of 
Kashmir from the earliest times to 1160/1747 devoted mainly to 
the lives of the holy men (also poets and scholars) who flourished 
in each reign and divided into a muqaddimah , three qisms and a 
khdtimah : Rieu i 300 (18th cent.), 301a (18th cent.), 301a 
(a.d. 1820), iii 9566 (18th cent.), 9566 (19th cent.), 957a (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Blochet i 629 (a.h. 1205/1790), Ivanow 
CJurzon 41 (defective. Late 18th or early 19th cent.), Eth6 513 
(a.h. 1217/1802), Bodleian 319 (a.h. 1220/1805), Bankipnr vii 
601 (19th cent.), Buhar 81 (19th cent.), A§afiyah i p. 258 no. 290, 
Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, 
no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), pp. 58-9), Rehatsek p. 82 no. 22, 
Salemann-Rosen p. 13 no. 607. 

Edition : Tdrikh % Kashmir i A‘zami, Lahore 1303/1886*. 

Urdu translation : Mohammad Azeem’s [sic] History of 
Kashmeer translated from the Persian into Urdoo by Moonshee 
Ashraf Alee of the Dehlie College . . , (Tdrikh i Kashmir). [Delhi 
1846°*.] 

1 This nisbah, apparently not mentioned by M. A'zam himself in his preface, 
is appended to his name by M. Aslam in his list of authorities (quoted by 
Ethe, Bodleian cat., col. 173a, of. Rieu iii 9566, where, however, it is trans- 
literated Dedah Maru, and Rieu Suppt. p. 57 a, where it is written Dldahmari), 
The word is spelt DWMRl (with r) by Rahman ‘AH and DWMRl by Ghulam 
Sarwar (Ehazinat al-asiim t i pp. 659 4 , 6S2 9 ). 

2 Tarlkh i A'zann matruf ba-Tmmnhh i DWMJil, as Rahman ‘All calls it. 



684 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(2) Lubb al-tawankh , a brief history of Kashmir from the 
Deluge to a.h. 1166/1753 : Eth6 ii 3022 (n.d.). 

[Khazmat al-asfiyd ’ i p. 682 ; Rieu i 300, iii 10846-1085a ; 
Rahman ‘All 180.] 

881. Badi‘ al-Din Abu ’1-Qasim M. Aslam ** Munfimi ” b. 
Maulawi M. A‘zam Kul “ Mustaghni ” went in 1188/1774-5 
with the Wazir’s army from Lucknow to Etawah and there 
obtained from a descendant of the Cliak kings of Kashmir an 
autograph copy of the Mir’ at al-auliya.’, a Persian translation 
by Maulana Ahmad ‘Allamah 1 of the Kashmiri work entitled 
Nur-ndmah, a collection of the utterances of the saint, Shaikh 
Nur al-Din Wall, written down by one of his disciples. 

Gaiihar 2 i e dlam tukfat an 3 li-l-Shdh 4 (or li-l-Shdh- 
l Alam)f or Gauhar-ndmah i dlam, 6 written circ. a.h. 1190/ 
1776-1200/1786 and dedicated to Shah-‘Alam II (reigned 
a.d. 1759-86), a history of Kashmir based mainly on the Wdqi‘at 
i Kashmir of Khwajah M. A‘zam (possibly the author’s father), 
which is reproduced with few alterations, and the Nur-namah 
(see above), and divided into a muqaddimah (geographical), six 
tabaqahs ((1) the origins, Da’udi Kings and Pandavas, (2) Hindu 
Rajahs, (3) Shah-Miri dynasty, (4) the Chaks, (5) the Mughals, 
(6) the Afghans, Ahmad Shah’s conquest, etc. No recorded copy 
seems to go further than a.h. 1150/1737 in the fifth tabaqah) 
and a (non-extant) Jchatimah (on peculiarities and marvels) : 
Bodleian 320 (late 18th cent.), Ivanow 189 (18th-19th cent.), 
1.0. 3931 (extracts copied from the preceding MS.), Rieu Suppt. 
85 (19th cent.), iii 9566 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

882. ‘Abd al-Qadir Khan, commonly called (‘urf) Ghulam- 
Qadir Khan, b. Wasil ‘All Khan Ja’isi has already been men- 
tioned (pp. 622-4 supra ) as the author of the Tarilch i l Imdd 
al-Mulk. 

1 Described as a contemporary of Sultan Zain aI-‘Abidm (reigned a.d. 1423- 
1474). 

2 This is presumably an allusion to Shah-‘Alanvs name ‘AII-Gauhar. 

3 So Ivanow 189. Cf. the title of ‘Abd al-Karim’s history of the Panjab 
(p. 673 supra). 

4 So Bodleian 320, Ivanow 189, Rieu Suppt. 85. 

5 So Rieu iii 9566. G So in the dedicatory verses. 



685 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA: (j ) KASHMIR 

Hashmat i Kashmir , completed at Benares in 1245/1830 
and dedicated to the British Agent Hashmat al-Daulah William 
Augustus Brooke, a history of Kashmir based mainly on Aslam’s 
history (see p. 684 supra) and followed by short accounts of 
Tibet and Qalmaqistan, Bada khsh an, and the Afghan hill tracts 
of Pagle, Ghor, Ghaznln and Koh i Sulaiman : Rieu Buppt. 
86 (a.h. 1247/1831), iii 1016a (extracts only. Oirc. a.d. 1850), 
Ivanow Curzon 42 (a.h. 1286/1869), Philadelphia Lewis Coll, 
p. 67. • A 5 A- 

Edition: [Calcutta,] 1832*. 

883. Pandit Birbal known ( ma‘ruf ) as Kachar 1 composed 
in 1251/1835 his 

Majma t al-tazudrikh , 8 a history of Kashmir to the author’s 
own time : Bodleian 1973, Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see 
Oriental College Magazine, vol. iii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), 
p. 59). 

884. Of unknown authorship is the 

Lllbh al-tawar ikh , a history of Kashmir to a.h. 1262/1846 
with a second volume on its geography, administration, revenue, 
produce etc. : Rieu iii 957a (a.ii. 1263/1847), apparently also 
Browne Pers. Cat. 103, foil. 121-232 (vol i only, defective at 
beginning, the first date being a.h. 995/1587). 

885. At the desire of some English officials Mirza Saif al-Dtn, 
who was £c record writer in Kashmir ”, compiled a short history 
of Kashmir from the earliest times to a.h. 1277/1860-1. In the 
following year he died, and some time afterwards his brother 
and successor Mirza Muhyl ’1-Din at the request of General 
Courtland, then recently appointed British Agent in Kashmir, 
added a few subsequent events. 

Khulasat al-tawdrikh i Kashmir , completed 22 October 
1861 : Edinburgh 234 (a.h. 1278/1861). 

1 In Ram Chandra Kak’s Ancient monuments of Kashmir this word is spelt 
Katsur on p. 15, and Katsar on p. 172, one of the two spellings being doubtless 
a misprint. 

2 This title is given in the Oriental College Magazine. No Persian title is 
mentioned in the Bodleian catalogue. 



686 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

_ 886. Diwan Kir pa-Ram belonged to a well-known family of 
Eminabad in the Gujranwala District of the Panjab, who 
“ have from the commencement of Maharaja Gulab Singh’s 
reign practically monopolized the office of Diwan or Prime 
Minister, and are therefore responsible for much of the good 
or evil repute attaching to the rule of the Dogras in 
Kashmir He succeeded his father, Jwala Sahay, as Diwan in 
1865 and held the office until his death in 1876. “ He was slightly 
less conservative than his father, and was zealous in encouraging 
education, establishing hospitals, opening up thoroughfares, 
introducing silk and other industries, and improving the system 
of revenue collection. But his death at the early age of 44 
prevented his undertakings from being brought to a satisfactory 
finish.” 

In addition to the two works mentioned below he wrote a 
pamphlet (26 pp.) entitled Madinat al-tahqiq in defence of certain 
Hindu practices criticised by Muslims. (Edition : Siyalkot 
1877 ° # .) 

According to The Friend of India (a Calcutta newspaper) for 
12.9.1867 (p. 1093) he at that time £i presided over ” a weekly 
paper, the Bidyd Bilas, published by a literary society of which 
the Maharajah was patron. 

(1) Gulzar i Kashmir 3 a concise history of Kashmir with 
chapters on its topography, products, trades etc., written in 
1864. 

Edition : Lahore 1870-1°* (1870 on the cover, 1870 and 1871 
in the tankhs at the end). 

(2) Gulab-namahy a life of Maha-rajah Gulab Sing'll, com- 
pleted in 1922 VikramI/1865. 

Editions : Srinagar v.s. 1932-3/1876* Jammu [1919* *]. 

[Griffin and Massy Chiefs and families of note in the Punjab, 
Revised ed., Lahore 1909-11, vol. ii pp. 131-2. (In S. Newazish 

1 This date does not occur in the edition, which retains on the title-page 
the date v.s. 1932 and on pp. 10-12 the chronograms (v.s. 1933, a.d, 1876) 
of the previous edition. 


687 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (k) JAMMU 

Ali's Urdu translation, Tazkira-i-Rausa-i-Punjab [sic], there is 
a portrait of Kirpa-Ram facing p. 209 in vol. ii.)] 

887. Miscellaneous works relating to Kashmir : 

(1) Account of Kashmir : Lindesiana p. 170 no. 444 (a.d. 1845). 

(2) Chronicles of Kashmir : Lindesiana p. 170 no. 158 (circ. 
a.d. 1750). 

(3) Description of Kashmir, “ to end of last century ” : 
Lindesiana p. 170 no. 781 (circ. a.d. 1840). 

(4) Epic poem (modern) describing the history of BaJtl or 
Baltistan, a small state in the north of Kashmir : Bodleian 1995 
(defective at both ends). 

(5) A history of Kashmir beginning Hamd i an mubdi% kih 
‘ atom i jud and consisting of accounts of the Hindu period and 
the Muhammadan period extracted respectively from Haidar 
Malik and the Baharistdn i Shaki . an introduction on such matters 
as the mythical lake which once filled the vale of Kashmir and 
its draining by demons at Solomon’s command, and an appendix 
on some remarkable localities in Kashmir : Rieu iii 9556 
(a.h. 1264/1848). 

(6) Mukhtasar tarikh i Kashmir (48 pp.), by Mufti ‘Ala’ 
al-Dln Muhammad : Lahore 1884f. 

(7) Tdrikh i Kashmir : Lindesiana p. 225 no. 158 (circ. 
a.d. 1750). 

(8) Tdrikh i Kashmir (Skujd c i Haidari ) 3 by M. Haidar : 
Asaflyah iii p. 96 no. 1384 (a.d. 1840). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (Jc) JAMMU 

888. G-anesh Das, called (‘urf) Bad’hrah, has already been 
mentioned (pp. 672-3 supra) as the author of histories of the 
Panjab entitled Ghiragh i Panjab and Char bdgh i Punjab. 

Raj-darshani 5 a history of the Rajahs of Jammun from the 
earliest times to a.d. 1847 : Rieu iii 955a (circ. a.d. 1848), 
Ethd 507 (defective). 



688 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (l) HUNZA 

889. M. Rida Beg began in 1339/1920 

A history of Hunza : Bodleian MS. Pers. d. 62 (author’s 
brouillon, incomplete). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (m) RAJPUTANAH 

890. Lieut.-Colonel James Skinner, the son of Lieut.-Colonel 
Hercules Skinner and a Rajput lady, was born in 1778. From 
1796 to 1803 he served in the Marat’ha army of the Maharajah 
Sindia of Gwalior, first under de Boigne and afterwards under 
Perron. Having resigned on the outbreak of the First Marat’ha 
War, he served with distinction under Lord Lake and raised 
the regiment of irregulars known as Skinner’s Horse. In 1827 
he was given the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and the title of C.B. 
He died at Hansi on 4 Dec. 1841 and on 17 Jan. 1842 he was 
buried in the church built by himself at Delhi. 

In 1925 he completed at Hansi and dedicated to Gen. Sir J. 
Malcolm his Tashrih al-aqwam , an account of Indian tribes and 
castes (see Rieu i 65a). 

Tadhkirat al-umara completed in 1830 and dedicated 
to Sir J. Malcolm, historical notices of some princely families of 
Rajputanah and the Panjab : Rieu i 302a (a.d. 1830. With 
portraits of the contemporary princes), 3036 (a.d. 1830. Without 
the portraits), iii 958a (circ. a.d. 1850). 

[J. Baillie Fraser Military memoir of Lieut. -Col. James Skinner, 
London 1851 ; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 392 ; 
etc.] 

891. Munshi D’honkal Sing’ll was in the service of Ranjit 
Sing’h, the Jat Rajah of Bharatpur (a.h. 1776-1806), 1 and was 
employed by him in his negotiations with Lord Lake. 

( Waqalf i tasallut i Sahiban i Angrez Bahadur dar 
rnulk i Miyan i Do-ab) or ( Tasallut i Sahiban i Angrez) or 

1 For further information see Mill History of India vi pp. 597-612 ; Creighton 
Siege of Bhurtpore p. x. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (m) RAJPUTANAII 689 

(Waqa’i* i Dhonkal Singh) or ( Jang-ndmah i Bharatpur), 1 com- 
pleted a.h. 1221 /1806-7, a prolix and turgid history of the 
Marat’ha war in Northern India and especially of Ranjit Sing’li’s 
part in it from 1803 (rise of Perron and Lake’s march against 
him) to 1805 (fall of Bharatpur and Lake’s treaty with Ranjit 
Sing’h) : Rieu i 305a (a.h. 1234/1819), 3056 (a.h. 1250/1834). 

892. For Safdar ‘All Shah “Munsif’s” continuation of his 
Jirjts i razm containing a metrical account of the Bharatpur 
campaign of 1804-5 see the section History : India : Marathas. 

893. Maulawl M. Fadl i ‘Azim “ c Azim ” has already been 
mentioned (p. 646 supra) as the author of a history of the 
Nepalese War entitled Waged' i KuMstdn . He accompanied 
William Fraser as secretary during the operations against 
Bharatpur. 

{Afsanah i Bhartpur 2 ) 5 a mathnawl (beginning Ba-mrn i 
Jchuddwand i Malldq i jdn) on the operations against Rajah 
Durjan Sal of Bharatpur in 1825-6, written in 1241/182 6: 
I.O. D.P, 1276 (19th cent.), probably also Lindesiana p. 193 
no. 344 (“ WaqdW jang-i Bharatpur ” (in verse or prose?). 
a.h. 1241/1825-6), no. 459 (circ. a.d. 1840-50). 

Apparently different from this and beginning differently 
( Kunam ydd i an ddwar i ddwardn) is the 

Tankh i Bharatpur , or Zafar-namah^ “a poetical account 
of the siege of Bharatpur by Lord Lake 3 . . . ascribed to M’aulavi 
Fazl ‘Azim, and said to be founded on a prose narrative by a 
Brahman called Shambu, or Shambhu ” : Sprenger 520 (A.S.B.), 
Ivanow 886 (calligraphic), Rieu iii 1054a (extracts only. Circ. 
a.d. 1850), 1056a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

894. Anand Ray is the author of a 

1 Hoe Rieu iii 958a. 

2 No formal title is given to the poem by the author, but he twice speaks 
of it as the afsanah i Bhartpur (fol. 5a, 1. 2 : Bi-Tcun nazm afsanah i Bhartpur* 
jafd-kari i Durjan i pur-ghurur ; fol. 5a, 1. 4: Zi-farmudan i hatif-am shud 
tlarur* I'ih hi-nwtsam afsanah i Bhartpur). 

8 This was an earlier siege {in 1805). The operations in 1825-6 were com- 
manded by Lord Combermere.. 


690 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Tarikh i Bharatpur 5 an account of Lord Combermere’s 
siege of Bharatpur in 1826 preceded by a short history of the 
Jat Rajahs: Bankipur vii 602 (a.h. 1247/1831-2), I.O. 3937 
(apparently transcribed from the preceding, a.d. 1892). 

895. Francis Gottlieb describes himself as a German born 
in Poland and educated in India. He is apparently identical 
with the Urdu and Persian poet “ Fara.su ” (for whom see p. 647 
supra). It was for Major Abraham Lockett that he wrote his 
history of the Jat rajahs of Bharatpur. 

History of the Jat Rajahs of Bharatpur from their origin 
to A.d. 1826 : Rieu i 305& (19th cent.). 

896. Of unknown authorship is. 

A history of Bharatpur from a.d. 1805 to a.d. 1827 
(accession of Balwant Sing’ll) written in continuation of D'honkal 
Sing’h’s history (for which see p. 688 supra) : Rieu iii 958a 
(19th cent.). 

897. Major James Browne (for whom see p. 665 supra) obtained 
from Jaipur in 1198/17 83—4 a Hindi history of the Kaehhwahah 
Rajahs. This was translated into Persian by the Major’s munsht 
Jan i ‘Alam Shlrin-raqam, who completed his task at Agrah 
in Shawwal 1198/Aug.-Sept. 1784. 

Bansawali 1 i buzurgan i Maharajah D’hiraj 2 Sawd’i 
Pratap Sing’h Bahadur , a history of the Kachwahah Rajahs 
of D’hund’har (afterwards of Jaipur) from their origin to 1198/ 
1783-4 : Rieu i 301a (a.h. 1198/1784). 

898. Basawan La c l “Shadan” b. Nansuk’h Ray Kay at' h 
Saksenah, of Bilgram, was for twelve years Nd’ib Mumsjfi to a 
certain Ray Data Ram. It was in 1240/1824-5 that he wrote 
his Amvr-ndmah at the request of Amir al-Daulah M. Amir Khan, 
a leader of banditti who in 1817 was recognised by the British 
as first Nawwab of Tonk and who died in 1834, and his son, 
Wazlr al-Daulah M. Wazir Khan. 


1 This, the Hindi form of the .Sa nskrit varnmvali, means “ genealogy ”. 

2 Sanskrit MaJuiraj adhirdj. 



691 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (») SARD’HANAH 

Amir-namah) a life of Amir Khan : Asafiyah i p. 220 
no. 2 (a.h. 1240/1824-5), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1242/ 
1826-7. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, 
August 1926) p. 60), Ivanow 217 (a.h. 1251/1835-6. Inartistic 
Pictures), Bankipur vi 531 (19th cent.), I.O. 3895 (a.d. 1895), 
Rieu iii 1019a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

English translation by H. T. Prinsep : Memoirs of the Puthan 
soldier of fortune , the Nuwab Ameer-ood-Doulah Mohimmud 
Ameer Khan, Chief of Seronj, Tonic, Rampoora, Neemahera, and 
other places in Hindoostan. Calcutta 1832°*. 

Abridged Urdu translation by Munshi Debi Prashad : Delhi 
1317/1899-1900*, 1909* (title of this last edition Iftikhdr al- 
tmvdnlch). 

[For Amir Khan see H. T. Prinsep History of the political and 
military transactions in India during the administration of the 
Marquess of Hastings, London, 1825 ; Bucldand Dictionary of 
Indian biography p. 12 ; Ency. I si. i 330.] 

899. Other works : 

(1) Account of the Rajahs of Alwar to the then reigning Beni 
Sing’ll (d. 1857) : Rieu iii 10126 (19th cent.). 

(2) Ahwali raj aha i Jaipur : Browne Suppt. 17 (King’s). 

(3) History of the Rajahs of Anber and Jaipur from their 
origin to the time of composition (circ. a.ii. 1260/1844) : Rieu 
iii 10296 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

(4) Fragment (4 foil.) of a history of Kotah : I.O. 4061 
(a.d. 1897). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (n) SARD’HANAH 

900. Lalah Gokul Chand was private secretary to Zeb al- 
Nisa’ Begam, better known as Begam Samru, 1 who succeeded 
her husband, the adventurer Walter Reinhardt, as jagirddr of 

1 For her life see Brajendranath Banerji Begam Samru (Calcutta 1925), 
which contains a good bibliography, Severin Noti Das Fiirstentum Sardhana 
(Freiburg i. Br. 1906), H. G. Keene in the Calcutta Review for 1880, etc. 



692 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


Sard’hanah 1 in 1778, became prominent in the events of Shah- 
‘Akm’s reign and died in 183G. A prose history of Zeb al- 
Nisa’ by Munshi Jai-Sing'h Ray having been lost, Gokul Chand 
was asked to write one in verse. 

Zeb al-tawari kh , a metrical life of Begam Samru, composed 
in 1822 : Rieu ii 724a (a.d. 1822). 

It is not clear whether Lindesiana p. 224 no. 779 ( Tunlfh 7 
Begam Samru. a.d. 1841) is a copy of this or of a different 
work. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (o) LAND’HAURAH 

901. Account of the rule of Rajah Ram-Day al Sing'h of 
Land'haurah 5 Saharanpiir District : Rieu iii 1012a (19th cent.). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (p) PARlCHHATGARH 

902. History of the Rajahs of Paricjhhatgarh in the 
Meerut District: Rieu iii 1012a (foil. 53-56. 19th cent.). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (q) IvOL Etc. 

903. Sundar Lai son of Naubat Lai, a Kayat’h (i.e. Kayast’ha) 
of the Mat’hur caste, was a mimsfci in the Khalisah Office and 
lived at Kol. 

Majmtfah i faid u Gul i hl~khazanf a history of Ivol, 
Mat'hnra and Brindaban written a. it. 1241/1825-0 ; Rieu iii 
959a (extracts only (26 foil.). Circ. a.d. 1850). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (r) AGRAH 

For various works describing the Taj Muhall and other buildings 
at Agrah, often with more or less historical information, see the 
sub-section Topoc: kapuy. 

904. Manik Chand was one of the students of the Government 
College, Agrah, who responded to the request of James Stephen 

1 Sardhanah is 12 miles INT.W. of Meerut. 

a Gul i biJchnzan is the title given to the work in the table: of contents at 
the end of the. B.M. MS. 


693 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (s) FARRUKHABAD 

Lushington, Acting Collector at Agrah 1825-6, for a historical 
account of Agrah and its buildings. 

Ahwal i shahr i Akbarabad , a history of Agrah and an 
account of its buildings : Rieu iii 9586 (19th cent.), iii 1044a 
(circ. a.d. 1844). 

905. Another of the Agrah students who responded to J. S. 
Lushington’s invitation was Lalah Sil Chanel. 

Tafrih al-imarat or Ahwal i Hmdrdt i Mustaqarr al- 
Khildfah, a history of Agrah and an account of its buildings : 
Aumer 268, Bankipur vii 648, Efch£ 731, Ivanow 288 (late 19th 
cent.). 

An abridgment (?) : Hdldt i Akbarabad by Sil Chand : Rieu iii 
1031a ("almost complete”, but only filling foil. 21-58 of the 
MS.). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (s) FARRUKHABAD 

906. Nawal Ray, son of Hira La‘l, Ilahabadi was in the 

service of Ahmad Khan Bangash, Nawwab of Farrukhabad, 
when in 1 170/1756—7 he wrote his Taivdnkh i Ahmad- Khdrii. 

Tawarikh i Ahmad- Kharii in two bdbs, of which the first 
is a metrical account of Ahmad Khan Bangash to his installation 
on the masnacl in 1164/1751 and the second a metrical transla- 
tion of tales collected from Hindi sources by a certain Gauri 
Datt : Rieu iii 1003a (slightly defective at end. 18tli cent.), 
1054a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

907. Mir Husam al-Din Guwaliyari, surnamed ( mulaqqab ) 
Mutlaq ‘Ali Shah, 1 left Gwalior, his home, and entered the 
service of the Nawwabs of Farrukhabad. 

Muhammad- Kharii, a history of the Bangash Nawwabs of 
Farrukhabad from the time of the founder, Muhammad Khan 
Bangash, who died in 1156/1743 and after whom the work is 
evidently named, to the reign of Ahmad Khan, who died in 

1 The author calls himself faqir i sarapa-taqsir mulaqqab Mutlaq ‘All A]tah 
‘urf Mir Husam al-Din Guwaliyari. 



694 : 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

1185/1771 and who was evidently dead when this history was 
written, though the I.O. MS. contains no account of his death 
and apparently no date later than 1171/1757-8: I.O. 3896 
(perhaps defective at end. Transcribed probably in 1878). 

908. S. M. Wall Allah b. Alimad ‘All Parrukhabadi (d. 1249/ 
1833-4) has already been mentioned (p. 25 supra) as the author 
of a commentary on the Qur'an entitled Nazm al-jawdhir wa- 
naqd al-faraid. 

Tdftkh i Farrukhabadj a history of FarruTdnibad and its 
Bangash rulers from its foundation in 1126/1714 to 1243/1827-8 : 
Rieu iii 9596 (a.d. 1852), Ivanow 194 (a.h. 1277/1860-1), 
‘Aligarh Subhan Allah MSS. p. 57 (a.h. 1284/1867-8), Calcutta 
Imp. Lib. (see Nadhlr Ahmad 65), I.O. 3898 (a.d. 1877). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (t) THE ROHILLAS (ROHELAHS) 

909. Ghulam Muhyi T-Dln (see Ivanow 870), or simply Muhyi 
T-Din, “ Dhauqi ” b. Abl T-Hasan (Saiyid £ Abd al-Latif, see 
Ivanow l.c .) was the author of MadcVih al-mashdyikh , a collection 
of qasidahs in praise of Qadiri saints (see Ivanow 871). 

Najib-namah , a metrical ( mathnawi ') history of Najib al- 
Daulah, composed, when the author was 35 years old, probably 
in 1185/1771-2: Ivanow 870 (a.h. 1185/1771-2), Eth<§ 1715 
(a.h. 1213/1798). 

910. Nothing seems to lie known about Saiyid Nur al-DIn 
Husain Khan Bahadur Fakhri, who, according to a note on a 
fly-leaf of the British Museum MS., is the author of 

A detailed history of Najib al-Daulah } a Rohillah chief 
who was made Amir al-umara’ by Ahmad Shah Durrani, fought 
against the Marat'has and Jats and', was virtual ruler of Delhi 
until his death in 1184/1770 : Rieu i 30 6a (end of 18th cent.). 

1 For an Urdu history, by Durgftpmsad, son of Munna La‘l, see Blunihardl’s 
India Office Catalogue of Hindustani MSS. no. 50. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (t) THE ROHILLAS (ROHELAHS) 695 

Edition : SargmUiasht iNawwdb Najib al-Daulah [with an Urdu 
introduction by M. ‘Abd al-Salam Khan ‘Umar-Khaill, ‘Aligarh 
1924* (based on the B.M. MS.). 

Condensed English translation (omitting the first 13 leaves) : 
Jadunath Sarkar An original account of Ahmad Shah Durrani’s 
campaigns in India and the Battle of Panipat (in Islamic culture 
vii/3 (Haidarabad, July 1933) pp. 431-56), Najib -ud~daulah as 
the dictator of Delhi, 1761-1770 (ibid, vii/4 (Oct. 1933) pp. 613-39), 
Life of Najib-ud-daulah : the last phase (ibid, viii/2 (April 1934) 
pp. 237-57). 

911. A dependant of Dabitah Khan, who does not mention 
his name in the text but who in the colophon is called Munshi 
Lachhmi Narayan, wrote 

A turgid account of the capture of Etawah by Sharaf 
al-Daulah Dabitah Khan on 29 Ramadan 1187 /1773 : Rieu 
iii 9606 (a.h. 1268/1852). . 

912. MunshI Shiv-Parshad was in the service of Kawwfib 
Faid-Allah Khan, the Rohilla chief of Rampur, who sent him 
as his wakil to Bilgram to negotiate with the British colonel 
there. At the request of Mr. Kirkpatrick, whom he met at 
Bilgram, he wrote his 

Tarikh i faid-ba khsh , completed a.h. 1190/1776 and dedi- 
cated to Eaid-Allah Khan, a history of the Roliilla Afghans of 
Kat’her to their defeat by Shwja £ al-Daulah and the E.I.Co. at 
Lai’ Dang in 1188/1774:" Rieu i 3066 (late 18th cent.), 307 a 
(with some omissions and additions. Late 18th cent.), 3076 (lacks 
the preface, a.d. 1802), iii 959a (with additions. 19th cent.), 
1051a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Bodleian 1972 (lacks 
preface), Edinburgh 236, Ethe 584, 585 (lacks the preface), 
586 (lacks the preface. Extends to 1185/1771), 1 . 0 . 3942 (early 
19th cent.), 3882 (a.d. 1893). 

Free translation (with additions by the translator) : An 
historical relation of the origin, progress, ami final dissolution of the 
government of the Rohilla Afghans in the Northern provinces of 



696 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Bindostan. Compiled 1 from a Persian Manuscript mid other 
original papers. By Captain Charles Hamilton . 2 [London,] 
1787°*. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India mil 175-9. 

Criticism: Sir J. Strachey Hastings and the Rokilla War , 
p. xvi. 

913. Nawwab M. Mustajab Khan was one of the fourteen 
sons of the famous Rohillah chieftain Hafiz Rahmat Khan; 
who died in 1188/1774 and is buried at Bareli (see pp. 396-7 
supra , Buckland Dictionary of ilndkm Biography 184, Ency. Isl. ii 
214-5, and the various histories of India). According to Beale's 
Oriental Biographical Dictionary Mustajab Khan died on 2 
Shawwal 1248/[22] February 1833. 

(1) Gulistdn i Rahmat 3 a life of Hafiz Rahmat Khan 
written in 1207/1792-3 : Bankipur Suppt. i 1773 (a.h. 1209/ 
1794), Ethd 587 (copied from an autograph a.h. 1218/1804), 
1.0. 3891 (a.d. 1878), Rieu i 3076 (a.d. 1865), 308«. (a.ii. 1233/ 
1818), iii 1013a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

Much abridged translation : The life of Hafiz ool-moolk, Hafiz 
Helmut Khan, written by Ms son , , the Nuwab Mooslvjab Khan 
Buhudoor , and entitled Goohstan-i-Rchmut. Abridged and trans- 
lated... by O . Elliott. London 1831°* (Oriental Translation 
Fund). 

/ Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 301-12. 

] Cajit. Hamilton refrained from calling this work a translation, though 
“ in great measure it; was literally so ”, because “in some parts of it (those, 
in particular, which: treat of such proceedings of the English government 
as were any way connected with it) he has necessarily had recourse to other 
sources of information ”. Capfc. Hamilton calls the author “ A Itohilla, a 
confidential servant of one of their chiefs ”, but this was no doubt merely a 
surmise on the part- of the translator, who presumably had before him a 
manuscript lacking the preface in which the author mentions his name. An 
English note on the fly-leaf of Ethc 585 identifies the work with Capt. Hamilton’s 
original. 

a b. eirc. 1753, entered military service of E.I.Co. in 177(5, translated the 
Hiddyah ( The Hedaya, or Guide; a commentary on the Mmsulmun laws, 
London 1791, 2nd ed. 1870), died 14 March 1792. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : («) THE ROHILLAS (ROHELAHS) 697 


Criticism : Sir J. Strachey Hastings and the Rohilla War 
p. xvii C £ They [i.e. the Gulistdn i Rah mat and the CM i Rahmat] 
have little historical value. The object of their authors was to 
eulogize Hafiz Rahmat ; every tiling that seemed to throw dis- 
credit on him is suppressed, and in the narrative of the events 
which led to the Rohilla war the facts are often completely mis- 
represented. Tor instance, no reference, except one that .is 
altogether misleading, is made to the treaty entered into in 1772 
between the Rohillas and the Vizier, which was attested by the 
English Commander-In-Chief, and the non-fulfilment of which 
led to the ruin of the Rohilla Government ”),. 

(2) (Damimah i Gulistdn i Rahmat) y an account of Raid 
Allah Khan, the ruler of Rampur, and of the hostilities between 
his sons after his death, written in 1233/1817-18 at the suggestion 
of Charles Elliott as a supplement to the Gulistdn i Rahmat : 
I.O. 3891 foil. 291-311 {a.d. 1878). 

Much abridged translation ; The life of Hafiz ool-moolk, 
Hafiz Rehmiit Khan , . . . Abridged and translated . . .by (7. 
Elliott (see above), pp. 130 -41. 

914. Nawwah M. Sa £ adat~Yar Kh an 1). Hafiz Muhammad- 
Yar Khan, of Bareli, was a grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan 
and a nephew of Mustajab Khan. He is the author of a treatise 
on the alleged Jewish origin of the Afghans (Browne Suppt. 
1462, Palmer’s Trinity Coll. Cat. p. 157). 

Gul i Rahmat , written in 1249/1833- 4. an enlarged version 
of the Gulistdn i Rahmat: Bankipur vii 603 (19th cent.). Rieu 
:iii 10516 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1851), I.O. 3968 (19th cent.). 

Edition : Memoirs of Rafis Ruhmul Khan suniamcd I/afis 
ool M nolle Chief of the Rohillas. By his grand-son Nu-wab Sadut 
Yar Khan of Bareilly (Persian title : Dhi'kr i Hafiz Rahmat 
Khan). Agrah 1836°. 

Criticism : see p. 697, 1. 1 supra. 

915. Ghulam-Jilani “ Rifat ” Rampurl died in 1235/1819. 1 

1 This date is given by Nadhir Ahmad, who mentions the IntiJchab i Ycidgar 
of Amir MlnaT (d. 1318/1900) as an authority for Ghulam-Jxlanx’s life. 



698 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


There is a copy of his dvwan in the Rampur State Library (see 
Nadhir Ahmad 137). 

(1) Durr i manzum, a metrical history of Nawwab Faid- 
Allah Khan and his children : Asafiyah i p. 240 no. 268, Rieu 
iii 10356 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

(2) Jang-ndmah i Nawwab Ghulam-Muhammad Khan, 
a metrical history of Oh. M. Kh., the second son of Nawwab 
Faid-Allah Khan : Rieu Suppt. 351 (a.d. 1886). 

[Amir MinaT Intikhab i Yddgdr, Nadhir Ahmad 137.] ■■.■■■■■■ 

916. The year 1249/1833-4 is referred to as “ the present 
year ” at the end of a 

History of the Rohilla chiefs of Muradabad , after- 
wards of Rampur > to 1219/1804-5 (beg. : Ba l d i hmnd 

u tAandyi Khiiddy), probably by the same author as the Sketch 
of Indian History mentioned on p. 474 supra, which gives special 
attention to the Rohillas : Rieu iii 10076 (19th cent.), I.O. 
3738 (19th cent.). 

917. Three years after the death of Ahmad ‘All Khan, i.e. in 
1258/1842, was written 

A short account of the Rohilla chiefs of Rampur to 
the death of Ahmad ‘All Khan in 1839 : Rieu iii 1012a iv (19tli 
cent.). 

918. Other works : 

(1) Nuqiil u khutut dar ( amal ijang i Rohelah : Berlin 

529-30. 

(2) Nuzhat al-damdHr 3 a history of the Afghan power in 
India, by Ahmad ‘All. a resident of Muradabad : Browne Pars. 
Cat. 80. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (u) JAUNPUR 

919. Mania wi Khair al-DIn Muhammad Ilahabadi died 
about 1827 (see pp. 520 -2 supra). 

Jaunpur-ndmah or Tdnkh i Jmmpur in two hubs, viz. (i) 
history of Jaunpiir to ‘Ali-Quli Khan’s defeat by Akbar in 974/ 



699 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (w) BENARES 

1566-7, 1 (ii) account of the foundation of its ancient buildings : 
Bodleian 283 (a.d. 1813), Ivanow 202 (a.h. 1253/1837), Rieu 
i 311a (a.h. 1282/1866), iii 964a (a.d. 1843), 1055a (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), Browne Suppt. 231. 

Editions : Jaunpur 1878*, 1899°. 

Abridged translation : A translation of the History of Jaunpoor ; 
from the Persian of Fuqeer Khyr odd deen Moolmmmud. By an 
officer of the Bengal Army [i.e. W. R. Pogson], Calcutta 1814°. 

Urdu translation : Tdnfch i Jaunpur by Nadhir al-Dm Ahmad, 
Jaunpur [1921 ? Registered 10.1.1922]. 

The article on Jaunpur in the Calcutta Review , vol. 41, pp. 114— 
58 is largely based on this work. 

920. Ghulam-Hasan Zaidi Wasiti was munshi to Charles 
Chisholme, Registrar of Jaunpur, at whose request he wrote his 
historical account of Jaunpur. His account of Calcutta will be 
mentioned further on. 

A short historical account of Jaunpur in two fads (viz. (i) 
foundation and Sharqi dynasty, (ii) chief buildings) and a 
tatimmah (on six scholars of Jaunpur, the last being Raushan 
‘All Jaunpurl, 2 the author’s master, then on the staff of the 
College of Port William) : Rieu i 3115 (autograph ? Circ. 
a.d. 1805), Browne Pers. Cat. 108 i. 

M. HISTORY OP INDIA : {w) BENARES 

921. Ghulam-Husain Khan b. M. Himmat Khan (see p. 642 
supra) was in the service of Rajah Balwand Sing’ll and his son 
Rajah Chait Sing’h. 

A history of the Zammdars of Benares from the time 
of Rajah Mansa Ram to the deposition of Rajah Chait Sing’h in 
1195/1781, edited and published by the author's grandson, 
Subhan ‘All b. Hasan ‘All Khan, with a dedication to Rajah 
Isarl Parshad Narayan (acc. 1835) : Bankipur vii 608. 

1 Tho Akbar-namah places this event in 972/1565. 

2 Raushan ‘All translated Baha’ al-DIn al-'Amill’s Khulasat al-h'mb into 
Persian and wrote some grammatical works ( QawaHd ijarisi etc.). 



700 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

922. Nawwab Amin al-DauIali ‘Aziz al-Muik ‘All Ibrahim 
Khan “ Khalil ”■ 1 Nasir-Jang 2 3 belonged to Patna.li. He is 
described in the Siyar al-muta' a khkh irm (Calcutta ed. ii 
p. 173°) as the grandson (mwah) 3 of Maulawi M. Nasir and 
the son of a sister ( hamsjurah-zadah ) of Za’ir Husain Khan [who 
is himself described on the same page as the so n (hkdqf) of 
Maulawi M. Nasir]. His father’s name is not mentioned in the 
Siyar al-muta’ dkhikh inn nor apparently in the prefaces to ‘All 
Ibrahim Khan’s own works. 

He was a close friend and trusted adviser of Mir Qasim Khan, 
who on becoming Nawwdb-Ndzim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa 
in 1760 appointed him to examine the military accounts, and 
subsequently employed him to execute various important 
commissions. When Mir Qasim Khan after his defeats in 1763 
sought refuge with Shuja‘ al-Daulah, the Nawwab-Wazir of 
Oudh, ‘All Ibrahim Khan accompanied him but did not go 
with him on his further flight to Rohilkhand. 

On M. Rida Khan’s 4 recommendation he was appointed 
Dlwdn by Mubarak al-Daulah, who became Nazim of Bengal 
in 1183/1770. M. Rida Khan dismissed him in 1191/1777, and 
he lived in seclusion for a time. It was apparently in 1781 5 

1 According to Sprengor “ Yiisof ’alyy and Shorish mention him under 
Khalyl and ’ishqy under Hal ”. The second takhattus mentioned by Sprenger 
is presumably a corruption of the former. 

2 Sprengor writes Na^ir-jang, but ‘Abd al-Muqtadir (Banklpur viii p. 137) 
Nasir Jang. 

3 According to Sprengor “ his mother’s grandfather was the learned Molla 
Mohammad Na§yr If the facts' given in the Siyar al-muta' a khkh inn are 
correct, “ mother’s grandfather ” should be emended to “maternal grand- 
father 

4 Of. V. A. Smith Oxford history of India, p. 503 : “ Clive insisted on keeping 
up the fiction of the ‘double government ’ and conducting the administra- 
tion in the name of the Nawab, whose authority was vested in two Naibs or 
.Deputies, Muhammad Raza Khan for Bengal, and a Hindu, Maharaja Shitab 
Ilfii, for Bihar.” : 

5 See the Benares Gazetteer (1909) p. 204 : “ On the 28th of September 
Hastings returned to Benares and there formally installed as successor to 
Chet Singh the young Raja Mahip Narayan Singh, the son .of Balwant Singh’s 
daughter. At the same time the revenue of the province was raised to forty 
lakhs, while an independent magistrate was appointed for the city of Benares, 
the first to hold this post being Ali Ibrahim Khan.” 



701 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (w) BENARES 

that he was appointed Chief Magistrate 1 at Benares, and it 
was there that he died in 1208/1793-4. 

His friend and fellow- 4 * Azlmabadl, Ghulam-Husain Khan 
Tabataba’I, often mentions him in the Siyar al-muta' aBikh irm. 

In addition to the account of Chait Sing’ll’ s rebellion he wrote 
a history of the Marat’ha wars (completed at Benares in 1201/ 
1786-7. See p. 761 infra) and three tadhki/mhs, the Gulzdr i 
Ibrahim (Urdu poets, completed in 1198/1784. See Rieu i 375 6, 
iii 1069a, Banklpur viii 707, Bodleian 389), the Khuldsat al- 
haldm (writers of mathnawis, completed in the same year. See 
Lindesiana p. 177, Bodleian 390, Banklpur viii 704-5, 706) and 
the Suhuf i Ibrahim (about 3,278 ancient and modern poets, 
completed at Benares in 1205/1790. See Berlin 663, Banklpur 
viii 708). 

(1) Gulzar i Ibrahim (?), 2 * an account of the rebellion of 
Rajah Chait Sing’ll of Benares in 1195/1781 : Rieu iii 10336 
(circ. a.d. 1850). '-A :/ UiU A :a ; A;A . : if iKf }:■■:■ iffff. 

(2) “a declaration by ‘Ali Ibrahim Khan, respecting the 
manner in which he had acquitted himself as governor of Benares, 
his maintenance of public order, his suppression of various 
abuses, and his impartial administration of justice,” accom- 
panied by numerous testimonials with signatures and seals, 
a.h. 1198/1784 being the latest date on a seal affixed: Rieu 
Suppt. 405 (a paper roll undated). 

[A few autobiographical statements in the prefaces to his 
works ; Siyar al-mutaA kliMii nn , Calcutta ed. ii p. 172 9 ei passim ; 
A translation of the Seif midaqhenn [by Nota manus — Hajjl 
Mustafa = Raymond] reprint, Calcutta 1926, vol. iii pp. 83 n., 
et passim (see the index under Aaly-Hibrahim-Qhan) ; Tadhkirah 
i Yusuf ‘Ali Khan (cf. Sprenger p. 194) ; Tadhkirah i Shorish ; 
Tadhkirah i ‘Ishqi ; Sprenger pp. 180, 194; Beale Oriental 

1 According fco Buckland he was “ ‘ Daroga ’ [-sic] of the Court at Benares, 

that is, President of the tribunal there ”. 

: 2 This title occurs in the subscription. Its correctness is doubtful, since it 

is the title of a tadhkirah of Urdu poets completed by ‘All Ibrahim Klian in 

1108/1784. 



702 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

biographical dictionary p. 57 ; Buckland Dictionary of Indian 
biography p. 10.] 

923. Maulawl Khair al-Din Muhammad Ilahabadi died 
about 1827 (see pp. 520-2 supra). His Tuhfah itdzah was written 
at the request of Abraham Welland, Judge at Jaunpur. 

Tuhfah i tazah 5 or (Balwand-ndmah), a history of the 
Zammdars of Benares from the time of Rajah Mansa Ram to 
the deposition of Rajah Chait Sing’ll in 1195/1781 (chapters iv 
and v which the author intended to devote to Mahlpat Narayan 
and Udlt Narayan Sing’h having apparently never been written) ; 
Ivanow 201 (a.h. 1253/1837), Eieu iii 964b (circ. a.d. 1850), 
965a (a.d. 1844), Bankipur vii 607 (19th cent.), Ethd 483, 2842 
(fragment of Bab iii), I.O. 3894 (a.d. 1892), 3911 (a.d. 1879). 

English translation : The Bulwuntnamah translated from the 
Tuhfa-i-Taza of Fakir Khair-ud-din-Khan, by R. Curwcn, 
Allahabad 1875 (see Heifer’s Catalogue no. 94 (1912), item 1090). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (x) GHAZlPUR 

924. Of unknown authorship is 

(Tdrikh i Ghazlpur) s a short history of Ghazlpur devoted 
mainly to biographies of some celebrities buried there or con- 
nected therewith : 1.0. 4084 (a.d. 1878 or 1879 '?). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (y) GORAK’HPUR 

925. Of unknown authorship is 

Tdrikh i Mu 1 azzamabad mkrufbah Gorakhpur y a short 
(28 pp.) history of Gorakhpur from the beginning of the 11th 
century to 1797: Edition: [Lucknow,] 1872°. 

926. Mufti Ghulam-Hadrat was at one time Mufti and Sadr 
Amin at Gorak'hpur. 1 

1 Possibly identical with Mufti Ghuiam-Hadrat Lak’JmawI, Mufli % ‘adalat 
i baldah i Lak'h/ia'u, who died in 1234/1818-19 (see Rahman ‘AH 154). 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (z) A £ ZAMGARH 


703 


KawaHf i diV i Gorak’hpur, a short history of Gorak’hpur 
to the time of its cession to the East India Company by the 
Nawwab-Wazir of Oudh : 1.0. 4540 (probably transcribed in 
1810, the date on the title-page of the English translation), 
‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 954/12 (Tankh i Gorak’hpur). 

MS. English translation : History of Goruckpoor, 1.0. 4540 
(bound up with the Persian text). 

M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (z) A £ ZAMGARH 

927. Gird’hari, a clerk ( mulmrir ) in the office of the Qmvun- 
goydn, wrote in 1216/1801 

Intizam i raj i A‘zamgarh s a history of the Rajahs of 
A £ zamgarh from the time of Abhiman and Sagar (in the time of 
Akbar and Jahangir) to the end of the raj on the death of the 
Rajah M. A £ zam Khan in 1771 : Edinburgh 237 (a.h. 1289/1872). 

928. S. Amir ‘Ali Ridawi was alive in 1289/1872. 

Sargudhasht i rajahd i A'zamgarh , a history of 
A £ zamgarh from the time of Abhiman Sing’h to the transfer of 
the district to the British in 1801 by Sa £ adat- £ AlI Khan of Oudh : 
Edinburgh 238 (a.h. 1289/1872, autograph). 

Urdu translation by the author himself : Edinburgh 377. 

929. Of unknown authorship is 

( Tankh i A‘ zamgadh), a history of A £ zamgarh from the 
time of Abhiman Ray to 1887 (beginning : Hamd i gilndgun 
Parwardgdn rd sazad ) : 1.0. 4038 (probably a.d. 1907). 

M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (aa) OUDH (AWAD’H *) 

930. A friend of Burhan al-Mulk Sahidat Khan, Governor of 
Oudh, wrote 

An account of Burhan al-Mulk's part in the military 
operations against Nadir Shah. 

1 Not Awadh, as in the Encyclopaedia of Islam and elsewhere. To turn the 
time-honoured English corruption Oudh into Oudh is still more absurd. 


704 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

English translation [from a MB. in the possession of the 
translator] : Memoirs of Delhi and Faizdbdd, being a translation 
of the “ Tdrikli FaraJibahJish ” of Muhammad Faiz Bakhsh . . . 
by W. Hoey, vol. i, appendix (14 pp.). 

931. Maulawl Khair al-Din Muhammad Ilahabadi died 
about 1827 (see pp. 520-2 supra). 

“ A circumstantial account of the affairs of Oude 
from the death of Shujaf ud-Daulah a.h. 1188 to the assassina- 
tion of Mukhtar ud-I)aulah, on the 27th of Safar, a.h. 1189, 
and the subsequent defeat and capture of Mahbub ‘All Khan ” : 
Rieu iii 948a (circ. a.d. 1850). 

932. Munshi In ‘am ‘All b. M. Khwurram Shah Munshi was for 
ten years in the service of Safdar-Jang (1739-1750) and for 
twelve years in that of Shuja c al-Daulah. (1750-1775). He then 
rethed to Bijnaur, his native place. 

Ausaf al-Asaf j in five nushhahs ((i) historical, (ii) letters, 
(ifi) anecdotes, (iv) ghazals and qiVahs, (v) Rekhtali poems), the 
first being divided into five ruhis ((i) Sa‘adat Khan, (ii) Bafdar- 
Jang, (iii) Shuja‘ al-Daulah, (iv) Asaf al-Daulah (d. 1212/1797) 
to 1198/1783, (v) Wazlr ‘All Khan, who succeeded in 1212/1797 
blit was deposed after a few months, this last ruhn being an 
addition to the original draft, which was written in. 1199/ 
1784-5) : Rieu iii 9 605 (Nushhah i only, copied from an auto- 
graph. Circ. 1850). 

933. It was presumably in the time of Asaf al-Daulah that 
“ Mauzun ” wrote his 

Asaf-namah s a mathmwi on the campaign of Asaf al-Daulah 
against Ghulam-Muhammad Khan, of Rampfir : Buhar 421 
(19th cent.), possibly also I.O. 4050. 

934. Abu Talib I?!aMni (for whom see p. 144-6 supra ) 
was born at Lucknow r in 1160/1752-3. He held various appoint- 
ments under the Government of Oudh and the E.I.Co.’s agents 
there, and died at Lucknow in 1220/1805-6. It was in 1211/ 
1796-7 at Calcutta that Captain Richardson asked him to write 



m. history OP INDIA : (aa) oudh (awad’h) 705 

a history of the time of Asaf al-Daulah (1775-97). He accordingly 
wrote his 

Tafdlh al-ghafilm , of which no MSS. seem to be mentioned 
in library catalogues. 

English translation [from a MS. in the translator’s possession] : 
History of Asafu’d Daulah, . . . being a translation of “ Tafzihu’l 
gkdfilm ,” . . . compiled by Abu Tdlib . . . and translated . . . by 
W. Hoey, Allahabad 1885*. 

935. Agha M. £ Ali Bihbahani wrote 

Tarikh i Wazir £ Ali s presumably a history of Wazlr ‘All 
Khan, who became Nawwab of Oudh on Asaf al-Daulah’s death 
in September 1797 but was deposed by Sir John Shore in January 
1798 : no MSS. recorded. 

Abridgment : Khulasah i Tarikh i Wazir ‘ Ali : Lahore 
Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii no. 4 
(August 1926) p. 60). 

936. An anonymous author completed on 6 Dh u ’I-Hijjah 
1215/1800 his ; 

Iqbal-namah 3 a metrical account of the accession of Wazir 
‘All Khan and his dethronement by Sir John Shore : Buhar 
423 (a.h. 1316/1898-9). 

937. For the Ma'din al-sa'adat of S. Sultan ‘All Husain! 
Safawl Ardablll, a history of the Indian Timurids and of the 
Nawwabs of Oudh dedicated to Sa‘adat ‘All Khan and brought 
down to his seventh year, a,h. 1218/1803-4, see p. 520 supra, 

938. S. Ghulam- £ Ali Khan Naqawi b. S. M. Akmal Khan, 
born at Rai Bareilly, was taken in his eighth year to Delhi, 
where his father was physician to Shah- ‘Alain and tutor to Prince 
M. Akbar. In 1202/1788, when Delhi fell into the power of the 
Rohillah Ghulam-Qadir Khan, Ghulam-‘Ali, who was still a 
student, and his father fled to Lucknow and the Deccan re- 
spectively. In 1213/1798-9 he joined his father in the Deccan 
and wandered about South India with him for seven years. 
After his father’s death he returned to Oudh, and in 1222/1807 


706 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

he entered the service of Colonel John Baillie (‘Imad al-Daulah 
Afdal al-Mulk J. B. Bahadur Arslan-Jang), the British Resident 
at Lucknow. In the printer’s colophon to the 1864 edition of 
the ‘Imad al-sa‘adat he is described as John Baillie’s Mir MunsM. 

For his Nigar-namah i Hind, an account of the Battle of 
Panipat (1174/1761) written after the ‘Imad al-sa ( ddat and 
likewise for John Baillie, see p. 399 supra. 

‘ Imad al-sdadat 3 a history of Burhan al-Mulk Sa'adat Khan 
and his successors to 1216/1801, in the time of Sa'adat-‘AH 
Khan (1798-1814), with an account of the British Residents 
to 1223, completed in Sha'ban 1223/1808: Rieu i 308a (a.h. 
1227/1812), iii 961a (19th cent.), 10306 (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1844), 10526 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Asafiyah 
i p. 248 no. 458 (a.h. 1239/1823-4), Lindesiana p. 144 no. 437 
(a.h. 1261/1845), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (a.h. 1266/1849-50. 
See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii no. 4 (August 1926) p. 59), 
‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 955 (4) (a.d. 1892), Banklpur vii 
604, Berlin 506, I.O. D.P. 616, Ivanow 193, R.A.S. P. 91 = 
Morley 89. 

Editions: [Lucknow,] 1864°*, 1897°. 

Description : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 
394-5. 

[‘Imad al-sa‘adat, preface ; Rieu i 308a ; Banklpur vii 604.] 

939. M. Faid-Bakhsh b. Ghulam-Sarwar left his birthplace 
Kakorl in Safar 1183/1769, when still a boy, for Faiclabad 
(Fyzabad), the seat of Shuja c al-Daulah ’s government. Some 
years later he became Tahwildar of the Treasury under the 
eunuch Jawahir e Ali Khan, the Nazir (d. 1214/1799), and held 
the same appointment under his successor Darab ‘All Khan. 

(1) Farah-ba khsh (called in some copies Bahr al-ifadat), 
a history of Fyzabad from 1179/1765-6 to 1233/1817-18, 
the date of composition, preceded by an account of the 
Indian Timurids to the downfall of the Saiyids : Rieu i 
3096 (a.h. 1247/1832), 3106 (1st pt. (i.e, the Timurids) only. 
a.d. 1865), iii 1026a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (aa) OUDH (AWAD’h) 


707 


English, translation : Memoirs of Delhi and Faizdbdd, being 
a translation of the “ Tarikh Farahbakhsh ” . . . by W. Hoey. 
2 vols. Allahabad 1888-9°*. 

Abridgment: Hash al-irshad dar bayaniahwal i Faidahady 
by S. Mahdl ‘Ail “ Imam! ” : Rieu i 3106 (a.h. 1240/18*25). 

(2) Autobiography with numerous biographical notes on his 
relations, friends etc., who belonged to different zamindar 
families of Lucknow, Eaidabad etc., with many references to 
contemporary political events, written, at least partly, in 1230/ 
1815 : Ivanow Curzon 87 (rather bad condition). 

940. Qadi M. Sadia Khan “ Akhtar ” Huglawi, one of the 
qudi-zddagdn of Hugh, near Calcutta, lived at Lucknow in the 
time of Ghazi al-Dln Haidar and received the title of Malik al- 
shu'ara . According to the Sham* i anjuman he died at Lucknow 
after the Mutiny. According to the Riydd al-afkar (as sum- 
marised by ! Abd al-Muqtadir) ‘‘ he lived for some time at 
Lucknow and the Deccan ” . Of his works Sprenger mentions 
(1) Sardpd suz, an Urdu mathnawi composed in 1231/1816 and 
lithographed at Lucknow, (2) Subh i sddiq, an autobiography in 
ornate Persian, (3) Mahamid i Haidari, (4) a tadhkirah of Persian 
poets, 1 “ which is said to be very valuable,” and (5) an inshai 
entitled Haft akhtar- Sprenger says that the first three had been 
printed but not the last two. The Sham ‘ i anjuman mentions 
(1) Subh i sddiq, (2) Nur al-inshd ’, (3) Mahamid i Haidariyah, 
(4) Nuqud al-hikam, and (5) diwdn i farisi u Urdu-yi rekhtah. 
In the Riydd al-afkar only no. (3) and another work Hadiqat 
al-irshad (on inshdj 2 are mentioned. For his MaJchzan al- 
jawdhir see p. 151 supra. The Mahamid i Haidariyah (Edition : 
Lucknow 1238/1823*), a panegyric in prose and verse (by M. 
Sadiq himself, not by various authors) on Ghazi al -Din Haidar, 
contains nothing of historical interest, 

Guldastah i mahabbat , an account, in prose and verse, 
of the meeting of Lord Hastings and Gh azi ai-Din Haidar, 

1 Aflab i ‘alam-tab (see Oriental College Magazine in no. 2 (Feb. 1927) p. 54). 

s For a MS. see Banklpur ix no. 887. 



708 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


Edition.: Lucknow 1239/1823-4 (see Sprenger p. v). 

[Riyad al-afkar (see Banklpur Suppt. i p. 49) ; Sprenger p. 599 ; 
Sham ( i anjuman pp. 63-4 ; Banklpur ix p. 123.] 

941. It was at tlie request of Lieut. John Doeswell Shakes- 
peare, Second Assistant to Colonel [afterwards Sir] John Low, 
Resident at Lucknow 1831-42, that ‘Ahd al-Ahad Tb. Maulawi 
M. Fa’iq, who had been twelve years in the E.I.Co.’s service, 
composed in 1253/1837-8 his 

WaqaH c i dil-padhtr , a history of Padshah Begam, wife 
of Ghazi al-I)m Haidar (Shah-Zaman, who reigned a.h. 1229/ 
1814-1244/1827), to the year 1253/1837-8, when she tried to 
place upon the throne Munna J an, a pretended son of her husband’s 
successor : Rieu iii 9616 (a.h. 1266/1849), Ivanow Curzon 46 
(a.h. 1279/1862), A§afiyah iii p. 112 no. 1273. 


942. It was for Ghazi al-Dln Haidar (1814-27) that M. Salih 
wrote his 


Baht al-sa'adat, a history of Oudh described by Sprenger 
as a revised edition of the ‘Imdci al-sa'ddal ; Rieu iii 10536 


(extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850). 


943. To the reign of Ghazi al-Dln Haidar (1814-27) pre- 
sumably belongs 

Ruz-riamchah i darbar i Abu H-Muzaffar Ghazi al- 
Din Haidar Badshah i Awad’h : A§afiyah i p. 240 no. 702. 


944. M. Muhtasham Khan -was the son of Nawwab Mahabbat 
Khan “ Mahabbat ”, who wrote works in Persian, Urdu and 
Pushtu (see Blumhardt Gat. of Hindustani MSS. no. 161, Garcin 
de Tassy ii 349, Ethe 2452, etc.), and the grandson of the 
celebrated Rohillah chieftain, Hafi z Rah mat Khan (for whom see 
pp. 396-7 supra). 

Tdrikh i Muhtasham , a history of the Oudh dynasty to the 



709 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (dd) OUDH (AWAD’h) 

death of Nasir al-Dln Haidar in 1253/1837, the date of composi- 
tion 1 2 : Bankipur vii 605 (a.h. 1217/1802-3 ! ! In this copy the 
account of Nasir al-Dln Haidar’s predecessors occupies more 
than half of the work and fills 173 leaves or thereabouts), I.O. 
4090 (contains the reign of Nasir al-Dln Haidar and little more, 
the account of his predecessors being reduced to a sketch of 
about 17 leaves, a.d. 1839). 

945. Apparently of unknown authorship is the 

Tarikh i Shahiyah i Nishapuriyah / a history of Oudh 
from the time of Sa'adat Khan [not Sa‘adat-‘AlI Khan] to 1254/ 
1838 in the reign of M. ‘All Shah : Rampur (see Nadhir Ahmad 60). 

946. Nakhr al-Daulali Dablr al-Mulk Rajah Ratan Sing’h 
“ Zakhmi ” b. Ray Balak Ram, a Saksenah Kayast’h, whose 
grandfather was Biwan and AtaMq to Asaf al-Daulah and after- 
wards Nazim of Bareli, was bom at Lucknow a.h. 1197/1782-3, 
went to Calcutta in 1218/1803-4 and served the E.I.Co. for 
some years. In 1230/181A-15 he returned to Lucknow and 
eventually became Minister of ^Finance. He died in 1851. 3 He 
wrote a tadhkirah entitled Anis al-‘ashiqin, a philosophical 
treatise called Jam i giti-numa (see Rieu iii 1096) and a diwdn 
(lith. Lucknow 1253/1837-8. See Sprenger 570). 

Sultan al-tawaf ikh , a detailed history of the Oudh dynasty 
to the death of M. ‘All Shah in 1258/1842 : Rieu iii 962 
(a.h. 1265/1849), I.O. 3961 (a.d. 1878). 

1 Tlie preface contains a statement that the work is divided into two 
tabaqahs. If the subscription of the Bankipur copy is correct, the first tabaqah 
ends with the death of Na§ir al-Dln Haidar, that is to say, with the conclusion 
of the work as preserved in the only two copies at present recorded in published 
catalogues. The I.O. MS. seems to contain no indication of the beginning or 
end of any tabaqah. It is not clear what the second tabaqah could contain 
(unless perhaps an autobiography), if, as stated in the preface, the work was 
completed in 1253, and if, as implied by the Bankipur subscription, the first 
tabaqah ended with an event of that year. 

2 The kings of Oudh were of Nishapuri descent. 

3 The British Museum manuscript of the Sultan al-tawarikh was presented 
to Sir H. M. Elliot by the author “ about the time of his death, 1851 ”. Accord- 
ing to Sprenger he died in 1850 or 1851. 



710 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

[Sultan al-taivdnkh {B.M. MS.) foil. 248-51 ; Beale Oriental 
Biographical Dictionary p. 332 ; Sprenger 570 ; Eieu iii 962.] 

947. 'S. Kama! al-Din Haidar, as lie is usually called, or S. 
Kama! al-Din Husaini Haidari, as lie calls himself in a versified 
chronogram at the beginning of his history, or S. Kamal al-Din 
Haidar Hasani al-Husainl al-Mashhadi Tun [s/c ; read TusI ?] 
Tabasi al-ma‘ruf bah S. Muhammad Mir Sahib Za’ir, as he is 
called on the title-page of the Urdu translation, says in that work 
that he became translator to the Lucknow Observatory in the reign 
of Nasir al-Daulah M. £ Ali Shah (a.h. 1253/1837-1258/1842), and 
that he had translated nineteen scientific works, most of which 
had been printed. Garcin de Tassy mentions a Risdlah i magndtis 
[Delhi 1850* according to Blumhardt], a Risdlah i dldt i riyadi 
and a translation of Raley’s Natural theology . The last, entitled 
Ma‘rifat i tahVi (Garcin gives a different title), was published, 
according to Blumhardt, at Delhi in 1848* (Garcin says Lucknow 

1848) . Another work with which he was associated was The 
Lucknow Almanac for the year 1849. Translated into Persian by 
Syud Kumalooddeen and assistants . . . (Taqumn i sultani), 
Lucknow 1849° (see Edwards under Ephemerides). Sprenger 
tells us that “ In 1849, 1 Kamal aldyn Haydar, Munshiy to the 
observatory, wishing to ingratiate himself at court, wrote a 
history of the Royal family of Oudh. Two passages happened 
to displease His Majesty, and instantly the observatory was 
abolished and printing was forbidden at Lucknow, lest this 
objectionable production might be published 

(Tdrikh i Awad’h), a history of the Oudh dynasty to the 
accession of Wajid ‘All Shah in 1263/1847 : Eieu iii 9626 (a.d 

1849) , 963a (a.d. 1848) [These MSS. contain at the end (1) a 
metrical narrative by “ Ahmad ” 2 of an attempt on the life of 
the Wazir Amin al-Daulah, (2) a circumstantial account of 
affairs in Oudh at the beginning of Wajid ‘All’s reign, to June 
1849 in the 1st MS., to Oct. 1848 in the 2nd, (3) a history of the 

1 One of the B.M. MSS. is dated 1848. 

2 i.e. presumably Mir ‘All b. Mir Najaf ‘AH (see Piiran ChanxTs Ijaz al-siyar, 
MS. 1,0. 3888 fob 2246 marg.). iy /A. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (aa) OUDH (AWAD’h) 711 

Observatory], Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 931 (enlarged version, extend- 
ing to a.d. 1858. Defective and damaged. Autograph ?). 

Edition : There seems to be no trustworthy evidence that the 
Persian text has been published. Rieu probably had the Urdu 
translation in mind when he said that the work had been pub- 
lished under the title of Sawanihat i Salatm i Aivad'h at Lucknow 
in 1879. 

Urdu translation : TawanJch i Aivad’h, Lucknow 1879 °* (in 
2 vols. with separate title-pages, vol. i called Sawanihat i Salatm 
i Awad’h and extending from Sa‘adat Khan to Amjad ‘All Shah, 
vol. ii called Qaisar al-tawcmkh and extending from the accession 
of Wajid ‘All Shah to the suppression of the Indian Mutiny). 

[Autobiographical statements in the Tarikh i Awad’h (see 
Rieu iii 9626) ; Sprenger p. vi ; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 548-9.] 

948. Puran Chand was probably employed in the Diwdn 
i Wizdrat at Lucknow, since he says that on 5 Safar 1268 he was 
present there as usual {hash i dastur) and was conversing with 
Mushir al-Daulah (Ijaz al-siyar fol. 15a). On a certain occasion 
he accompanied Ray Pratap Narayan (fol. 288a) and on another 
he was sitting in the court of Ahmad Khan Bangash at Farrukh- 
abad (fol. 290a). In the preface to the Ijaz al-siyar he gives a 
list of 18 works which he had written or edited. The Ijaz al- 
siyar is there described as an abridgment of the Sultan al-siyar, 
which he hoped shortly to complete. 

Ijaz al-siyar 3 a history of Oudh written in 1267 /1850-1 (but, 
as already stated* the date 1268 is mentioned) for Wajid ‘All 
Shah : I.O. 3886 (probably a.d. 1850-1 or soon after, perhaps 
autograph). 

949. Lal-ji, son of Munshi Sital Parshad, son of Munshi 
Shiv Kumar, a resident ( mutawattin ) of Karra, wrote his Sultan 
al-hikaydt in Muharram 1270/1853. 

Sultan al-hikaydt^ a concise history of Oudh from the time 
of Burhan al-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan to that of Wajid ‘All Shah : 
I.O. 3902 (a.d. 1893). 



712 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


950. Nawwab Amir ‘All Khan has already been mentioned 
(p. 648 supra) as the author of the Amir-ndmah and the Bering- 
ndmah. 

Waztr-namak, begun apparently in 1288/1871-2, completed 
in 1292/1875, and divided into four bobs ((i) a short account of the 
Qara-Yusufi dynasty of Oudh to the end of Wajid ‘All’s reign, 
(ii) the mission of the Queen-Mother to England to appeal 
against the annexation of Oudh, (iii) Wajid ‘Airs residence at 
Garden Reach, Calcutta, and the author’s services to him, 
(iv) works or extracts from works in prose and verse by Wajid 
‘All Shah, poems by the author and others). 

Edition : Cawnpore 1293/1876*. 

951. Kunwar Burga-Parshad “ Mihr ” Sandili has already 
been mentioned (p. 491 supra) as the author of the Gulistan i 
Mind. 

Bustdn i Awad'h, a history of Oudh in six daftars ((i) Hindu 
kings, (ii) Wazlrs of the Delhi Emperors, (iii) Kings of Oudh, 
(iv) the period of the Mutiny, (v) the author’s ancestors, (vi) on 
Sandllah and its notables, Wajid ‘All’s death etc. 

Edition : Lucknow 1892°*. 

952. Mir Saiyid Muhammad “Sha'ir” b. S. ‘Abd al-Jalll 1 
Husaini Wasiti Bilgram! was born at Bilgram in 1101/1689. 
When his father retired in 1130/1717-18 from the offices of 
Ba JcJisM and Waqd’tf-nawis in the sarkdrs of Bhakkar and Siwis- 
tan, S. Muhammad was appointed to these offices by Earrukh- 
siyar and he held them through the period of Nadir Shah’s 
invasion. In 1155/1732 he left Siwistan and returned to Bilgram, 
where he died on 8 Sha'ban 1185/12 November 1772. 

He wrote poetry in Persian, Arabic and Urdu, made an 
abridgment of the Muslatraf under the title al-Juz ’ al-ashraf 

1 A detailed biography of S'. ‘Abd al-Jalll Bilgriinu in Urdu was published 
at Allahabad in 1929 by S. Maqbul Ahmad Samdani under the title of liayat i 
Jalil , See also Mahathir al-Hrdm, Subhat al-nutrjan pp. 79-85, Rahman ‘All 
108-9, Sham 1 i anjuman p. 313. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA ! (aa) OUDH (AWAD’h) 713 

min al-Mustatmf, and compiled a small collection of his father’s 
letters. He was the maternal uncle of Ghulam-'AlI “ Azad ” 
Bilgraml. 

Tabsirat aTnazirin, composed a.h. 1182/1768 and divided 
into a muqadditnah (on seven Bilgraml Saiyids anterior to 
a.h. 1100/1688-9), a maqdlah (chronologically arranged informa- 
tion concerning events which occurred from a.h. 1101/1689-90, 
the date of the author’s birth, to a.h. 1182/1768-9 in the lives 
of Bilgraml Saiyids and others, especially their births, marriages 
and deaths, and in the contemporary history of India) and a 
Jchdtimah (on solar eclipses, chronograms etc.) : Rieu iii 9636 
(a.d. 1852), Ivanow 190 (a.h. 1290/1873), Bankipur vii 606 
(A.d. 1875), Asafiyah iii p. 98 nos. 1422, 1494, I.O. 3912 
(a.d. 1882). 

[Saflnah i Khwushgu (Bankipilr viii p. Ill) ; Maiathir al- 
kiram; Tabsirat al-nazinn; Sabhat al-marjdn 87-9 ; Sham* i 
xmjuman p. 234; Rahman ‘All 83 ; Hayat i Jalil (in Urdu) 
by S. Maqbul Ahmad Samdanl, Allahabad 1929, pp. 159-63.] 

953. Saiyid ‘Abid Husain, a resident of Sahasram, was a 
pleader (wakil) in the Civil Court of Mirzapur. 

Tarikh i Jed is (chronogram = 1285 Basil = a.h. 1295/1878), 
a short (23 pp.) history of the village of Ja’is (once in the Sharqi 
kingdom of Jaunpur, later in the Manikpur sarkdr of the subah 
of Ilahabad, now in the Ray Bareli district of Oudh), with 
accounts of some of its famous men, based mainly on the Mazhar 
al-ajd’ib of S. Husain £ Ali. 

Edition : Allahabad 1295/187 8*. 

954. Other works : 

(1) Ahwal i Nawwab Burhan al-Mulk wa-ghairah : Eth6 
527 (14)* (foil. 1246-135a). 

(2) Burhan i Awad% by Maulawi S. Ibn i Hasan: 
‘Aligarh Subh. MSS. p. 58 no. 954 (14). 



714 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (bb) BENGAL AND ORISSA 

955. 'Ala’ al-Dln “ Ghaibi ” Isfahan! called Mirza Nat’han 1 
and created Shitab Khan by Jahangir was of Persian descent 
but was born in India. His father Malik ‘All entitled Ihtimam 
Khan was sent to Bengal by Jahangir as Mir-Bahr ( : ' chief 
of artillery and flotilla (nmvwara) ” according to Sarkar). 
Mirza Nathan took a prominent part in military operations 
against the Ahoms and neighbouring peoples (for details see 
the index to S. N. Bhattacharyya’s History of Mughal North- 
East Frontier policy). 

Baharistan i Gh aibi* a history of Bengal and Orissa in 
Jahangir’s time divided into four hubs or daftars {(1) entitled 
Isldm-ndmah, on the governorship of Islam Khan Chishtl, 
(2) governorship of Q.asim Khan, (3) governorship of Ibrahim 
Khan Fath-Jang, (4) usurpation of Shah-Jahan for about a year 
(a.d. 1623)) subdivided into das tans : Blochet i 617 2 (auto- 
graph ace. to Sarkar). 

Descriptions: (1) A New History of Bengal in Jahangir's 
Time (with full table of contents). By Jadunath Sarkar (Journal 
of theBihar and Orissa Research Society , vol. vii (1921-2), pp. 1-8). 
(2) A history of Mughal North-East Frontier policy . . . By 
Svdhindra Nath Bhattacharyya, Calcutta 1929, pp. vii-ix, 406 
(this work contains much information from the Baharistan i 
Ghaibi). 

English translation : Bahdristan-i-Ghaybi. A history of the 
Mughal wars in Assam, Gooch Behar , Bengal, Bihar and Orissa 
during the reigns of Jahangir and Shahjahdn, by Mirza Nathan. 
Translated . . . by M. /. Borah. Gauhati (see Luzac’s Oriental 
List, vol. xlviii/2 (April- June 1937) p. 81). 

956. M. Wafa ‘Azimabadi was a panegyrist of Mahabat-Jang. 

Waqaf? i Mahabat-Jang 3 an account of Mahabat-Jang 

1 For this name see the remarks of 8. N. Bhattacharyya in his History of 
3Iughal North-East Frontier policy pp. vii-viii. 

3 There is a rotograph of this MS. in the possession of Dacca University 
Library. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA I ( bb ) BENGAL AND ORISSA 715 

beginning with the events which immediately preceded his 
accession to the Nizamat in 1153/1740 and extending to the year 
1161/1748, in chronogrammatic sentences, each indicating the 
date of the event narrated: Bankipur Suppt. i 1776 (a.d. 1870), 
apparently also Browne Suppt. 1365 {Waqd'V i bada’i ‘ i cihwdl 
i muharabat i Bangalah, by Shah Wifaq [sic, but with a query] 
‘Azimabadi, described as “ a rhymed chronicle of the wars in 
Bengal in 3 parts, each with a separate pagination, dealing 
respectively with the years 1156/1743-4, 1158/1745-6, and 1161/ 
1748 ”. a.d. 1826. Corpus 102 1 ) and probably also Lindesiana 
p. 232 no. 772 (“ History of Bengal ”, by Shah M. Wafa. Circ. 
a.d. 1830). 

957, Of unknown authorship is the 

c Ibrat i arbab i basar (a chronogram == 1170/1757), a history 
of Bengal from the fall of ‘Ala’ al-Daulah Sarfaraz Khan in 1 151 
(so Rieu, but 1151 /1739 is the date usually given for his accession 
and 1153/1740 for his death) to the death of Siraj al-Daulah in 
1170/1757, the whole consisting of a series of chronogrammatic 
sentences indicating the year 1170 : Rieu iii 965a (a.h. 1263/ 
1847), I.O. 3984 (a.d. 1893), probably also Browne Suppt. 852 
(“ A rhymed chronicle of the events of the year 1170/1756-7. 
Cf. B.M.P.C., p. 965. The author of this versified [sic] rendering 
appears to be called Balakmand.” 1 a.d. 1826. Corpus* 102 2 ), 
and Lindesiana p. 209 no. 772 b ( !: Rai Balkund ? Bengal History, 
a.h. 1150-80.” Circ. a.d. 1840). 

Edition: Benares 1824°*. 

958. Munshl Salim Allah was Munshl to Mir M. Ja £ far Khan 
(Nazim of Bengal 1170/1757-1174/1760 and 1177/1763-1178/ 
1765) and afterwards to Henry Vansittaxt (Governor of Bengal 
1760-4), by whose order he wrote his Tawdrtkk i Bangala. 

Tawankh (or Tankh ) i Bangala , , a history of the Nazims 
of Bengal, Ibrahim Khan, Ja‘far Khan, Sarfaraz Khan, Shuja c 
al-Daulah and ‘Ali-Wirdi Khan from the rebellion of Sobha 
Sing’h in 1107/1695-6 to 1169/1756 : Ette 478 (not later than 

1 Bal-MukuncI presumably. 



716 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

a.d. 1787), ii 3017 (n.d.), I.O. 3955 (18th cent.), Ivanow CJurzon 48 
(slightly defective, a.d. 1787), Aisafiyah iii p. 94 no. 1038 (before 
a.d. 1792), Rieu i 3126 (defective at end. 18th cent.), Berlin 
498, Edinburgh 231 (defective). 

English translation : A narrative of the transactions in Bengal , 
during the Soobahdaries of Azeem us Shan, J offer Khan, Shuja 
Khan, Sirafraz Khan and Alyvivdy Khan. Translated . . . by 
F. Gladwin, Calcutta 1788 °*J ' 

[Shigarf-ndmah i Wildyat, tr. Alexander, p. 3.] 

959. No. 618 in vol. i of his Catalogue des manuscrits persons 
de la Bibliotheque nationale is described by Blochet as 

Tehewour ndma. Histoire du Bengale sous le gouverne- 
ment de Mir Mohammed Djafer Tehewour. 

Blochet adds “ 1/ auteur de cette histoire ne se nomine pas et 
le titre n’est donne qu’aux folios 6 v°, 7 r° ; Tehewour fut 
gouverneur du Bengale sous le regne du sultan Mohammed 
Shah, vers 1144.” There seems to be some mistake here. Mu’ta- 
man al-Mulk ‘Ala’ al-Daulah Ja'far Khan Bahadur Asad-Jang, 
previously entitled Murshid-Quli Khan, who became Diwan 
of Bengal in Muhammad Shah’s reign and Subah-ddr in that of 
Farrukh-siyar and who died in 1138/1725-6 (see Mahathir al- 
umard 5 iii pp. 751-2), was the son of a Hindu and had no claim 
to the title Mir. If Blochet is right in prefixing the title Mir 
to M. Jafar's name, the person referred to in the Tahawwur- 
ndmah (if that is really its title) is doubtless the well-known Mir 
M. Ja‘far Khan, who was Nazim of Bengal from 1757 to 1759 
and again from 1763 to 1765. It may be surmised that the title 
Tahawwur-mmah is an allusion to Henry Vansittart, Governor 
of Bengal 1760-4, whose titles were Naslr al-Mulk Shams al- 
Daulah Tahaw r wur- Jang. 1 2 Unfortunately Blochet does not 
quote the opening words mf the MBS. and 

1 In the B.M, eatalogue this translation is entered under ul-Shan 

and in the I.O. catalogue under Narrative of the Events [sic], 

2 Neither the earlier nor the later Ja‘far Khan seems to have borne the 
title Tahawwur-Jang, 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (66) BENGAL AND ORISSA 717 


therefore it is not possible to tell from his catalogue whether the 
Tahmvwur-ndmah is identical with one of the histories described 
in other catalogues. 

Tahawwur-namah : Bloehet i 618 (a.h. 1187/1773). 

960. Yusuf ‘All Khan b. Ghulam-‘Ali Khan has already been 
mentioned (pp. 139-40 supra) as the author of the EaMqat ctl- 
mfa\ The authority for ascribing to him, the Tcinkh i Mahabat- 
Jang , in which the author's name is not mentioned, is the 
Rev. J. H. Hindley (see Rieu i 312a, ii 806a). 

(Tdrtkh i Mahabat-Jang) or (Tdrikh i ‘Alt- WirdiKhari), 
a history of ‘All-Wirdl Khan Mahabat-Jang. Nazim of Bengal 
(d. 1169/1756), and his successor Siraj al-Daulah (d. 1170/1757), 
completed at Allahabad in 1177/1763-4 : Rieu i 312a (defective. 
18th cent.), 312a (ending with Ram Narayan’s appointment as 
Nct’ib of Bihar, a.h. 1198/1788), 3126 (ending at the same point. 
18th cent.), iii 965a (ending shortly before the same point. 18th 
cent.), 1039a (extracts only. Giro. a.d. 1850), 10546 (extracts 
only. Circ. a.d. 1.850), Ivanow 205 (ending with Ram Narayan’s 
appointment. 19th cent.), 1.0. 4025 (transcribed (probably in 
1903) from Ivanow 205), Browne Suppt. 251 (n.d. King’s 111), 
Bodleian 279 (ending with Ram Narayan’s appointment), 
Edinburgh 232. 

English translation : Ferishta’s History of Bekhan . . . and 
the history of Bengal , from the accession of Aliverdee Khan to the 
year 1780 [translated as far as the death of : AlI-’WirdI Khan 
“from a Persian manuscript”, identifiable with the Tdrikh 
i Mahabat-Jang] ... By Jonathan Scott, Shrewsbury 1794°*, 
vol. ii pp. 313-58. 

961. “ Musafir,” an enthusiastic supporter of the British, 
was with the Marat’ha army at Benares and subsequently at 
Allahabad. 

Fath-namah, composed a.h. 1180/1766—7, 1 a mathnawi 
on the* British wars in Bengal from the first year of ‘Alamglr II 

i The author states that he had previously composed a similar account in 
Hindi. 



718 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

(a.d. 1754) to tlie peace with Shah-‘Alam and the grant of the 
diwdrii of Bengal to the E.I.Co. (a.d. 1765) : Rieu ii 717a (circ. 
a.h. 1180/1766-7). 

962. Karam-‘Ali, a member of the family of the Nazims of 
Bengal, who was in the service of Nawwah S. M. Rida Khan 
Muzaffar-Jang, wrote his Muzaffar-namah in 1186/1772-3. 

Muzaffar-namah ? a history of the Nazims of Bengal from 
the rise of Nawwab £ AlI-WirdI Khan (d. 1169/1756) to the arrest 
of Muzaffar-Jang in 1186/1772 : Rieu i 313a (a.h. 1188/1774), 
1.0. 4075 (18th cent.), Eth6 479 (n.d.), Bankipur vii 609 (19th 
cent.). 

963. Ghulam-Husain “ Salim ” Zaidpuri migrated from 
Zaidpur (near Barah Bank!, in Oudh) to Maldah in Bengal and 
became Dak Munsjfi or Postmaster, there under George Udny, 
at whose request he wrote the Riyad al-saldtjin. He died in 
1233/1817-18. 

Riyad al-saldtin (a chronogram = 1202/1787-8, the date of 
completion), a history of Bengal divided into a muqaddimah 
(on geography and the early rajahs) and four raudaks ((1) the 
viceroys of the Sultans of Delhi, (2) the independent kings, (3) the 
Nazims under the Tlmurids, (4) the British ) : Oxford Ind. Inst. 
MS. Pers. A iv 28 (not later than a.d. 1805), Ivanow 206 (a.h. 
1267/1851), 207 (a.d. 1870), Rieu iii 9656 (extracts only. Circ. 
a.d. 1850), Buhar 82 (a.d. 1874), Berlin 497. 

Edition: The Riydzu-s-saldtm . . . edited by Moulavi Abdul 
Hah Abid, Calcutta 1890-1 °* (Bibliotheca Imlica. No index). 

Translation : The Riyazu-s-saldtm . . . translated . . A with notes , 
by Maulavl Abdus Salmn, Calcutta 1902-4°* ( Bibliotheca Imlica. 
With index), 

I lain Ba kbsh KhwursMd i jahdn-numd (J.A.S.B. vol. lxiv 
(1895), pt. 1, pp. 196, 198, cf. Riyad al-saldtin, trans. p. 2, n. 4) ; 
Ency. Isl under Ghulam Husain.] 

964. An anonymous author completed on 9 Dliu 1-Hijjah 
1206/30 July 1792 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (t bb ) BENGAL AND ORISSA 719 

Akhbar al-sidq (beg. Hanul u sipds i bl-qiyas mar Ddwan- 
rd icih alikam al-hdkimm ast), a history of Bengal under British 
rule : Berlin 520. 

965. An eye-witness wrote 

An account of the death of Nawwab Muzaffar-Jang 
(i.e. M. Rida Ivhan) in 1206/1791-2 and the events which 
succeeded it : Berlin 13 (3). 

966. S. Nadhr-‘Ali b. S. Karzand i ‘All b. S. Hidayat Allah 
Ja’isi completed his Sawdnih i ghard’ib in 1213/1798-9. His 
father was in the service of Nawwab Sarfaraz Khan [Nazim 
of Bengal from 1151/1739 to 1153/1740], apparently as a military 
officer. In the Sawdnih i qhararib (fol. 12a) it is stated that Mir 
Farzand i ‘All obtained leave from Sarfaraz Khan and returned 
home [i.e. to Ja’is, a place which is praised in the preface] with 
his son [presumably S. Nadhr-‘Ali] after an absence of twenty 
years. 

Sawanih i ghard’ib , a short history of the Nawwabs of 
Bengal (and of contemporary events in the sitbahs of Allahabad 
and Oudh) from the time of M. Ja‘far Khan to the death of 
Shu]a‘ al-Daulah of Oudh [in 1188/1775]: I.O. 3977 (circ. 
a.d. 1892). 

967. Intizam al-Mulk Mumtaz al-Daulah Maha-rajah Kalyan 
Sing’h Bahadur Tahawwur- Jang b. Mumtaz al-Mulk Maha- 
rajah Shitab Ray Bahadur Mansur- Jang succeeded his father 1 
as Nd'ib-Ndzim of Bihar in 1187/1773. Unlike his father, of whom 
Captain Randfurlie Knox said “This is a real Nawab; I never 
saw such a Nawab in my life he was a man of no great ability 
and is described in the Siyar al-muta’ a khkh inn (ii 810 5 , 

1 For -whom see Auckland Dictionary of Indian biography p, 347, Siyar 
uJ- muta' dkhkh inn, Lucknow 1866, ii pp. 791-6 (Raymond’s trans., reprint 
Calcutta 1926, iii pp. 49-67, ending with some sentences absent from the 
published text of the Persian original), and many other passages (for which 
see the indexes to the [1902-3] and 1926 reprints of Raymond’s translation) ; 
V. A. Smith The Oxford history of India , 1920, pp. 503, 513, 514 : and almost 
all works dealing with the history of Bihar and Bengal at this period. 

2 Quoted by V. A. Smith, Oxford history of India, p. 514, from the Journal 
of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society iii 127. 


720 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Raymond's trans. reprint 1926, iii p. 109) as a mere cipher in the 
Council at ‘Azimabad. 

“ In the Fasli year 1188 (a.d. 1781), during the adminstration 
of Warren Hastings, Kalyan Singh was taxed thirty-four lakhs 
of rupees as the revenue of Bihar, which he had to pay out of 
his own private means, owing to a deficit caused by the revolt of 
Chait Singh, Rajah of Banaras, and certain obstinate landholders 
of Bihar. Thus ruined, he repaired to Calcutta in Fasli 1195, 1 
and lived there for twenty-four years, enjoying the warm favour 
of the English officials. In Fasli 1217 2 he fed ill, and after an 
illness of ten months, which ended in the loss of his eyesight, he 
left for Patna in Fasli 1218. 3 He found his beautiful houses and 
gardens there in a ruinous condition, and so took up his residence 
in the Patliri Carden, near Bankipur, which he took on hire. 
He bitterly complains of the unkind treatment he received at the 
hands of his fellow citizens. He was still suffering from various 
diseases, and had made up his mind to return to Calcutta, when 
he heard of Mr. Abraham Welland’s arrival. He paid a visit 
to Mr. Welland, who subsequently, through the author’s son, 
Maharajah Kunwar Daulat Singh Bahadur Dilir Jang, asked 
him to write a detailed account of Nawwab Mir Muhammad 
Qasim Khan. Nazim of Bengal. With this request he immediately 
complied ... He tells us that because of his blindness he could 
make no use of his memoranda, or of other historical sources, 
but had to depend on his own recollections ” (quoted from Abdul 
Muqtadir’s summary of the autobiographical part of the preface 
to the Khulasat al-tawankh). 

He wrote poetry both in Persian and Urdu, using the takhallw 
' “ ‘Ashiq ” (Sprenger p. 205, on the authority of the Tadhkirah i 
Shorish and “ Sarwar’s ” ‘Umdah i muntakh abaft). In 1211/1796 
he completed an unimportant compendium of geography entitled 
‘AjaHb al-bulddn (MS. ; Berlin 356). 

1 ie. a.d. 1789-90. Presumably this was on his deposition from the Niydhal, 
for which event a different, and apparently incorrect, date, a. u. 1198 = Fail! 
1193 [sic] is given below (p. 721, 1. 9). 

a i.e. a.d. 1810-11. 

3 i.e. a.d. 1811-12. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA I ( 66 ) BENGAL AND ORISSA 721 

(1) c Aja > ib al-waridat 3 memoirs of the author and his father, 
completed at Calcutta in 1205/1791 and divided into a muqad- 
dimah and four bobs : Berlin 523 (autograph ?). 

(2) Khuldsat al-tawdrikh 3 a history of the Indian Timurids 
to A. h. 1227/1812 (the date of completion) followed by (Bab 
ii, or Wdriddt i Qasimi, as it is called in some MSS.) a detailed 
account of events in Bengal and Bihar from Mir M. Qasim’s 
accession to the Nizamat in 1174/1760 to the time of the author’s 
deposition from the Niydbat of Bihar “ in a.h. 1198 = a.d. 1783 ” 
(so Abdul Muqtadir, while Rieu says “ the Fasli year 1193, 
a.h. 1198 55 x ), when he -was called to Calcutta : Rieu i 2836 
(Bab i only. Circ. a.h. 1227/1812), 3136 ( Bab ii only, with the 
title Wdriddt i Qasimi . ‘Azimabad, a.h. 1227/1812), iii 9256 
(Bdbs i— ii. Circ. a.d. 1850), Bankipur vii 594 (Bobs i— ii. a.d. 1906). 

English translation : Translation of Maharajah Kalyan 
Singh’s Khulasat-ut-Tawarilch by Sarfaraz Hussain Khan (in the 
Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, vol. v (1919), 
pp. 218-35, 344-63, vol. vi (1920), pp. 124-49, 302-17, 424-42. 

[Autobiographical statements in the preface to the Khuldsat 
al-tawariM, (summarised in Rieu i pp. 2836-284® and Bankipur 
vii pp. 110-11) ; Siyar al-muta* a khkh irin , Lucknow 1866, ii 
pp. 810 4-6, 14-21 (Raymond’s trans., 1926, iii pp. 109-11) ; Sprenger 
p. 205 ; Nizami Badayuni Qdmus al-mashdlnr (in Urdu) ii p. 155], 

968. S. ‘All b. Tufail c Ali Khan b. Mubariz al-Mulk Ihtisham 
al-Daulah Bilgrami dedicated his Tankh i Mansuri to the 
Nawwab Nazim Farldun-Jah S. Mansur ‘All Khan Bahadur 
Nusrat-Jang (Nawwab of Murshidabad from 1838 to 1881) 
sometime between 1264/1848 (a date mentioned in the work) 
and 1270/1854, the date of the R.A.S. MS. 

Tankh i Mansuri , a history of Bengal containing little 
that is new apart from “ some original matter obtained from the 
inhabitants of Murshidabad ” (Blochmann), the last chapters 
being devoted to the Nawwab Nazims, their children and 

1 The Fa§ll year 1193 corresponds to A.H. 1201-2, the Hijrl year 1198 to 
Fasli 1189-90. Presumably the correct date is Fasli 1195, which has been 
mentioned above as the year in which “ he repaired to Calcutta 


722 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

servants and tlieir buildings : R.A.S. P. 93a (a.h. 1270/1854), 
Ivanow 191 (a.d. 1867, copied from the preceding, much decayed), 
192 (recent copy of the decayed portions of 191). 

Description and extracts with translations : Notes on Sirdj- 
uddaulah and the town of Murshidabad, taken from a Persian 
Manuscript of the Tdrikh i Manguri . By H. Blochmann (J.A.S.B. 
vol. xxxvi, pt. 1 (1867-8), pp. 85-104). 

969. Dor extracts relating to Bengal from the Khwurshid i 
jahan-numa of S. Ilahl Bakhsh Husaini AngrezabadI see p. 152 
supra. 

970. Khan Bahadur Khundkar Fadl i Rabbi was born at 
Salar ( Parganah Fatehsing, District Murshidabad) on 13 August 
1848. His father, Maulawi ‘Ubaid al-Akbar, was Mir Munshi 
to the last Nawwdb-Ndzim of Bengal, Mansur ‘All Khan Farldun- 
Jah. Prom November 1869 to 1874 Fadl i Rabbi was in England 
as “ correspondence clerk and officer in charge of the house- 
hold ” to the Nawwab Nazim, who had gone there to represent 
his grievances to the House of Commons and who continued 
to live there until 1881. On his return to India in 1874 Fadl i 
Rabbi was made Amin i mahalldt ; (Manager of estates) by the 
Nawwab Nazim’s son, S. Hasan ‘All (who was created Nawwab 
Bahadur of Murshidabad in February 1882, the title of Nawwab 
Nazim of Bengal having become extinct in November 1880 
when Mansur ‘All Khan resigned the position). Subsequently 
he became Nd’ib-Diwdn and in 1881 Diwdn of Murshidabad. In 
1896 the title of Khan Bahadur was conferred on him. His 
name appears in the list of Honorary Magistrates at Murshidabad 
in Thacker's Indian Directory for 1916 (the last year in which 
such a list is given). 

An Urdu work of his, Tasdty al-nihad , an account of the 
Khondkars of Murshidabad, the old Muslim family to which 
he belonged, was published at Agrah in 1897 

Haqiqat i Musalman i Bangalah (in Persian 1 or in Urdu ?) : 
no copies traced. 

1 It is included here as a Persian work on the authority of the British Museum 
catalogue, but nothing is said in the translation about the language of tho 
original. 


M, HISTORY OF INDIA : (66) BENGAL AND ORISSA 723 

English translation : The origin of the Musalmcms of Bengal : 
being a translation of “ Haqiqate Musalman-i-Bengalah ”. By 
Kkondkar Fuzli Rubbee. Calcutta 1895°*. 

[Major J. H. T. Walsh A history of Murshidabad District, 
London 1902, pp. 249-53 (portrait facing p. 250) ; Prag Narain 
Bhargava Who's who in India, Lucknow 1911, pt. viii p. 105.] 

971. Of unknown authorship is 

Tdnhh i Jahdngirnagar 3 a short (20 foil.) history of Dacca 
from Akbar’s conquest to the Nizdmat of Husain al-Dln Elian 
about the beginning of Shah- £ Alam : s reign: Edinburgh 233 
(n.d.).: 

972. S. ‘All Husaini Qazwlni, or, to give him his full titles, 
Nawwab Intizam al-Daulah Naslr al-Mulk S. ‘All Khan Bahadur 
Nusrat-Jang, became Subah-dcir (or Naivwdb) of Dacca in 1200/ 
1785-6 and died at the age of sixty-three on 1 Dhu ’1-Qa‘dah 
1237/20 July 1822. 

Tdnkh i Nusrat-Janglf a very brief history of Bengal and 
especially of Dacca from Akbar’s conquest to a.h. 1200/1785-6 : 
Ivanow 208 (not later than 1817), Gotha Arab Cat. v p. 497 
no. 30*. 

Edition 2 : TariJch-i-Nusratjangi. [ Edited ] by Harinath De. 
(. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. ii, no. 6, pp. 121-53 
(Calcutta 1908°*)). 

973. At the request of Major William Erancklin Shyam 
Parshad Munshi compiled in November and December 1810 his 

Khuldsah i ahwdl i Gaurh u jd i digar (for other forms of 
the title see Ethe), a topography and history of the fortress 

1 Blochmann described the work as “ good-for-nothing ”, but Harinath 
De disagrees. 

a This edition, based on the A.S.B. MS. and on two MSS. in private possession, 
contains a continuation to A.D. 1843, the date of the death of Nawwab GhazI 
al-Dln Muliammad, the last Nawwab of Jasarat Khan’s line, by S. ! Abd al- 
Ghani, known as {‘urf) Hamid Mir, b. S. M. Husain Khan Husaini, a son of 
Nui?rat-Jang’s 1 Arfl-b&ji . 



724 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

of Gaur (for which see Ency. Isl. etc.) and tlie township of 
Panduah : Etlie 2841. 

974. Ghulam-Hasan ZaidI Jannpurl, fl. circ. a.d. 1805, has 
already been mentioned (p. 699 supra) as the author of a short 
historical account of Jaunpur. 

A short account of Calcutta , its climate, topography etc. : 
Browne Pers. Cat. 108 ii. 

975. Nawwab-Zadah S. Ashraf al-Din Ahmad b. Nawwab 
Wazrr al-Sultan Fakhr al-Mulk S. M. Amir ‘All Khan 1 Bahadur, 
seventh Mutawalli of the Imambarah at Hoogli (appointed 1875) 
and author of several works including .the Nau ratan, an antho- 
logy of Persian poetry (Lucknow [1883°]), was born in 1855 
and educated at the Calcutta Madrasah and the Doveton College, 
Calcutta. He was a Bellow of the Calcutta University and a 
Trustee of the Aligarh College. In 1893 he received the title 
of Khan Bahadur. 

Tabaqat i Muhsinlyah 2 (on English title-page Tabaqa-i- 
Muhsinya or the Persian History of the Hooghly Emambarah), on 
the history of the Hoogly Imambarah and the lives of its chief 
benefactors and custodians (the author p. 38, 57 folk). 

[Prag Narain Bhargava Who’s who in India, Lucknow 1911, 
pt. viii, p. 104 ; C. Hayavadana Rao Indian biographical 
dictionary, Madras 1915, p. 14.] 

976. Other works : 

(1) Account of the war of the East India Co. with Mir Qasim 
Khan (beginning Azjumlah i buqalamum i ruzgdr and apparently 
taken mostly from the Siyar al-muta’ akhkh inn) ; Bodleian 280. 

(2) Fragment giving a review of the Governors of Bengal 

1 For S. Amir ‘All Khan see p. 648 supra. 

2 Hajjl M. Muhsin, who died on 24 Dim ’1-Qa‘dah 1227/1812, was a merchant 
of Hoogli noted for Ills charitable benefactions. See Life of II aji Muhatnmed 
Mohsin by Mahenira Chandra Mitra, Calcutta 1880, The modern history of 
the Indian chiefs, rajas, zamindars etc. by Loke Hath Gho.se, pt. ii, Calcutta 
1881, pp. 304-9 and Ency. Isl. under Muhammad Muhsin, where further 
references are given. 



725 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (cc) GUJRAT 

from tlie time of Jahangir (a.d. 1605) to that of Farruhh-siyar 
(a.d. 1719) : Bodleian 278. 

(J) Notes and memoranda relating to the history, adminis- 
tration and revenue of Bengal, written for Col. Sir J. Murray : 
Rieu i 409. 

(J) Notice of Man! Begam, wife of Mir Ja'far Khan ; Rieu 
i 4096. 

(5) Three poems on the wickedness and miserable end of Nand 
Kumar : Rieu ii 7976. 

(6) Waqd’i* i Bangalah : Asafiyah i p. 258 no. 342. Of. 
Intikhab i tar jamah i Waqa’i 1 i Bangalah, Asaf iyah i p. 220 no. 755. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (cc) GUJRAT 

977. An author who does not mention his name but who tells 
us incidentally in his account of the year 847/1443-4 that he 
was born on the 18th of Dh u ’1-Hijjah in that year, when his 
father was taking part in the expedition of Sultan ‘Ala’ al-Dln 
[Ahmad] b. Ahmad Bahmani against the fort of Mudkal, wrote 
a history of the Muzaffarid dynasty which contains no title in 
the preface but which on the title-page of the India Office manu- 
script is called with doubtful correctness TarlJch i Muzqffar- 
Shaki. 1 

Tartkh i Muzaffar-Shahl [?], a flowery history of the 
Muzaffarids to the year 889/1484 or thereabouts written in the 

1 The connexion, of the author’s father with the Bahmani court suggested 
to Rieu the possibility that this' work may be identical with “ a history of 
Gujrat entitled Maasir i Mahmudshahi, also called Tarikh i MahmMf£i§hh 
the author of which, Mulla ‘Abd ul-Karim Hamadani, had long been attached 
to Khwajah Mahmud Gavfm, the celebrated minister of the Bahmanis. . . .” 
The correctness of that conjecture can neither be proved nor disproved at 
present. Rieu does not specify the source of his information concerning ‘Abd 
al-Karim Hamadani and his Ma'athir i M ahmud-Sh aM. ‘Abd al-Kar!m’s 
life of Mahmud i Gawan is summarised by Kirightah at the end of his account 
of Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani. A .general history entitled al-Tabaqat 
dl~Mafcmud-Sh ahlyah by ‘Abd al-Karim b. M. al-Kamidihi [? Nisbah doubtful}, 
has already been mentioned (p. 109 supra). 



726 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

reign, of Mahmud Shah Begarah and beginning with the words 
Bar ivaqif i hushmand : Uieu iii 966a (about half of the work, 
corresponding to foil. 1-1 07a in the I.O. MS. 17th cent.), I.O. 
3842 (a.h. 1299/1881-2). 

978. For the general history al-Tabaqat al-Mahmud-ShaM 
yah, which contains much information about Gujrat to the year 
905/1499-1500, see p. 109 supra. 

979. A work entitled Ma’athir i Mahmud- Shahi was written 
by a certain ‘Abd al-Khaliq BRHAM[?]f YWNl (Pum 1), known 
as (al-nudruf bi) Sar-birahnah, who died in 895/1489-90 [according 
to \Abd al-Karlm al-Namidlhi (?) al-Tabaqdt al-Mahnud- 
Shdhiyah (Eton 160. Gf. p. 109 supra), under the year mentioned]. 
According to Rieu, who does not specify his authority, “ a history 
of Gujrat entitled Maasir i Mahmildshahl, also called Tarikh i 
Mahmudshahi ” was written by ‘Abd al-Karlm HamadanI, 
who “had long been attached to Khwajah Mahmud Gavin, 
the celebrated minister of the Bahmanis” and who wrote a 
life of Mahmud i Gawan which Firishtah summarises at the end 
of his account of Sultan Muhammad Shah BahmanL A supple- 
ment to one of these works, probably the first, or possibly to 
yet another work of the same title, was written by order of 
Mahmud Shah Begarah by an author whose preface contains 
neither his own name nor the title of his work. 

( Damlmah i Ma’dthir i Mahmud-Shdhi)d a flowery history 
of the reign of Sultan Mahmud Shah Begarah from the time 
when he despatched an army against Bahadur GllanI [in 896/ 
1490-1 according to the Zafar al-wdlih i p. 169] to the surrender 
of Aslr Fort by Yusuf Hafiz to A‘zam Humayun [in 916/1511 
according to the Zafar al-wdlih i p. 59], written by order of 
Mahmud Shah as a supplement to tlic Madtkir i M.ahmud- 
Shahi of an unspecified author and beginning Ba-ndm i shahan- 
shah i mulk i qidam : I.O. 3841 (apparently only the first of 
the two maqdlahs ((1) on Mahmud Shah, (2) on his contem- 
poraries) mentioned in the preface, a.h. 1299/1882). 

1 On the title-page of the I.O. manuscript the work is called Tari klt i 
Mahmud-SMM, which may possibly be the correct title. 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (cc) GUJRAT 


727 


980. It was by order of Abu T-Nasr Sultan. Muzaffar Shah II 
that a certain 4 4 Qani‘1 ” wrote 

Tankh i Muzaffar-Shahi t?], 1 an account, in prose inter- 
spersed with many verses, of the capture of Shadl-abad (Mandu) 
in 942/1518 : Rieu i 287a (a.h. 1223/1808), I.O. 4521 (a.h. 1267/ 
1851). 

981. A certain “ Mutl‘i ” completed a.h. 941 /1 534-5 and 
dedicated to Bahadur Shah 

Ganj i ma c dni , a mathnawi on Bahadur Shah’s victories : 
Ivanow Curzon 251 (16th cent.). 

982. Mir (or Shah) Abu Turab Wall b. Shah Qutb al-Din 
Shukr Allah, or Shah Abu Turab al-'ITraidl al-Husaini, as he is 
called in the Zafar al-wdlih (p. 548 18 ), was a Shirazi (Salami) 
Saiyid, whose grandfather had migrated from Shiraz and in 
898/1492-3 had settled in Chanpaner. In 974/1566-7 Mir Abu 
Turab was evidently an employee or a supporter of the Gujrat! 
noble Chingiz Khan who sent him to negotiate with Ftimad 
Khan. Chingiz Khan was murdered in Safar 975/1569, and in 
980/1572-3, when Akbar first entered Gujrat, Mir Abu Turab 
was sent by Ftimad Khan to the Emperor with a letter inviting 
him to take the country. He accompanied Akbar on his progress 
through Gujrat and received various marks of the royal favour. 
In 985/1577 Akbar appointed him Mir i Hajj, and on his return 
in 987/1579 he brought with him to Agrah a large stone bearing 
the impression of the Prophet’s foot (qadarn i Rasul). In 988/1580 
he received permission to take this stone to Gujrat and he 
erected it at Asawal near Ahmadabad. In 992/1583 Ftimad 
Khan was appointed Governor of Gujrat, and Shah Abu Turab 
Amin i subah. He died on 13 Jornada i a.ii. 1003/1595 and was 
buried at Asawal. 

Tankh i Gujrat 5 a history of Gujrat from the reign of 
Bahadur Shah (a.h. 932/1526-943/1536) to the taking of Ahmad- 
abad by Muzaffar Shah III in 992/1584 : Rieu iii 967 (a.h. 1151/ 
1738-9). 

1 This title, of doubtful genuineness, occurs not in the work itself but in 
the copyist’s colophon and on the title-page of the I.O. MS. 



728 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Edition : A history of Gujarat. By Mir Abu Turdb Vali. 
Edited ivith introduction and, notes by E. Denison Ross. Calcutta 
1909°* (Bibliotheca Indica). 

[Autobiographical statements in the Tdnkh i Gujrat (for 
these see Rieu iii 967 and Ross's introduction to his edition 
and his summary of contents) ; Ahbar-ndmah i p. 146, iii pp. 217, 
281, 818, 403, 411, 454 and doubtless elsewhere (see the index 
to Beveridge’s translation of this volume, when it appears) ; 
Zafar al-wdlih bi-Mumffar wa-dlih (in Arabic) pp. 499 22 , 504 6 , 
506 8 , 507 4 , 548 18 , 567 18 , 603 s , 606 s - 20 " 21 ; Mir’at i Ahmadi, 
Jchdtimah (Baroda 1930) p. 64, English trans. (Bar oda 1928) 
p. 57 ; Mdathir al-umard' iii pp. 280-5, Beveridge’s translation 
pp. 142—4 (smnmarised by Blochmann in his translation of the 
A'in i Ahban pp. 506-7) ; Rieu iii 967.] 

983. Sikandar b. M. Manjhu 1 b. Akbar served under the 
Khan i A‘zam (Mirza ‘Aziz Kokah, Governor of Gujrat) in the 
campaign which ended with the capture and death of Muzaffar 
Shah III, the dethroned king of Gujrat, in 1000/1591. 

In 1026/1617 he was visited at Ahmadabad by Jahangir, 
who mentions him in his Memoirs (tr. Rogers and Beveridge i 
427) as a man well acquainted with the history of Gujrat, who 
had been for eight or nine years in the Imperial service. 

Mir' at i Sikandafi, completed a .h. 1020/1011 or 1022/ 
1613 (see Bodleian 273), a history of Gujrat from the time of 
Zafar Khan (Muzaffar Shah I) to the death of Sultan Muzaffar 
Shah III in 1000/1591 : ~Blochet i 624 (a.h. 1022/1613 {()), 622 
(a.h. 1238/1822), 623 (late 18tli cent.), Ivanow 195 (a.h. 1038/ 
1628-9), Rieu i 287 b (a.ii. 1042/1632), 288a (a.h. 1 162/1749), 
2886 (a.h. 1196/1782), 2886 (18th cent.), 2886 (a.h. 1211/1797), 
Berlin 509 (n.d.j, 510 (a.ii. 1046/1637), Bodleian 272 (a.ii. 1046/ 
1637), 273 (a.ii. 1056/1047), 274 (a.h. 1079/1668), 275 (a.h. 1139/ 
1726), Ethh 438 (bears a seal dated a.ii. 1056/1646), 439 (a.h. 
1046/1637), '4 40 (a.ii. 1072/1662), 441-3 (of which 442 is dated 

, t M, ‘«r/ Manjhu, as the MSS., have it, or Miyan Manjhu, was steward of 
the estate of S'aivid Bukhari's descendants (sec Rieu iii 10846 ad p. 2876). 
Some of the MSS. omit the ibn I c-ft re Akbar. 



729 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (cc) GUJRAT 

a.h. 1049/1639), ii 3015 (old), I.O. 3844 (probably circ. a.d. 1882), 
Ross and Browne 8 (17th cent.), Lindesiana p. 157 no. 900 
(a.h. 1094/1683), Morley 69 (a.h. 1196/1781), Eton 177 (a.h. 
1200/1785-6), Rehatsek p. 76 no. 13 (a.h. 1213/1798-9), Bankipur 
vii 610 (18th cent.), Bombay Fyzee 8 (a.d. 1849), 9 (not old), 
Salemann-Rosen p. 18 no. 141. 

Editions: Bombay 1831°*, 1890°*. 

English translation : Mirati Sikandari, or The Mirror of 
Sikandar . . . Translated by Fadidlah Lutfullah Favidi. [Bombay 
1899°*.] 

Cf. : The history of India as told by its own historians. The local 
Muhammadan dynasties . Gujarat. By . . . Sir E. C. Bayley . . . 
Partially based on a [nearly complete] translation [of the Mir’ at 
i Sikandari] by ... J. Dowson. . . . Forming a sequel to Sir II. M. 
Elliot's History of the Muhammadan Empire of India. London 
1886 °*. 

984. Mirza M. Hasan b. M. ‘All was eight or nine years old in 
1120/1708, when he went to Gujrat from Burhanpur ( Mir'dt 

i Ahmadl i p. 13 4 ~ 5 ), his father having been appointed Waya'T- 
nigdr of the jdgvr of Prince M. Jahandar Shah in the subah of 
Ahmadabad (M. i A. i p. 383 14 ~ 15 ). On his father’s death in 
1157/1744 he succeeded by royal decree to his father’s mansdb, 
Ms office (Amin or Superintendent of the Cloth Market), his 
title (‘All Muhammad Khan) and his jaglr (M. i A. ii p. 326 6-7 ). 
In 1159/1746 he was appointed Diwdn of Gujrat (M. i A. 

ii p. 340), and in 1163/1750 the title of Bahadur was conferred 
upon him (31. i A. ii p. 395 17 ). 

Mir* at i Ahmadl , as it is usually called, or Mir at i Ahmadl 
i subah i Ahmadabad Gujrat, as the author called it, begun in 
1170/1756-7 and completed in Safar 11 75 /September 1761, a 
history of Gujrat from the earliest times to Ahmad Shah 
Abdalfs victory over the Marat ’has at Panipat in 1174/17 61 with a 
khdtimah containing a description of Ahmadabad, lives of the 
saints and saiyids buried there, accounts of its inhabitants, 
Hindu tribes and temples, measures, weights etc., dhdnahs, 
officials and their duties, districts and parganahs of Gujrat, 



730 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

its ports, rivers, mountains and sights : Ethe ii 3016 (a.h. 1175/ 
1761, transcribed by the author’s grandson, 1 except possibly 
the Jchatimah, though that “ seems to be written by the same 
hand”), Etbd 444 (a.h. 1199/1785), I.O. 3843 (a.h. 1299/1882), 
Lindesiana p. 122 nos. 901-2 (a.h. 1195/1780), Bankipur vii 
611 (a.h. 1199/1785), Rieu i 2886 (a.h. 1202/1788), 2896 (break- 
ing off in Aurangzeb’s 13th year. 18th cent.), 2896 (an abridg- 
ment, a.d. 1808), Leyden iii p. 13 no. 925 (a.h. 1202/1787), 
R.A.S. P. 82-4 = Morley 70-2 (a.h. 1238/1822-3), P. 85 = 
Morley 73 (detached portions), Bombay Univ. p. 263 ( Samba, t 
1881), Bombay Fyzee 7 (a.d. 1849). 

Editions: (1) Bombay 1306-7/1888-89°*, 2 * 4 (2) Mirat-i - 
Ahnadi . . .by Ali Muhammad Khan . Edited by Syed Nawab 
Ali. . . . Baroda 1927-8* (2 vols. Gaekwad’s Oriental Series, 
33 and 34), Mirat-i-Akmadi. Supplement {Persian text) . . . 
critically edited . . .by Syed Nawab Ali . . . Baroda 1930* 
(Gaekwad’s Oriental Series, 50). Of. also p. 656 n. 2. 

MS. English translation made in 1878-86 by Lt.-Col. J. W. 
Watson : Etbd ii 3016, inserted leaves. 

English translation of the history down to Akbar’s invasion, 
i.e. about one-sixth of the whole work : The polUicaland statistical 
history of Gujarat , translated from the Persian of Ali Mohammed 
Khan ... to which are added . . . annotations and . . . introduction , 
By J. Bird. London 1835°* (Oriental Translation Fund). 

English translation of the Kh alimah : The Swpplemenl to the 
Mirat-i- Ahnadi. Translated . . . by Syed Nawab Ali . . . and 
C. ~N. Seddon . . . Baroda (Bombay printed) 1924* (Education 

1 A MS. written in 1176/1761 by a certain M. Mukarram and bearing on 
the title-page an impression of the author’s seal and his autograph note of 

ownership is, or was, preserved at Cambay {see Mirat-i- Ahnadi, Supplement. 
Translated ....... by S. Nawab Ali , . . and C. N. Seddon , foreword, p. xiii n., 

where the library or person owning the MS. is not specified). A reproduction 
of the title-page of that MS. forms the frontispiece of the Baroda edition of 
the Persian text. 

4 According to Jadunath Sarkar’s foreword to pt. ii of the Baroda edition 
“ This edition contains only the first volume down to a.o, 1714 (or about one- 
half of it) together with the second volume. . , . The text as printed hero is 
hopelessly corrupt, with frequent lacunas. . . 



731 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (cc) GUJRAT 

Department) ; Mirat-i- Ahmadi. Supplement. Translated . . . by 
Syed Naivab AH . . . and C. N. Seddon . . . Re-issue — corrected. 
Baroda (Calcutta printed) 1928* (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series, 
43). 

Translations of extracts : The history of India as told by its oivn 
historians. The local Muhammadan dynasties. Gujarat. By . 
Sir Edward Clive Bayley . . . Partially based on a translation 
[of parts of the Mid at i Sikandari and the Mid at i Ahmadi ] 
by .... J. Dowson. . . . Forming a sequel to Sir II. M. Elliot’s 
History of the Muhammadan Empire of India. London 1886°*. 

Dor an Urdu translation and two incomplete Gujrati transla- 
tions see Bombay Univ. p. 264. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Middt i Ahmadi (two 
or three of these in Rieu i 289 and in the foreword to the English 
translation of the Khdtimah ) ; Rieu i 289.] 

985. Ranchhor-ji, a son of the celebrated Diwan Amar-jl of 
Junagarh, was born in Samwat 1824 Vikrami/A.D. 1767. Most 
of his life was devoted to the service of the Nawwabs of Junagarh 
as was that of his father Amar-ji and that of his elder brother 
Raghunath-ji, who was likewise Diwan, and who died in 1819. 
Like them he played a prominent part in the incessant warfare 
between Junagarh and the neighbouring states. According to 
James Burgess Ranchhor-ji was in his turn Diwan of Junagarh, 
but this does not seem to be expressly stated in the Waged d i 
Sorafh. 

Tarikh i Sorafh or WaqaH c i Sorafh , a history of 
Sorat’h 1 2 or Saurashtra, especially of Junagarh and Nawanagar, 
in the author’s time with a sketch of its earlier history, com- 
pleted (according to the Edinburgh Univ. catalogue) in Jeth 
of Samwat 1886/16 Dhu T-Hijjah 1245/9 June 1830 2 : Bombay 

1 Sorafh {— Ka^’hiyawar) is to be distinguished from Surat, the name of 
a port on the other side of the Gulf of Cambay. 

2 This date does not seem to occur in Rehatselc’s translation. The date 
Samwat 1896 /a.h. 1256 (== 1840) occurs in an addition (by the author ?) 
which appears on p. 234 of Rehatsek’s translation. 



732 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Fyzee 11 (autograph? a.ii. 1245/1830 ?), 12 (Samwat 1892/ 
a.d. 1835-6. Fuller than 11 and apparently a revised edition), 
Edinburgh 235 (a.h. 1287/1870), Eieu iii 1041a (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), I.O. 4527 (extract relating to Junagarh down to 
Akbar's conquest, a.d. 1849). 

English translation by E. Rehatsek revised by Col. J. W. 
Watson and edited with an introduction by J. Burgess : Tdrikh- 
i-Sorath, a history of the provinces of Sorath and Hdldr in Kdthid- 
wdd . By Ranchodji Amarji. . . . Translated from the Persian. 
Bombay 1882°*. 

MS. Gujarati translation by Mani-shankar Jata-shankar Muja- 
mundar (see Rehatsek's translation pp. iii, 25). 

[Rehatsek's translation pp. iii, 53, 89-91, 137, 164, 173, 175, 
178, 189, 190, 193, 197-202, 211, 221-2, 268-9, 276, 290-1, 298 ; 
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, rol. viii Kathiawar 
(Bombay 1884) p. 628 ; H. Wilberforce-Bell The History of 
Kathiawad , London 1916, pp. 147, 156, 160-4, 192, 194.] 

986. Sh. Ahmad, alias Bakhshu Miyan, b. Sh. Hamid b. Sh. 
Bahadur was Munsif at Surat and died in 1 265 / 1848-9. He wrote 
a historical work entitled Hadlqah i Ahmadi in three volumes. 
He had intended to rewrite this and divide it into fifteen parts, 
but he died when he had completed only one part, to which 
he gave the title Hadiqal al-IImd. 

Hadiqat al-Hind : Bombay Fyzee 10 (chapter xii only 
(on the province of Gnjrat). a.ii. 1266/1850). 

987. Other works : 

(1) Haqiqat (. HaqaHq , Ahwdl ) i sarkar i Gayakwar , 
a short history of the Gaykwar Maharajahs of Baroda from 
their origin to a.d. 1818, by Munsht Sara-Rhay : 1.0. 4525 
(a.h. 1269/1853), 4526 (about the first third of the same work. 
Same hand). 

(2) Historical notices of Surat and Kech Makran : I.O. 3817. 

(3) Muntakhab i ahwalat i zain al-bilad Ahmaddbad 5 
a short history of Gujrat from the time of the Hindu Rajahs 



733 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (cc) INDORE 

to that of Ragunat’h Rao, when c Ali M. Khan was Diwan of the 
province, possibly compiled by the copyist Bang [?] LaT son 
of Tarang [?] LaT: 1.0. 4545 (a.d. 1849). 

(4) The Salatin-i-Baroda, being Mr. F. A. H. Elliot's 

Rulers of Baroda ”, rendered into Persian . . . by Maalavi 

Farid ud-JDin Ahmad. Bombay 1898*. 

(5) ( Tafikh i Bharoch ) 3 a short history of Broach in the 
18th and early 19th centuries, by Nur al-Dln b. Qadi S. Ahmad 
Husain Ridawi al-ShirazI : 1.0. 4514. 

(Q) Tdrlkh i saldtin i Gujrdt s a very brief (21 foil.) 
chronicle of the rulers of Gujrat from Sultan Ahmad Shah 
(a.h. 813/1410) to a.h. 961/1554, the last date mentioned in 
the text, or a little later: Bodleian 271 (n.d.). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (dd) CUTCH 

988. The Nasab-ndmah i Jdrejah is based on the oral state- 
ments of a certain Upadyah Kurjl Jadev Mir, 1 an inhabitant of 
Yirah in the farganah of Bhiij. These were written down in 
P’hagun 1878/Feb. 1822 and were translated from the Gujratl 
into Persian by order of Mr. Walter, Assistant Resident of Cutch. 

Nasab-ndmah i Jdrejah, a history of the ruling tribe of 
Cutch from its origin to the Hindu year 1875/1819: Rieu i 290 
(a.h. 1237/1822). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (ee) INDORE 

989. It was at the request of Jaswant Rao Iiolkar’s ba lchsh i , 
Bhawanl Shankar, that Mohan Singh wrote the Waqci’i i Uolhar , 
which he completed in -1223/1808. 

WaqdH s i Holkar, a history of Jaswant Ra5 Holkar, who 
succeeded his brother Kashi Rao as ruler of Indore, was defeated 
by Lord Lake in 1804, became insane in 1806 and died in 1811 : 
Bankiphr vii 618 (a.h. 1223/1808, not autograph), Bodleian 
1970 (not later than a.d. 1812), I.O. 3930 (19th cent.). 

1 Vocalisation of these names partly conjectural. 



734 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (ff) BHOPAL 

990. Nawwab Shah-Jahan Begam “ Shlrln ”, born on 3 July 
1838, was proclaimed ruler of Bhopal on 10 Jan. 1847 under the 
regency of her mother Sikandar Begam, the widow of Nawwab 
Jahangir Muhammad Khan. On 1 May 1860 she abdicated in 
favour of her mother. On 30 Oct. 1868 Sikandar Begam died, 
and Shah-Jahan Begam again became ruler of the State. She 
died on 16 June 1901 and was succeeded by Sultan- Jahan 
Begam, her only daughter by her first husband, Nawwab Nazir 
al-Daulah Ba khshi Baqi Muhammad Khan, whom she had 
married in 1855 and who died in 1867. Her second husband, 
whom she married in 1871, was Nawwab Siddlq Hasan Khan, 
who has already been mentioned (pp. 27-8 supra). /A'A'Y' '//At/ 

: Her Urdu dvwan (Dhvdn i Shinn) was published at Cawnpore 
in 1872,* and another Urdu work, TahdMb al-nisivdn, at Delhi 
in 1889*. 

Taj al-iqbal tarikh i riydsat i Bhopal, a history of Bhopal 
to the year 1289/1872. 

Edition: Cawnpore 1289-90/1873*. 

Urdu version : Cawnpore 1873*. 

English translation (from the Urdu) : The Tdj-ul Ihbdl TdriJch 
Bhopal; or the History of Bhopal. By II TL the Naioab Shahjahan 
. . . Translated by H. C. Barstow. Calcutta 1876 c *. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Taj al-iqbal ; Sham ‘ i 
anjuman 241-4 ; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography 
pp. 39-40 ; Sultan- Jahan Begam An account of my life (tr. Payne, 
London 1912) passim; Ma’athir i Siddiqi , an Urdu biography 
of Siddlq Hasan Khan (see pp. 27-8 supra) by S. M. 'All Hasan 
Khan, ii pp. 66-8, 82-105 and elsewhere ; Nizami BadayunI 
Qdmus al-mashahir (in Urdu) ii pp. 4-5.] 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (yy) MALWAH 

991. ‘All b. Mahmud ai-Kirmanl called Shihab i Hakim was 
in the service of Mahmud-Shah Sultan Kh alil of 31'dwah (reigned 
29 Shawwal 839/16 May 1436-19 "Dhu T-Qa'dah 873/31 May 
1469), after whose death he wrote it the command of iris 3011 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (M) GWALIOR 735 

and successor Sultan Ghiyath al-Din (reigned 873/1469-906/ 
1500) his 

Ma’dthir i Mahmud- Shahid a flowery history of Mahmud- 
Shah with a brief account of his predecessors, especially Sultan 
Hushang and Muhammad-Shah (Ghazni Khan) : Berlin 511 
(a seal dated 1182/1768-9), Browne Suppt. 249 (a.h. 1199/1785. 
King’s 67), Bodleian 270 (slightly defective at beginning. N.d.). 

992. Of unknown authorship is 

( Tdfikh i Nasir-Shahi), a turgid and almost dateless 
“ history 55 of Nasir al-Din s Abd al-Qadir Shah b. Ghiyatli Shah 
b. Mahmud Shah Khaljl (reigned a.h. 906/1500-916/1510) : 
Rieu hi 968a (breaks off in first year of the reign, a.ii. 1265/1849), 
10406 (extract only. Giro. a.d. 1850), 1.0. 4032 (a.d. 1879). 

993. A TdnJch i Malwd by Karam-A.il is mentioned by 
C. E. Luard as one of the authorities used by him in compiling 
the Malwa Gazetteer (Bombay 1908), but no copies of this work 
seem to be recorded in any published catalogue. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (hh) GWALIOR 

994. Sh. Jalal Hisarl was secretary to Saiyid Muzaffar Khan 
Barhah, 1 surnamed Khan i Jahan, who was Governor of Gwalior 
from Shah-Jahan’s accession to 1055/1645-6. For his Wdgi‘ah 
i Jhojhdr Sing’h see p. 737 infra. 

Guwdliydr-namah, a history of Gwalior to 1055/1645-6 
based on a Hind! work by a Brahman named Syam : Rieu ii 
838a (a.d. 1690). 

995. Hiraman b. Gird’har-Das was MimsJn to Mfftamad 
Khan (Khwajah Nur), who w T as Governor (Commandant) of 
Gwalior from a.h. 1071/1660-1 to 1078/1668, 

(Guwdliydr-ndmak\ a history of Gwalior to a.h. 1078/1668 
based on Jalal Hisarfs work: Rieu i 3036 (a.h. 1080/1669), 
Eton 201. 

1 See Ma’dtMr al-umara' i pp. 758-766. 


736 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

996. “ In August 1780 Major Popliam most cleverly escaladed 
the strong fortress of Gwalior at night and took it without losing 
a man 55 (V. A. Smith The Oxford History of India , Oxford 
3.920, p. 533). It has already been mentioned (p. 520 § 687 supra) 
that Captain W. Bruce was one of the officers who took part in 
that operation. 

(. Ahwdl i qaVah i Giiwaliydr ), a short history of Gwalior 
to 1191/1780 written down from the dictation of Mot! Ram 
and Khwush-hal, two inhabitants of Gwalior, by order of Captain 
William Bruce : Rieu i 3045 (18th cent.), 3046 (19th cent.), 
Ethe 499. 

997. Khair al-Din M. Ilahabadi died about 1827 (see pp. 520-2 
supra). Attached by General Stibbert to the staff of Captain 
William Bruce, who was in charge of the commissariat of Major 
Popham's force (of. p. 736 1. 1 supra), he had witnessed the 
capture of Gwalior in August 1780. In 1206/1791-2 he left 
Allahabad for Lucknow at the invitation of Asaf al-Daulah and 
while there Dr. Bruce showed him a Guwdliyd'r-ndmah. Finding 
it defective in matter and badly written, he recast it and enlarged 
it with an account of the British capture of the fortress, the 
operations of Colonel Cainac against MahadajI Slndhiyah and 
the recapture of Gwalior and Goliad by the latter. 

Guwaliyar-namah) or Kdr-ndmah i Gmoaliyarf a 
history of Gwalior, and especially of its capture by the British 
in 1780, to the poisoning of Eana Chhatar Singh in 1200/1785-6, 
completed in 1208/1793 : Ivanow Curzon 44 (slightly defective. 
Early 19th cent.), 43 (a.h. 1268/1852), Rieu iii 1028a (circ. 
a.d. 1850), I.O. 3947 (a.d, 1879). 

998. It was at the request of Neil Benjamin Edmonstone 2 

1 The author refers to his work by these titles near the end of the Tuhfah i 
tazdh (see Banklpur vii (507). 

2 b. 1765, went to Calcutta 1783, for a time Persian translator to Govern- 
ment., Private Secretary to the acting Governor-General 1708, Chief Secretary 
to Government 1800, Member of the Supreme Council IS 18-1 8. Director of 
the E.T.Co. 1820, d. 4 May 1841 (see Buekland Dictionary of Indian biography 
p. 132). 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (jj) BUNDELK’HAND 737 

tliat an anonymous autlior wrote liis Ahwdl i Mdd’hauji 
Sind’hiyah. 

Ahwdl i Mdd’hauji Slnd’hiyah, a life of Maharajah. 
Mahadaji Sind’hiyah (ace. 1769, d. 1794) : Berlin 515. 

999. An anonymous Guwdliydr-ndmah is the basis of the 
History of the fortress of Gwalior mentioned below. 

Guwaliyar-namah : no MSS. recorded, unless it is one 
of the works described above. 

English translation : History of the fortress of Gwalior. [Trans- 
lated] by Shrimant Balwant Row Bhayasaheb, Scindia. [With a 
continuation by the translator to his own time.] Bombay 
1892°*. 

1000. Other works : 

( 1 ) Ahwdl i Maharajah Sawaji Rand Qhhatar 
Sing'h . . . Rand Gohad , an account (44 foil.) of events in the 
years 1777 and 1778 relating mainly to Gohad, a fort which now 
forms part of the State of Gwalior but which was then held by 
a Jat rand : Berlin 519. 

(2) Extracts relating to Chanderl and its Maharajahs from a 
number of historical works : I.O. 3928 (19th cent.). 

(3) Haqlqat i rdjaha i XJjjain : R.A.S. P. 69 (3) = Morley 
58. 

M. HISTORY OE INDIA : (jj) BUNDELK’HAND 

1001. ShaiMi Jalal Hi§ari has already been mentioned (p. 735 
supra) as the author of a Guwdliydr-ndmah. 

Waqfah Jhojhar Sing’h, an account of Jhojhar Sing’h 
Bundelah, Rajah of Unchah (Oorcha), and especially of the 
expedition sent against him by Shah-Jahan under the command 
of Saiyid Muzaffar Khan Khan- Jahan 1 and his consequent 
overthrow and death in 1044/1634-5 : Bleu iii 838a (a.d. 1690). 

1 To whom the author was at one time secretary. 

b bb 



738 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

1002. Keshav Das (Kesava Dasa) 1 wrote in Hindustani 

Barsing’h-charitra^ an encomiastic account of Raj all 
Birsing’h Deo, of Oorcha, the murderer of Abu ' 1-Rad 1 (for whom 
see pp. 541--51 

Persian translation : Farah-bakksk i jatl (a chronogram ~= 
1244), made in 1828-9 by Ray Shiv Parshad at the request of 
Turner Macau: Ethe 484 (a.h, 1244/1829). 


M. HISTORY OR INDIA : (klc) THE DECCAN 

1003. M. Had! b. M. Mahdi known as Mirza Mahdi Khan §alawi 

has already been mentioned as the author of the Diya’ aVuyun 
(p. 54 supra ) and the Majmu'ah i Mlrza-MaJuTi- Khdni (p. 519 
supra), .;■■■■■■ 

Qadaya-yi salatin i Dakan (a chronogram — 1156/1743), 
a history of the Deccan based mainly on Firishtah and divided 
into seven bdbs ; Ethd 446 (only 1st bah (Bahmanls) and greater 
part of 2nd ( £ Adil-Shahs) to a.h. 1005/1596-7). 

1004. Rachhml Narayan “ Shafia ” Aurangabadi (see pp. 476-8 
supra). 

Tanmlq i shigarf (a chronogram = 1200/1786), a history 
of the Deccan dedicated to Richard Johnson : EtM 447 (R. John- 
son’s copy, received by him in 1788), 448. 

Later edition (?) written a.h. 1203/1788-9 2 : Rieu ii 8595 
(breaks off in an account of the Marathas. Early 19th cent.). 

1005. Some information concerning M. ‘Abbas “ Rif ‘at ” 
Shirwan! has already been given on pp. 226-7 supra. For his 
Sultan-namah and his TcinJch i Qaisar i Rum see p. 421 supra. 

Bagh i chahar~chaman s a short history of the Deccan 

1 Presumably this is the correct form of the name which Ethe writes 
Gisudas. 

2 This work (beg. Bar damuir i a/jah-dilrin) is without title or preface, but 
is coujeeturally assigned by ftien to Laehhmx Narayan on account of the 
substantial agreement of the chapter on the Marathas with the limit al.<Jiam'inu 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (11) THE BAHMANIDS 739 

(54 pp.) written in 1300/1882-3. Edition : place ? date ? (see 
Asafiyah iii p. 92 no. 1153). 

1006. Other works : 

(1) Ahwal i gharaq i Machhli-bandar, a brief account of 
an inundation at Masulipatam on 1 Jumada i 1282/22 Oct. 1865, 
by Ghulam Zain al- ‘Abidin, the author of an account of the 
death of Nawwab Afdal al-Daulah Nizam al-Mulk Asaf-Jah 
on 13 Dhu T-Qa £ dah 1285/25 Eeb. 1869 and the accession of 
Nawwab Mir Mahbub £ Ali Khan (see p. 758 infra) : Ivanow 
Curzon 45 (1) (19th cent.). 

(2) Jang-namah i Dakan, a detailed diary of the operations 
in southern India under Colonel Camac without author’s name 
or preface : Bodleian 282 (defective at end). 

(3) Khizanah i Rasul- Kham dar tdrlhh i Dalian : 
A$afiyah i p. 238 no. 606. 

(4) Tdrikh i Dakan , by Ray Munna Lai. Edition : place 1 
1303/1885-6 (see Asafiyah i p. 224 no. 797). 

(5) Waqcf i‘ i Dakan 3 history of events in the Deccan in 
Shah-Jahan’s reign : Bloehet i 620 (18th cent.), Asafiyah i p. 258 
no. 417 (possibly not the same work. a.h. 1287/1870-1). 

M. HISTORY OE INDIA : (ll) THE BAHMANIDS 

1007. S. ‘All b. ‘Aziz Allah Tabataba , 1 or al-Tabataba’i, 2 
al-Hasani went to India from al-Traq and entered the service 
of the Qutb-Shah [evidently either Muhammad-Quli, who came 
to the throne in 989/1580, or his predecessor Ibrahim]. Shortly 
afterwards he witnessed the siege of Naldrug [989-90] in the 
suite of M.-Quli Qutb-Shah. 3 Apparently he left the Qutb- 

1 Burhdn i ma'athir p. 598 30 and also in the colophon of the author’s son, 
p. 632 ult. 

2 B. i m. p. 592. 

3 B. i m. p. 534 penult. : Haiti i in auraq ra ham dar-an nazdiki az wildyat 
i ‘ Iraq ittifaq i Hindustan uftadak dar silk i Jchudddm i * alabak i ‘ulya-yi Qutb- 
ShaM intizam ddsht u dar-an riiz dar mulazamat i hadral i Qutb-Shah bar bulandi 
kih mushrif bar hisar u ma'rakah i paikar biid istadah in waqi'ah i ha'ilah ra 
ba-ray al-‘ain mushahadah mi numud. 



740 IL HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Shahi service for that of the Nizam-Shahs, since his B urban 
i ma’athir was written by order of Burhan Nizam Shah, who 
reigned from 999/1591 to 1003/1595. 

Burhan i mcTathir (a chronogram = a.h. 1000/1592, the 
date of inception), a history of the Bahmanids of Gulbargah, the 
Bahmanids of Bidar and the Nizam-Shahs of Ahmadnagar to 
the year 1004/1596 : Browne Pers. Cat. 104 (as far as a.h. 999 
autograph dated a.h. 1003/1594, the remainder written, by the 
author’s son in 1038/1628), Suppt. 173 (King’s 64), Bieu i 3146 
(a.h. 1197/1782-3), Ethd 449 (slightly defective), Eomashewicz 
p. 4 no. 969. 

Edition : Haidaxabad (Delhi printed) 1355/1936 J (Silsilah 
i maMitutat i farislyah, 2). 

Abridged English translations : (1) [ Tabaqahs i-ii, i.e. Gul- 
bargah and Bidar] The history of the Bahmani dynasty. Founded 
on the Burhdn-i Ma.dsir [and the TadMirat ahmuluk of Raff 
al-Din Ibrahim Shiraz!]. By J. S. King. {Reprinted from the 
“Indian Antiquary .”) London 1900°*. (2) [Tabaqah iii] The 

history of the Nizam Shahi Kings of Ahmadnagar. By Lieut - 
Colonel Sir Wolseley Haig [Reprinted from the Indian Antiquary , 
vols. xlix-lii]. Bombay 1923*. 

1008. S. Asad Allah, commonly called (urf) Mir Nawwab, 
was a Eirst Ta c aUuq-dar under the Government of Haidarabad. 

Mukhtar al-akhbar tuhfat al-akhyarf a history of 
the Bahmanid dynasty. 

Edition : place ? date ? (see Asafiyah iii p. 108 no. 1281). 


M. HISTORY OE INDIA : {mm) AHMADNAGAR 

1009. Shah Tahir b. Shah Radi al-Din al-Ismalli al-Husaini 
al-Dak’hanl was a teacher {mudarris) at Kaftan, who acquired 
such influence that he aroused the jealousy of Shah Isma‘11 
and the hostility of the Sadr, Mir Jamal al-Din AstarfibadL 

1 Mukhtar aUakhuar tuhfat nl-ahkbar according to the A§afiyah catalogue. 



HISTORY OF INDIA : (mm) AHMADNAGAR 741 

Feeling insecure, he fled to India in 926/1520. Landing at 
Goa, he stayed for a time at Parendah, but in 928/1522 he went 
to Ahmadnagar on the invitation of Burhan Nizam-Shah and 
became his trusted adviser. He converted Burhan Nizam-Shah 
to the Shfite belief and propagated it with much success in the 
Deccan. He died at Ahmadnagar in 952/1545, or 953/1546, or 
956/1549. 

A collection of his letters, Insha\ or Mimsha'at, i Shah Tahir, 
partly official and partly private, has been preserved (see Rieu 
i 395, Bankfpur Suppt. ii 2121). 

Fath-namahy an account of the conquest of Sholapur by 
Burhan Nizam-Shah : Bankipur Suppt. ii 2119 (a.h. 1077/1666-7 
or soon after). 

[Tuhfah i Sami, Tihran a.h.s. 1314, p. 29 ; Burhan i ma’ affair 
pp. 251-8 (arrival in India), 258-68 (conversion of the king 
etc.), 324-6 (death) and elsewhere ; Majdlis al-mu’mimn 
pp. 352-4 (the last biography in Majlis vii) ; Firishtah, Bombay 
ed., ii pp. 213-30 (in the account of Burhan Nizam-Shah) ; 
Beale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 369 ; Rieu i 395 ; 
Bankipur Suppt. ii pp. 94-5.] 

1010. For the Burhan i mridthir of ‘Ali b. ‘Aziz Allah Tabataba 
see p. 740 supra. 

1011. “ On the back of the first leaf in the present volume ” 
[i.e. the Muntalchab i tawdrikh i Balin'] “ there is a note, in 
English, stating that it contains sketches of the Ahmadnagar 
history, by the late Kazi ’Abd an-Nabi, ‘from original papers 
in his possession, transcribed from the original MS.’ In the 
first lines of the text it is mentioned that the Jami’ al-’Ulum, 
written by the late Kazi ’Abd an-Nabi, is the source from which 
the extracts relating to Ahmadnagar are derived ; and it would 
appear that that work was arranged in alphabetical order, since 
the extracts are said to have been taken from the Chapter of 
Alif with Ha/’ C AM al-Nabi b. Qadi ‘Abd al-Rasul Ahmadnagar! 
is described by Rahman ‘All as a pupil and disciple of Shah 
Wajih al-Din ‘Alawi Ahmadabadi. The well-known Gujrati 
s ain t and scholar of that name (for whom see Rahman ‘All 



742 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

249 etc.) died in 998/1590 and cannot have been the immediate 
teacher of ‘Abd al-Nabl Ahmadnagar!, whose Persian com- 
mentary on the Kafiyah of Ibn al-Hajib, JdmC al-ghunmd 
manba * al-fuyud, was written in 1144/1 731—2 (Editions : Cawn- 
pore 1881° (2nd* ed,), 1896° (4th ed.)). The Jdmi" al-ulum , from 
which the information relating to Ahmadnagar is taken, must 
presumably be the work which in the preface is called Dustur al- 
‘ulama > jdmi' aUulum ai-aqUyah kmm %furu e wa- l-mui al~ 
mqttyah (on the title-page of the printed edition Jdmi' al-ulum 
al-mulagqab bi-Dustur alSiImna’) and of which the first fann, 
an Arabic dictionary of technical terms, was published at 
Haidarabad hi 1329/1911. It may be conjectured that one of 
the funun of that work is a geographico-historical dictionary in 
Persian." V 

Muntakhab i tawarikh i Bahn s ** notices, documents, and 
extracts relating to the history of the Dakhiii ” [especially the 
Nizam-Shahs] Ci taken from the . . . Jami’ al-’Ulum, by the 
Kazi ’Abd an-Nabi : R.A.S. P. 78 = Morley 66. 

[Rahman ‘All p. 135]. 

1012. Shihah al-Din was Qadi of Ahmadnagar in the early 
part of the 19th century. 

Shihabi , a historical work [on the Deccan ?] compiled from 
Firishtah, Khafi Khan, the Jdmi' al-ulimi and the Ydd-ddskt 
i buzurgan : I.O. 4536 (passages relating to Ahmadnagar only 
from the accession of Ahmad Shah [II] Bahmanl to the time of 
[Henry] Pottinger circ. 1229 Fasti). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (nn) BlJAPUR 

1013. Rafl c al-Din Ibrahim b. Nur al-Din Taiiiiq Shiraz! was 
bom in, or about, 947/1 540-1, and went to India originally as 
a merchant. From his twentieth year he served ‘All ‘.Mil-Shah 
(reigned 965/1557-987/1579), at first apparently as steward 
( Jdnvcm-sdldr ), and acted sometimes as his secretary. In 
1005/1596-7 (i.e. in the time of Ibrahim "Adil-Shali II, who 
reigned from 987 1579 to 1035/1626) he was sent on an important 
mission to Ahmadnagar, and about this time he held the offices 



M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (m) BIJAPUR 743 

of Governor of Bljapur, Steward to Prince Path Man and Master 
of the Mint. He wrote an abridgment of the Raudat al-safa 
and a work entitled Farhang-ndmah. 

Tadhkirat al-muluk s begun ill 1017/1608-9 and com- 
pleted in 1020/1611-12, a history of the ‘Adil-Shahs to 
1020/1611-12 and of contemporary Indian and Persian dynasties : 
Blochet i 619 (18th cent.), Rieu i 31.6a (a.d. 1832), iii 1040a 
(extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), Snppt. 83 iii (19th cent.), 
Bodleian 276, Rehatsek p. 73 no. 11, Ethd 2838 (somewhat 
curtailed, a.d. 1879), Asafiyah iii p. 100 no. 1081 (a.h. 1306/ 
1888-9. Title given as Tuhfat al-muluk). 

Abridged translation of an extract: The history of the 
Bahncmi dynasty. Founded on the Burhdn-i Ma,dsir [and the 
Tadhkirat al-muluk ) . By J. S. King. (Reprinted from the 
“ Indian Antiquary ”.) London 1900°*. 

[Autobiographical statements in the Tadhkirat al-muluk ; 
Futuhat i ‘Adil-Shahi (Rieu i 317a) foil. 169a, 2166-2276 ; Rieu 
i 316a.] ;7y V:' : 

1014. M. Hakim (1 Hakim M.) Amin, or Amina, “ Atashi” was 
a court-poet of Sultan Muhammad ‘Adil-Shah (a.h. 1036 or 
1037/1626 or 1627-1067/1656). For a MS. of his Kulliydl see 
Ethe 1536. 

c Adil-fiamah} a mathnawl on the exploits of Sultan Muham- 
mad ‘ Adil-Shah : Eth6 1536 (4) (defective at beginning, a.h. 
1042/1633). 

1015. Hashim Beg “ Fuzuni 55 Astarabadi having performed a 
pilgrimage to Mecca was prevented by the unsafety of the roads 
from returning home and so set out for India, landed on the 
coast of Malabar and w r ent to Bljapur, where Mustafa Khan 
presented him to Sultan Muhammad ‘Adil-Shah. 

Futuhat i ‘ Adil-Shahh a history of the ‘Adil-Shahs to 
a.h. 1054/1644-5 : Rieu i 317a (17th cent.), 318d (abridged. 
19th cent.). 

[‘Abd al-Nabl Mai-khanah pp. 443-9; Makhzam l-ghard ’ ib 
no. 1909.] 

1016. Abu ’l-Qasim al-Husaini composed 



744 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Guldastah i gulshan i raz [?], a history of Muhammad 
‘Adil-Shah : Browne Coll. H. 17 (13) == Houtum-Schindler 24 
(defective at end). 

1017. S. Nur Allah b. Qadl S. ‘All Muhammad al-Husainl 
al-Qadiri was one of the men of letters in whose society £ Ali 
£ Adil-Shah II (a.h. 1070/1660-1083/1672) delighted. 

( Tarikh (Tawarikh) i c Ah- Adil-Shah(i)( yati)\ a turgid 
history of £ AlI £ Adil-Shah. II from his birth to the invasion of 
Rajah Jai Singli and Shivaji and their final repulse in 1076/ 
1665-6, completed in 1077/1666-7 : Agafiyahi p. 226 no. 556, iii 
p. 96 no. 1076 (a.h. 1097/1685-6), Lindesiana p. 207 no. 937 
(circ. a.d. 1720), Rieu i 318a (18th cent.), iii 9686 (defective at 
end. Circ. a.d. 1850), 3186 (a.d. 1821), Eth6 450 (n.d.), 451 (n.d.), 
452 (a.h. 1233/1818), 453 (19th cent.), I.0. 4533 (a.h. 1298/1880), 
Ivanow 1st Suppt. 760 (early 19th cent.), Gotha Arabic Cat. v 
p. 487 no. 9** (4) (a.h. 1257/1841). 

[Ahwal i sal-aim i Bijapur (B.M. MS. Add. 26,270 fol. 30) ; 
Rieu i 318.] 

1018. At the request of £ Abd al-Muhammad Shah-nawaz 
Khan an anonymous author 1 compiled the 

Tawarikh i haft kurst 5 a sketch of Adil-Shahi history to 
1097/1686 in seven majalis : Efcb.6 454. 

1019. An anonymous author, who is called by Grant Duff 
( History of the Mahraitas i p. 78) 2 Syud Moideen [= Muhyl 
’I-Din ?] Peerzadah and by Erskine (in a note at the end of 

1 According to H. H. Wilson The Mackenzie Collection, 2nd ed„ Calcutta 
1828, p. 374, the author is “ Ased khan of Lar ’’ {? Asad Khan Lari). It may 
perhaps be the history mentioned in § 1019 as by Mir Ibrahim b. Mir jlusain 
Lur Asad-Khani. On a fly-leaf of the I.O. MS. the authorship is ascribed to 
Futur Ivhan [sic ?]. 

2 “ A history of Bcejapoor, written by Syud Moideen Peerzadeh, suggested 
by numerous enquiries put to him by English officers, who have been much 
in the habit of visiting Beejapoor since the last Mahratta war. It was finished 
in January’ 1821 : and although great pains have been taken, the author’s 
dates, by confusing the Soorsun and Hejrie eras, are frequently much mis- 
placed, His industry, however, is very commendable.” 



745 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (mi) BIJAPUR 

the B.M. MS. Add. 26,269) Sueed Ghulam Moideen Peerzadah, 
compiled in 1221/1806-7 from the histories of Mir Ibrahim b. 
Mir Husain Lur Asad-Khani (written in the time of ‘All ‘Adll- 
Shah II) and Shaikh Abu ; 1-Hasan (who died a few years before 
the capture of Bljapur) his 

Ahwal i salatln i Bljapur , a sketch of ‘Adil-Shahi history 
to the death of Sikandar in 1111/1699: Rieu i 3186 (a.h. 
1236/1821), R.A.S. P. 76 = Morley 64. 

1020. Ghulam Murtada called Sahib Hadrat was an acquaint- 
ance of J. C. Grant Duff, the author of a well-known History of 
the Mdhrattas , who mentions him in that work (vol. i p. 98) 
not indeed as the author of the Basdtln al-saldtin but as “ a 
Peerzaduh, styled Sahib Hazrut, son-in-law of Abdoolah Sahib, 
a very venerable and sensible old man, the most respectable 
person now in Beejapoor 55 1 and as the owner of “ original 
memoranda for a history of Beejapoor, partly arranged by 
Abdool Hossein [sic, for Abu ’1-Hasan] Qazee, who died a few 
years before the city was finally captured According to the 
British Museum copies the Basdtln al-saldtin was completed in 
1237 /1822, which is indeed the date of Add. 26,269, and according 
to one of them it was intended for presentation to Mr. Grant, 
the Resident [i.e. the afore -mentioned J. C. Grant Duff, originally 
Grant, British Resident at Satarah, for whom see Buckland’s 
Dictionary of Indian biography p. 178]. In the other recorded 
copies, however, the name of Ghulam Murtada is replaced in the 
preface by that of Muhammad Ibrahim al-Zubairl and the date 
of completion is given as 1240/1824. 

Basdtln al-saldtin , a history of the ‘Adil-Shahs to Aurang- 
zeb’s conquest (with a brief summary of subsequent events), 
in eight sections called basdtin: Rieu i 319a (a.h. 1237/1822), 
3206 (a.h. 1247/1831), 3206 (19th cent.), R.A.S. P. 77 - Morley 
65 (a.h. 1240/1824), Bankipur vii 612 (a.h. 1241/1825), Bombay 
Fyzee 13 (a.h. 1245/1829-30), Eth<§ 455. 

1 “ He is fuU of legendary information, and on seeing and conversing with 
him, in the midst of lofty domes and falling palaces, one fancies himself in 
company with the last of the inhabitants of that wonderful place.” 



746 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Edition : Haidarabad n.d * (Saiyidi Press), 1310/1892-3 
(Asafiyah i p. 224 nos. 278 and 795. Perhaps identical with 
the preceding edition). 

Urdu translation : by M. Fadl al-Haqq also called Ahmad 
Miyan, Baroda 1895* (Nagarl character). 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (oo) GOLCONDA 

1021. It was in 1016/1607, according to Sprenger, 1 that 
“ Fuisi ” composed Ms Nasab-namah or Nisbat-mmak i 
shahryan , as Sprenger calls it. 

Nasab-namah , or, according to Sprenger, Nisbat-ndmah i 
shahryan, a poem of about 20,000 verses on the history of 
the Qutb-Shahi dynasty extending to the beginning of M.-Qulfs 
reign (a.h. 989/1581-1020/1611) : Sprenger no. 227 (Moti 
Mahall and A.S.B.), Ivanow 690 (fine copy. a.h. 1022/1613 (?)), 
691 (“ Tawankh i Qutb-Shah,” an abridgment (?), 2 made possibly 
by Hlra La‘l “ Khwush-dil ? \ Haidar-Qull Khans Munshl, 
to whom the work is ascribed in the colophon of this MS. 
Defective and perished copy. Late 18th cent.), Ethe 1486 (the 
same abridgment. N.d.). 

1022. It was at the command of Sultan Muhammad Qutb- 
Shah, who reigned from 1020/1612 to 1035/1626, that an anony- 
mous author wrote the Tanjfch i Sultdn-Muhammad-0 uib-Skdhl , 
which was (doubtless only in part) abridged from an earlier 
history and completed in Sha'ban 1026/1617. 3 

1 Ivanow was ‘‘ unable to discover the date of composition. 1016/1607, 
given in Spr. 406 ” and thought the poem probably earlier, 

2 “ The author’s name is given (on ff. 3v, 9v, 107 etc.) as Fursi, the same 
as in the preceding work, and a collation with it shows that both works are not 
only identical in their arrangement and contents, but even that in the present 
version there are a great number of liemistiehs agreeing word for word with 
those in No. 600. The connection of both works is beyond dispute, but it is 
difficult to determine the nature of this relation ” (Ivanow). 

3 Kieu’s statement (copied by several later cataloguers) that this work was 
begun in Bha’bau 1026 and completed at the beginning of 1027 is apparently 
due to misunderstanding of a passage in which the author says that he completed 
it in Sha'ban 1026, the beginning of the 27th year of the Sultan’s life. 



747 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (oo) GOLCONDA 

Tankh i Sul tan- Muhammad- Qutb- Shahi , as the author 
calls it in the preface, or Tankh i Qutb-Shdhl, as it is sometimes 
called, a history of the Qutb-Shahl dynasty to the end of 
1025/1616: Eth€ 456 (a.h. 1078/1668), 457 (a.h. 1197/1783- 
1198/1784), 458-62 (5 copies, one described as old), 1.0. 3676(a) 
(a.d. 1852), 4534 (a.d. 1880 ?), Bloehet iv 2325 (a.h. 1082/1671), 
i 621 (early 18th cent.), Leyden hi p. 10 no. 922 (not later than 
a.d. 1680), Rieu i 322a (3 copies, one of the 17th cent.), 3206 
(a.h. 1196/1782), iii 957a (extracts only), Bankipur vii 613 
(a.h. 1171/1757-8), Browne Suppt. 243 (Christ’s), 244 (a.h. 1199/ 
1784-5. King’s 89), A§afiyah i p. 228 nos. 401, 374, 680, 790 
(“Tankh i Qutb-Shdhl Probably not all the same work, 
since only 374 is expressly stated to be the same work as 401, 
which is described as written in 1026), Bodleian 277, R.A.S. 
P. 80 '== Morley : 68. ; y/,ri - ; 

1023. Mahmud 1 b. ‘Abd Allah Nishapurl entered the service 
of Sultan Muhammad-Qull Qutb-Shah in 995/1587. He made a 
pilgrimage to Mecca and also a long journey tlirough Persia. At 
one place in his Ma’dthir i Qutb-Shdhl i Mahmudl a.h. 3033/1624 
is mentioned as the current year, but elsewhere a later date, 
a.h. 1038/1629, occurs. It seems probable that he is identical 
with the author of the Tankh i Turhnanlyah (see p. 299 supra). 

Ma’dthir i Qutb-Shahl i Mahmudl , a history originally 
written in three volumes but afterwards several times altered and 
enlarged, of which the portion surviving in Ethe 463 contains 
a brief sketch of the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb-Shali 
with, a detailed account of contemporary events especially 
under the Safawls based on the ‘Alam-drdy i ‘Abbasl and 
divided into 12 maqdlahs : Ethd 463 (portion only, defective 
at end). 

1024. Nizam al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah al-Shirazi al-Sa/idl. 

Hadlqat al-saldtln, a pompous history of Sultan ‘Abd Allah 
Qutb-Shah (b. 1023/1614, acc. 1035/1626, d. 1083/1672) from 

1 Ethe calls . |he author of the Ma’athir i Qutb-Shdhi i MalimMi “ Muhammad 
bin ‘Abdallah or Niahapur ” and the author of the Tarikh i Turkumaniyah 
“ Ibn ‘Abdallah Mahmud of Nishapur ” without suggesting their identity. 



748 II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

iiis birth to the sixteenth year of his reign, a.h. 1050/1640-1 : 
Rieu i 321a (a.ii. 1196/1782), 322a (defective. 18th cent.), EthA 
464 (a.d. 1807), I.O. 3676 (6) (a.d. 1852). 

Edition (of “ Part I ”) : Haidarabad 1350/1932* 1 (edited by 
S. 'All As^iar Bilgrami). 

1025. For the Hadigat al~‘dlam of Mix-'AIam (Abu T-Qasim 
b. Bad! al-Din al-Miisawi) see p. 751 infra. 

1026. M. Qadir Khan u Munshl ” Bidarl was the author of 
works entitled Tankh i Asaf-JdM (see p. 755 infra), Tawankh 
i farkhmdah (see p. 755 infra), Sair i Hind u gulg'asht i Dakan, 
written in 1247/1831-2 (see Asafiyah i p. 242 nos. 286 and 754), 
and Shams al-madhdhib, written in 1251/1835-6. 

(1) Tankh i Qutb-Shdhi : Rien iii 10376 (extracts only. 
Giro. a.d. 1850). 

Edition: Burhamyah Press, iHaidarabad (see Haidarabad 
Coll. p. 50, where the date is not mentioned). 

(2) Tankh i Qddin ? a history of the Qutb-Shahs mitten in 
1249/1833-4 (and probably identical with the preceding work) : 
Ajjailyah i p. 228 no. 409 (a.ii. 1300/1882-3), no. 679 (a.h. 1307/ 
1889-90). 

1027. Other works : 

(1) {Naql ija?nshed Khan), a short anonymous account 
of the reign of Jamshed Khan Qutb-Shah : D.M.G1. 11 (38 foil. 
a.h. 1246/1831). ■ 

(2) Tarikh i Dakan hdldt i Onibiyah : Asafiyah iii p. 96 

no. 1178. ; . . * : . 

3L HISTORY OF INDIA : (pp) HAIDARABAD 

1028. Mir M. Ahsan Ijad ■” has already been mentioned 
(p, 604 supra ) as the author of a history of Farrukh-siyar. 

Tarikh i futuhat i Asafi, ma?izmn ( Shdh-ndmah % Dakan), 

1 Cf. Luzar/s Oriental List, vol. xlix, no. 3 (July-Scpt. 1933), p. 93, where 
the place of publication is given as Karachi. 


749 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (pp) HAIDARABAD 

a poem on the events of forty years in India and the conquests 
of Asaf-Jah : Asafiyah iii p. 96 no. 1493 (defective at both 
ends. a.h. 1133/1720-1). 

1029. When Nizam-‘Ali Khan was marching against 
Rag’hunat’h Rao, he asked M. Faid-Bakjhsh Qadi Aurangabad! 
to write an account of the campaign. 

History of the campaign against Rag’hundt’h Rao and 
other Marat’ha commanders from 22 Sha'ban 1187 /9 Nov. 1773 to 
his defeat and flight on 6 Rabfi 1188/17 May 1774: Bankipur 
vii 614 (31 foil. 19th cent.). 

1030. Mun‘im Khan b. ‘Abd al-Mugh.nl Hamadani 1 Aurang- 
abad! 2 was in the military service of Nizam- ‘All Khan, from 
w T hom he received the titles of Mun'im al-Daulah Qudrat-Jang, 
and was for a time QaVah-dar of Bidar. He was in his 47tli 
year when he wrote his Sawdnih i Bohan. 

Sawanih i Dakan 3 an account of the six subahs of the Deccan 
and a history of the Nizams to a.ii. 1197 /1783 followed by notices 
of prominent amirs of Nizam- £ Ali’s reign, of Mad’hava Rao 
and Rag’huji Bhoslah with a Jchdtimah containing an account 
of the author and his ancestors : Rieu i 3226 (late 18th cent.), 
iii 10396 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 1040a (extracts only. 
Circ. a.d. 1850), A§afiyah i p. 242 no. 604, Ethd 2836 (lacks 
most of the Jchdtimah), 1.0. 3888. 

1031. Of unknown authorship is 

A short history of the Nizams to the accession of Mir 
Nizam- All Khan in 1175/1761 written apparently in 1198/ 
1784, but without preface or author’s name (beginning Asl i nasab 
i sharif i hadrat i Nawwdb i mustatab i mu‘ alld-alqab) : Rieu i 
323a (53 foil. Late 18th cent.). 

1032. Shah Taj all! ‘Ali was a disciple and pupil of the saint and 
calligraphist Shah Mu‘In Tajalli and became distinguished himself 

1 He claimed descent from the well-known Naqshbandi saint Khwajah 
Yusuf Hamadani. 

2 His grandfather settled in Aurangabad. 



750 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

as a mystic, a calligraphy a poet, a prose-writer, and a painter. 
He was a constant companion of Nizam-' All Khan (Nizam of 
Haidarabad 1175/1761-1218/1803), of A'zam al-umara’ Arastu- 
Jah and of Shams al-umara’. When he wrote the Tuzuk i 
Asaftyah A‘ zam al-umara’ procured for him a gift of fifty thousand 
rupees from the amirs of Haidarabad. Eor a portrait of Nizam- 
‘All Khan he received a reward of five thousand rupees. 

According to the Gulzdr i Asaftyah he died in 1215/1800-1. 
According to Rieu iii 1037a “ In a copy [of the Tuzuk i Asaftyah] 
belonging to Mir Akbar 'All Khan, of Haidarabad, the history is 
brought down toShavval a.h. 1206, and it is stated at the end that 
it was cut short by the death of the author 

Tuzuk i Asaft 5 or Tuzuk i Asaftyah, or Asaf-ndmah , or 
Tadhikirah i Asaft, a history of the Nizams and especially Nizam- 
‘All Khan to Shawwal 1206/1792: Ethd 467 (a.h. 1226/1811), 
A§afiyahip. 234 nos. 526 (a.h. 1260/1844), 732 (a.h. 1298/1881), 
Bankipur vii 616 (extending to a.h. 1217/1802 ? 19th cent.), 
Eieu iii 1037a (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850), 1039a (extracts 
only. Giro. a.d. 1850), perhaps also R.A.S. P. 79 = Morley 67 
(" TarlM i Nizam- All Khan u Ndsir-Jang Defective at end). 

Edition : Haidarabad 1310/1892-3 (see Asaftyah i p. 234 
nos. 475 and 710 and Haidarabad Coll. p. 58). 

[Gulzdr i Asaftyah pp. 382-3 ; Sprenger p. 294.] 

1033. Lachhmi Narayan “ Shafiq ” Aurangabadi (see pp. 476-8 
supra). 

(1) Mcfdthir i Asafi, a history of the Nizams, completed 
1 Rabr ii 1208/6 Nov. 1793 : Ethd 468, Ivanow 196 (defective 
at end. Early 13th cent, h,), Rieu iii 1039a (extracts only. 
Giro. a.d. 1850). 

(2) “ A description of the city of Haidarabad ’> its 
mosques, palaces and gardens with a sketch of its history and an 
account of the neighbouring provinces of MuliammadaMd 
(Bldar) and Aurangabad” written a.h. 121 4 / 179 9 - 1. 300 (beg. 
Bad i hamd i Paneardgdr) : Rieu i 327a (early 19th cent.). 

1034. Abu ’1-Qasim b. Radi al-Dln al-lliisawl, sumamed 



751 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA .* (pjp) HAIDARABAD 

(al-mulaqqab) Mir-‘Alam, as lie calls himself in the preface to 
the Hadiqat al-‘akm, i.e. Mir Abu ’I-Qasim Musawl Shushtari, 
was born at Haidarabad in 1166/1752-3, his father having 
migrated to the Deccan from Persia (az wilayat, Gulzdr i Asaflyah 
p. 305 7 ) in the time of Asaf-Jab I (d. 1161/1748). He became 
the confidential agent of Nizam-'Ali Khan (Nizam of Haidarabad 
1175/1761-1218/1803) and was repeatedly entrusted with 
important missions. In 1201 /1786-7 ( Gulzdr i Asaflyah p. 306 12 ) 
he; was sent to Calcutta for the purpose of negotiating a treaty 
with Lord Cornwallis, and on his return he received the title 
of Mir- Alarm ( ba-Miitab i Mtr- e Alam Bahadur mashhur i dfaq 
Ami, Gulzdr i Asaflyah p. 307 2 ). In 1206/1792 he took a promi- 
nent part in the conclusion of peace with Tipu Sultan. At 
the siege of Seringapatam in 1213/1799 he was in command of 
the Nizam's contingent. In Rabf ii 1219/1804 Sikandar-Jah 
(Nizam of Haidarabad 1218/1803-1244/1829) appointed him 
Dhvdn and Maddr al-mahdmm ( Gulzdr i Asaflyah p. 21 3 14 ). 
After holding this office for four years and a half he died on 
23 Shawwal 1223/12 Dee. 1808 (Gulzdr i Asaflyah p. 315 s ), 
and, according to the Qdmus al-mashahlr , he lies buried in the 
Da’irah i Mir Mumin at Blaidarabad. 

( 1 ) Hadiqat al~ alamf a liistory of the Qutb-Shahs and the 
Nizams in two maqdlahs ((1) the Qutb-Shahs in seven bobs, 
(2) the Nizams in a muqaddimah (Subah-ddrs of the Tmivirids) 
and four tabs ((1) Asaf-Jah, d. 1161/1748, (2) Nasir-Jang, d. 
1164/1750, (3) Salabat-Jang, d. 1177/1763, (4) Nizam-All, to 
1209/1794-5 with a few lines on the 2nd Mysore War and 
Tlpu's death in 1213/1799), a fifth bdb (on Sikandar-Jah) and a 

1 According to >S. (Husain BilgrumI A memoir of Sir Salur Jung, Bombay 
1883. p. 12, the IJadiqat al-alam was really written by ‘A bd al-Latlf Shushtan, 
the author of the Tuhfai al-Alam (for which see Rieu i 383 etc.), and in the 
B.M. MS. Add. 26,259 (Rieu i 3246) there is a preamble in which M. Abn Turab 
b. S. Ahmad al-RidawI claims the authorship. Similarly in Ethe 465 there is 
a preamble in which Mir Abu Turab says that at Mlr-'Aiam’s request be wrote 
in 1221/1806 a history of the Qutb-Shahs entitled Qutb-numdy i 'alum and 
divided into a muqaddimah , seven babs and a Jchatimah (on Mir-’Alam’s life). 
For a copy see Ethe 2840 mentioned below. A work by Abu Turab entitled 
Farfyal al-alam of which an edition [?] was published (where ?) in 1221/1806 
is mentioned in Asaflyah ii p. 880 no. 133. 



752 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

Mmtimah (on the author’s life) having apparently remained 
unwritten : Eth6 465 ( Maqalah i), 466 (a fragment (40 foil.) 
of a history of Nizam-'Ali from his birth a.h. 1146/1733-4 to 
a.h. 1171/1758, “no doubt a part of the first original sketch, 
out of which the second makdlah of the work has been expanded.” 
a.d. 1785), 2839 {Maqalah i), 2840 (Mir Abu Turab’s Quit- 
mtmay i ( dlmn virtually identical with the IJctMqat al-dlmn. 
a.h. 1222/1807), Rieu i 3236 (Maqalah i only. Early 19th cent.), 
3246 ( Maqalah ii, slightly defective at end. Eealy 19th cent.), 
3256 (5 foil., supplying the defect at end of the preceding. Early 
19th cent.), Suppt. 84 i (both maqdlahs, a.h. 1258/1842), R.A.S. 
P. 81 (Maqalah i. a.h. 1258/1842). 

Editions : HaMarahad 1266/1850°, 1310/1892-3*. 

Abridged English translation of Maqalah ii : E. B. Eastwick 
The Kaimrndmak i Bind, London 1877-82, vol. i, appendix, 

pp. 1-106. 

( 2 ) Baydn ijang i Asaf-Jdh kih dar Barar waqi 1 shudah 
(beginning Nizam al-Mulk i sukkummn), by Mir Abu 1-Qasim 
al-MusawI [i.e. presumably Mir- £ Alam] : Berlin 15 (17) (a.h. 
1203/1788-9). 

[ £ Abd al-Latlf Shushtarl Tuhfat al-dlam (B.M. MS. Add. 23,533, 
foil. 53-60); Gulzdr i Asccfiyah pp. 305-15; Beale Oriental 
biographical dictionary , p. 249 ; H. Gr. Briggs The Nizam . His 
history and relations with the British Government, London 1861, 
vol. 1, pp. 139-41; E. B. Eastwick TheKaisarndmah i Bind, 
London 1877-82, vol. i pp. 106-7 ; Nigami Badayuni Qamus 
al-mashiihrr (in Urdu) ii p. 247 ; M%r- l Alam t an Urdu biography 
(230 pp.) by Siraj al-Dln Tfdib ”, Haidarabad ; Portrait in 
Pictorial Hyderabad compiled . . . by Ii. Krishnmwamy Miuliraj , 
Haidarabad 1929, vol. i, p. 192.] 

1035. Khwajah c Ahd aUpakim was educated at Farrukhabad 
and was a pupil of M. Rahm-‘AIi Khan and of Mufti S. M. Wall 
Allah [Farrukhabadi, for whom see pp. 25 and 694 supra). At the 
time when he wrote th oTuhfahi Alcbari he had been for nine years 
in the service of the government of Haidarabad, having obtained 



753 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (pp) HAIDARABAD 

employment there through Munshi Mir ‘Aziz Allah, Mir Mtmshi to 
the darbdir, and had received the titles of Khan and Bahadur 
and a mansab. 

Tuhfah i Akbari, a concise history of the Nizams of 
Haidarabad and contemporary rulers in the Deccan down to 
the time of Mir Akbar ‘All Khan [Sikandar-Jah 1218/1 803— 
1244/1829], of the Indian Tlmurids from Ahmad Shah to Shah- 
1 Ala m, and of the Panjab from the rise of the Sik’hs, written 
apparently in 1219/1804-5 : I.O. 4009 (a.d. 1897). 

1036. ‘AM al-Razzaab, ‘AM al-Nabi, an inhabitant of the 
district of Nander (on the Hodavarl, 145 miles N. of Haidarabad) 
was employed as MunsM i dak by Sir John Malcolm, who reached 
Nirmal in September 1817 during his campaign against the 
Bindarls. 

Tadhkirah i Nirmal, a history of the fortress of Nirmal 
to 1198/1783 (so Kieu, but Ethe 469 goes down to 1231/1816) 
written at Sir J. Malcolm’s request : Riert i 327a (circ. a.d. 1817), 
EtM 469 (a.d. 1851), Asafiyah i p. 232 no. 461 (a.h. 1288/1871-2), 
iii p. 98 no. 996 (a.ii. 1247/1831-2), Ivanow 197 (a.h. 
1316/1898-9). 

Edition : Haidarabad 1323/1905-6 (see Asaf. i p. 232 no. 920 
and Haidarabad Coll. p. 16). 

1037. Paid i Haqq Siddlql Qadirl Chishti commonly called 
M. Faid AESh spent many years under the protection and 
patronage of the Nawwab Mumtaz al-umara’ Bahadur and 
Rajah Sham Raj Bahadur. He is no doubt identical with the 
Paid i Haqq who in 1252/1836-7 composed the Rimla'h ifaicaid 
mentioned under the heading MmvtCiz i f drift in the Asafiyah 
Library catalogue vol. ii p. 1606 no. 204. It was in 1236/1820 
that he wrote the WaqdH* i Dakcm. 

(1) Waqa > i i i Dakan , a history of the Nizams to a.h. 
1233/1817 : Bankipur vii 617 (a.h. 1241/1826). 

(2) Tankh i Gauhar i shdhwdr , a history of which the 
precise subject is not stated in Asafiyah i p. 230 no. 442 (a.h. 
1299/1881-2). 



754 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, : : 

1038. Ghulam-Husain Khan “ Jaithar ” became in 1190/1770 
secretary to the Dltrihi of Haidarfibftd A'zam al-unuim' (jhulfun- 
Saiyid Khan (cl 1219/1804-5). Subsequently lie retired to 
Muhaim tiadabad (Bldar) and wrote Ms 'Aril i Ja'ukar, a collection 
of poems and letters, as well as works on astrology, geometry, 
and medicine. In 1225/1810 lie returned to Haidarabad and made 
the acquaintance of Rajah Chanda Lai ,k Hhadan " (who beeame 
1)1 wan in 1818 and died in 1845) 1 2 * and the poetess Chanda Blbl- 
called Mfih-liqa, Ba'I. In 1238/1822-3 lie again visited Haidarabad. 
and saw much of Chanda, at whose request, in his seventieth year, 
he wrote his Tarlkh i tUl-ctfniz. 

(1) Tarlkh i dil-afrug 5 a history of the Nizams to the acces- 
sion of Sikandar-Jah a.h. 1218/1803 divided into a •muqaddbnah 
(on the origin of the Nizams), fourteen lam) ahs ((i) Asaf-Jah, 
(2) Nasir-Jang, (3) Salabat-Jang, (4) Nizam- £ Al! Khan, (5) 
Nizam- 4 All’s younger brothers, esp. Basalat-Jang and Mihr- 
‘All, (6) famous men of Nizam- 4 All’s reign, (7) Sikandar-Jah, 
(8) Chanda Bibi, (9) geography and history of the Six Subahs 
and of Hindustan, (10) extent of the empire under Shah-Jahan 
and Aurangzeb, (11) fortresses, princes, and officials under the 
same Emperors, (12) creation of the world, etc., (13) the Seven 
Climates, (14) rivers, mountains, etc.) and a khdti truth (Hindi 
poems by Chanda) : Rieu i 3256 (lacks khdiinuth. 19th cent.), 
3266 (defective at both ends. Early 19th cent.). 

(2) Mah-ndmah, a history (precise subject not ascertained, 
but perhaps identical with the: preceding) : A^afiyah I p. 230 
no. 410 (a.h. .1238/1822-3), LO. 4532 (portion relating to the 
/Deccan),; /dd/'/ :: //:y / f r/c./;/ ;///;, y.-v v -/8/v // d///// / ; //''/ : v / 

[Tarlkh l dil-afruz , near beginning (of. Rieu i 325u).] 

1039. S. Utifat Husain Khan b. 'Aziz Allah Khan was 
Mir Munshl to the British Residency at Haidarabad in the time 
of Sir Henry Russell (1811-20). 

1 For life life see Bueklan & Dictionary of Indian biography, p, 79, and the 

various works on the history of Haidarabad. Urdu, Hindi, and 'Persian dlunm 
of his are extant, .//yd/ y.v d/dy- .,y / : / ' 

2 For her Urdu dun'm see Blumhardt Catalogue of the HinduMaru MSS. in 

the. Library of the India Of) ice, no. 218, where some account' of her is given. 


755 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (pp) HAIDARABAD 

Nigaristan i Asafl } a history of the Nizams written shortly 
after 1231/1816 by order of Sir H. Russell : Ivanow 1st Suppt. 
764 (•'•' Cond. hopeless.” Mid 19th cent.). 

Edition : place ? 1323/1905 (apparently in the same volume 
as ‘Azlz-Jang’s Mahbub al-siyar. See Asafiyah i p. 252 no. 493). 

1040. Makk’han La‘l Shahjahanpurl Haidarabad! wrote his 
Yadgar i MakFIum La' l at the suggestion of Charles Metcalfe, 
British Resident at Haidarabad (1820-5). 

Yadgar i Mak&han La c l , a history of Haidarabad : Asafiyah 
iii p. 112 no. 1094. 

Edition : TdnJch i Yadgar, Haidarabad (see Haidarabad 
Coll. p. 38, where the date is not specified). 

1041. M. Qadir Khan “ Munshi ” Bidarl has already been 
mentioned (p. 748 supra) as the author of a history of the Qutb- 
Shahs written in 1249/1833-4. 

(1) Tankh i Asaf-Jdhl 3 ^ a history of the Nizams from their 
origin to the accession of Sikandar-Jah. (a.h. 1218/1803) : Bieu 
iii 10376 (extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850). 

(2) Tawafikh i farkhundah, a short history of Haidarabad 
to a.h. 1240/1824-5 : Asafiyah i p. 234 no. 246 (a.ii. 1240/ 
1824-5). 

1042. Khwajah Ghulam-Husain Khan, entitled {al-muldmtab 
hah) Khan i Zaman Khan, b. Hakim al-Mamalik Masih al-Daulah 
Khwajah M. Baqir Khan was bom in 1199/1784-5. He was 
appointed Ta‘aUuq~dar i Dmm-Mdnah i Mass (Director of the 
Court Dispensary) by Sikandar-Jah (Nizam of Haidarabad 
1803-29). His successor Nasir al-Daulah (1829-57) retained 
him and his brothers as court physicians, like their father and 
grandfather before them. In the Asafiyah catalogue (iii p. 109) 
the date of his death is given as 1260/1844, but this may perhaps 
be the date of composition placed in the wrong column, 

Gulzar i Asafiyah 3 a history of the Qutb-Shahs and, more 
especially, the Nizams, with biographies of the notable persons 



756 


II. HISTORY. BIOGRAPHY,.. ETC. 


wlio flourished under the latter, statistics of the six provinces 
of the Deccan, and other matters, completed <m 4 d'umada ii 
A.H. 1260/1844. 1 

Edition : Muhammadl Press [Bombay. 2 Printed for 8. Rustam 
"All, Bookseller, Haidarfibad] 1308:1891 * 3 (el'. Asaftvah iii 
p. 108 no. 1211). 

[Gulzur j A sap yah. M tiijitihli/nali.] 

1043. ‘Ahd al-AlIm M. Nasr Allah Khan “ Qanmr ” h. 
Hakim ‘Umar Khan Ahmad! Khweshgi 4 Khurjawl left his 
birthplace Khurjah 5 at the age of ten on his father’s death and 
went to live with his maternal uncle Path Khan, who was then 
tahsildar at Nizamabiid. (A'zamgarh Dist.). The well-known 
Maulaw! Ahmad ‘All Chiriyakot! (for whom see Rahman ‘Al!) 
was one of his teachers. He entered the service of Government, 
and in 1838 became a Deputy ( 'oilector. In 1865, some years 
after leaving the government service, he went to Haidarabad. 
and remained there for 15 years, serving first as Nazim (Chief 
Judge) of the Faujdarl ‘Adalat (Criminal Court) and subsequently 
as a Sadr TSalluqah-dar (corresponding in many respects to a 
Revenue Commissioner in British India, see Temple Journals 
i p. 34). He died, at Khurjah on 27 Muliamun 1299/19 Dec. 
1881, He was held in much estimation as a Sufi and as an official. 

Nineteen works of his are mentioned in the Buydd i jun-frSt 
p. 21, including (1) Tuhfat al-musiallvn, a Persian translation of 
Sadld al-Dln al-K4shgharIk Miniyal al-mamdll (C'awnpore 
1299/1882°, Lahore [1882°]), (2) Shark i Ruhnyat i Yusuf l, a 
commentary on ££ Yusufi’s” metrical therapeutics (Agrah 1863' , 
Oawnpore 1299/1,882 ), (3) TirijtXk i Kh urjah , on antidotes io 

1 On p. 152 ijhfi. ’1-Hijjah 1258 is mentioned as the date of completion. 

2 in the Axafivah catalogue. the place of printing is said to he J,mi<n<nv, 
but this is evidently Incorrect, since the work appears in the Bombay' Quarterly 
Catalogue for 1 in- 4th quarter of 1891. 

3 .Mo such date is traceable ia the I.O. copy, which, however, seems to 
have lost two preliminary pages after the first leaf. 

4 This is the name of an Afghan clan. 

5 Khurjah is H) miles ,S. of Bulandshahr, 30 miles X. of Aligarh, and 50 miles 
S.E, of Delhi, 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (pp) HAIDARABAD 


757 


snake-poison (Meerut 1279/1862°), (4) Yumn i azfari, a gram- 
mar of Eastern Turkish (Lucknow 1878°), (5) Bayad i dil-kushd, 
an anthology, as well as several works in Arabic and Urdu. 
His Jami‘ i Fath-Kham, a biography of his uncle, wall be 
mentioned in the section on biography. 

Tarikh i Dakan (a chronogram = 1285/1868-9), an account 
of Haidarabad, its physical features, administration, inhabitants, 
distinguished men etc. and of the author’s journey thither 
in 1865 and his subsequent experiences there. 

Editions : Lucknow 1870°*, 1879 ° 

[Sir K. Temple Journals kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir , Sikkim, 
and Nepal, London 1887, vol. i, pp. SI, 99 ; Bayad i jdn-jizd, 
an Urdu biography devoting special attention to Siifistic matters 
by his disciple M. Farid Ahmad, Agrah n.d.* ; Rahman 
‘Ml 237.] 

1044. Abu T-Fath Diya’ al-Din M., known as ( al~ma c ruf ) 
S. Amj ad Husain, b. S. Ashraf al-Husaini al-Anbazi [?] was 
Khafib of the Masjid i Jamb and the ‘Icl-gah of Elichpur 
(Ellichpur in Berar). 

Tarikh i Amjadiyah (“risdlah % hddhd kih bah Riyad al~ 
Rahman, mulaqqab u Tau'dnkh [sic r ] i Dakan ism i tdnkln u 
bah Tarikh i Amjadiyah mashhur asi ”, p. 8 1 ), a history of India 
with special reference to the Deccan and particularly to Berar 
and its one-time capital El ichp ur, begun in 1285/1868-9 (as 
is indicated by its chronogrammatic title Tarikh i Dakan) 
in the time of Afdal al-Daulah, but not completed until after 
his death, since the history of the Nizams is brought down to 
MTr hlahbfib 'All Khan, and on p. 429 ult. the year .1286 [1869-70] 
is mentioned as the date of writing. 

Edition : Matba‘ i Khwurshediyah ( Haidarabad 1], date ? 2 

1 But Tarikh on the title-page and at the head of the table of contents, 
and 1 1lls is clearly correct .since T auxin kk i Dakan. would indicate 1291. 

a The I.O. copy is defective, the last page being 722 (pp. 707-722 are mitt- 
I omul between 050 and 651). Ac cor ling to the tabic of c< ntentf the Mfitmah 
i kitdb began on p. 725. 



758 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

1015. Khan Bahadur Shams al-TIamir Ahmad ‘Abd al-’AzIz 
“ Wila ” Na’itl Madrasi, entitled Nawwab ‘Aziz-Jang Bahadur, 
was born at Nellore in 1855. In. or about, 1873 lie and his 
father settled in Haidarabad and he obtained a post as 
calligrapher to the Nizam's government. Eventually lie became 
a Sadr Ta‘alluqddr, a member of the Legislative Council, and 
Vice-President of the Municipality. He died in 1312/ 
1924 (see Asaflyah iii p. 616 no. 444), He is best known as 
the author of the enormous unfinished Persian dictionary 
entitled Amf al-lughdt, of which seventeen volumes, extending 
to the word jarrdr, were published between 1327/1909 ! and 
1340/1921-2. Other works published by him are ‘ Atlydt i Sidtmri, 
“ a description of gifts, grants, assignments, stipends and allow- 
ances granted in the Deccan provinces ” (Haidarabad a.h. 
1325/1907), Fildhat al-naJchl (Haidarabad 1313 Fash), Kashi 
i angur (Haidarabad a.h. 1323/1905), Kashi i turban (Haidarabad 
1315 FaslI), Siydq i Dalian, on the system of account-keeping 
(Haidarabad 1904) and Tdnkh al-Nawait, a history of the Na’itl 
or Na’itl tribe, who claim to be of Arab descent (Haidarabad, 
date ?), all of these being in Urdu. In 1907 he presented to 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal a collection of over 500 works 
(described in the Author-catalogue of the Haidarabad Collection 
of manuscripts and printed booh', Calcutta 1913). Similar 
donations were made by him to two other Indian libraries. 

Mahbub al-siyar , a history of Mir Mahbiib ‘All Khan, 
G.C.S.L, G.C.B. (Nizam of Haidarabad 1869-1911). 

Edition: ISaidarSMa a.h. 1323/1905 (see Iiaidarfibful Coll, 
p. 19). 

[0. Hayavadana Kao Indian biographical dictionary . p. 0 ; 
Author-catalogue of the. If uidardbdd Colled inn pp. iii. 18-19; 
obituary notice, by J. van Manen in J ASH. vol xxi (1925) 
p. chxxvi ; Portraits in the Mahbub al-siyar , Amf al-lugSaf. 
and other works.] 

1016. Other works : 

(1) Account, in florid and laudatory terms, of the. death of 
Nawwab Afilal al-Daulah Nizam al-Mulk Asaf-Jfih on 13 Dim 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : {pp) HAIDARABAD 759 

M-Qa'duli 1285/25 Feb. 1869 and of the accession of Mir Mahbub 
"Ali Khan, by Ghulam Zain ai- £ Abidin (cf. p. 739) : Ivanow 
Curzon 45 ii (19th cent.). 

(2) Af dal-namah, a biography of Nawwab Nasir al-Daulah, 
by S. ‘Abd al-Rahlm, commonly called ( : urf) Shah Rahim Allah 
Qadiri : Asafiyah iii p. 92 no. 1374. 

(3) Kaifiyat i ahwal i Ddbit-Jang Mubariz al-Mulk 
{an amir in the time of Nizam-'AlI Khan) : Ethe 527 (10). 

(4) Kaifiyat i ahwal i Tegh-Jang Bahadur ; Ethi 527 (7). 

(5) Kaifiyat i Nawwab Haidar-Jang Bahadur : Eth6 
527 (15). 

(6) Kaifiyat i Must Bhuski (i.e. presumably Monsieur 
Bussy, for whom see Buckland Dictionary of Indian bioqrayhy 
p. 64) : Ette 527 (11). 

(7) Madh i Abu 'l-Mansur Sikandar-Jah 3 a panegyric 
on Sikandar-Jah (Nizam of Haidarabad 1218/1803-1244/1829) 
in mixed prose and verse, by Ghulam-Rida Khan : Browne 303. 

(8) Tdrikh i bind i Haidarabad : Asafiyah i p. 222 no. 652. 

(9) Tdrikh i mukhtasar i Haidarabad , translated from 
an English original by M. Farid al-Din Khan, entitled 
(almiukhdtab bah) Nawwab Farid-Nawaz-Jang, son of Nawwab 
Sultan al-Mulk Bahadur. 

Edition : place ? (Haidarabad presumably) 1335/1916-17 
(see Asafiyah iii p. 98 no. 1342). 

(10) Tdrikh i rahat-afza, 1 written by M. 'All b. M. Sadiq 
al-Husaini at the request of Nawwab Mir Najaf ‘All Khan 
Shamdier-Jang : Asafiyah iii p. 96 nos. 1313 (a.h. 1185/1771-2), 
1001 (a.h. 1298/1881). 

(11) Waqd 3 i‘ i shurish, i Afghaniyah , a short account 
of a rising of Mahdawi Afghans at Haidarabad in 1237 / 1821-2, 
by Brij Nath [Vraja-Natha] Khayal : Lahore ’Panjab Univ. 
Lib. (Samwat 1909 /a.d. 1852-3." See Oriental College Magazine , 
vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 60). 

1 The subject of this history is not stated in the Asafiyah catalogue. It is 
included here on the chance that it relates to Haidarabad. 



760 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (qq) THE MA R ATH AS 

1017. At present unidentified is the Persian, original of the 

Translation of an account , of the Moralias, from the reign of 
Shaw Jchan, to the beginning of that of Shaw Allum . from, 
a Persian MS. obtained at Allahabad , January 1769 (in 
A. Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory, vol. i (London 1793°) 
pp. 403-18). 

1048. Between a.d. 1773 and a.d. 1777 an anonymous Hindu 
compiled the 

Tafsil i ahwal i i 2 uruj u khuruj i rajaha u sarddran i 
Daldhan 5 a history of the Marat'has to the death of Slviijl 
and the accession of his son Sambhajjl a.d. 1680 (beg. Hazdran 
shukr Khuddy i bi-chun rd) : Rieu i 3270 (18th cent.), Ethe 485 
(n.d.), 490 (4) (n.d.). 

1049. It was in 1190/1776-7 1 that Munsjii Husam al-Din 
wrote 

Shark i ahwal i Marhattah dar zamdn i sdbiq u hal 
bar sabil i ijrndlf a short (13 foil.) account of the 
Marathas from Shiva. ji to the death of Narayan (a.h. 1188/1774) 
(beg. Aw mil kasi kill bar sar i gaum i Marhattah nmmxir a, 
mashkur gardldah Siwft ivalad i Sanbha etc.) : Rieu ii 861a (19th 
cent.). ■ • 

Edition with English translation : A short account of the 
Marratta State. Written in Persian by a Munshy that accompanied 
Colonel Upton on Ms embassy to Poonah. — Translated by William 
Chambers ... (in The Asiatick miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785*), 
pp. 212-49). 

1050. Probably in 1776 or soon after was compiled 

An account of the Mara f ha Peshwds from the appoint- 
ment of Bajl RaS down to the negotiations of Rag'hfmat/h 

1 This is an inference drawn by Rieu from the fact that Nariiyan Kao’s son. 
Mad hau Rao, who was horn a.h. 1188, is spoken of as a child two years old. 

2 This is the Persian title given to the work in the Asiatick miscellany. 


761 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (qq) THE MARAT HAS 

with Col. Upton at Purand’har in 1776 (beginning Mad' /mu 
Rad pisar i N dray an Rad wdlad i Bald Rad ) : Rieu ii 8016. 

1051. Not later than 1782 \vas written 

Anonymous history of the Mar af has to the Battle of 
Pdnlpat (beginning : Wtsoji Pant kih jadd i swum i Bdttji 
Rdo Pesktvd bud naukar i Ydqut Khcm H aba sfn Sahib i Rcijpuri 
hud) : Glasgow 1 (see JRAS. 1906, p. 597, no. 6).’ 

English translation: A short historical narrative of the rise 
and rapid admncment "of ■ 'th& rMahrattah State, to the present 
strength ami consequence it has acquired in the East. Written ■ 
originally in Persian; and translated into English by an Officer in 
the East India Company's service [James Kerr], London 1782*. 

1052. At present unidentified is the Persian original of the 
extract published in The Asiatic Annual Register ... . . Vol.xiL 
— For the Year 1810-11. By E. Samuel, London 1812*, pp. 421-5, 
under the title Translated Extracts of a Persian Manuscript 
[entitled Memorandums and Recent Anecdotes of the Southern Courts 
of Hindoostan , by a Mussulman Observer, in the year 1195-6 
Hegree , a.d. 1781-2 (beginning ; The Mahrattas of all the infidel 
tribes of Hindoostan, are best known to tlie Islaamites). 

1055. In 1197/1783 was compiled 

An account of the Marafhd empire (beginning Maharajah 
Rajah Baku Bhonslah dar Satdrah sukunal ddsht ) : Eieu ii 8016 
(18th cent). 

1054. Nawwab Amin al-Daulah ‘Aziz al-Mulk ‘All Ibrahim 
Khan Bahadur Nasir-Jang has already been mentioned (pp. 700-2 
supra) as the author of an account of Rajah Chait Sing’h’s 
rebellion. 

History of the Marafhd wars in Hindustan from 1171/ 
1757-8 to 1199/1784-5, especially Visvasa Raos attempt to 

1 “ The history is preceded by a list of the Mogul Emperors and their sons 
anti by four folios containing an account of Ghazi al-DIn Khan, the wazlr of 
Ahmad Shah and ‘Alamglr IL” 



762 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

seize the throne of the Timurids, completed at Benares in 1201/ 
1786-7 : Berlin 15 (4) (a.h. 1204/1790), I.O. 6957 (late 18th 
or early 19th cent.), 4033 (a.d. 1890), Eth6 491 (defective at end 
and damaged. Not later than a.d. 1818), Rieu i 328« (a.h. 
1229/1814), 328a (early 19th cent.), iii 9686 (circ. a.d. 1850), 
969a (circ. a.d. 1850), . Lindesiana p. 421..;- no. 452 (“ Akwttl i 
jang i Marhattah a.d. 1863), Ivanow Curzon 47 (19th cent,). 

English translation by Major A. B, Fuller: EM. MS. Add. 
30,784, 

Description and 40 pp. of extracts from Fuller's translation 
(nearly the whole work apart from the account of the Battle of 
Panipat) : Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 257-97. 

Urdu translation : Tawarikh i Marhattah u Shah i Ahddli 
[called in the colophon TarTJch i Marhattah. Written in 1209/ 
1794-5 by S. M, Mahdi Tabataba for Sh. Muhammad-Ba khsh. 
Printer, of Gao G’hat], Edition : Matba* i Ahmad! [Benares ? 
1794-5 ?*]. 

t i jang i Ahmad Shah i Abdall bd Wiswds 

Rao etc., the account of the Battle of Panipat extracted from 
‘All Ibrahim Khan’s work at the request of the Governor-General 
Lord Cornwallis by Munshi M. Muhsin al-Din, who was for 
seven years Governor of Benares in the time of Lord Cornwallis 
(1786-93 and 1805) and who added some information from his 
own experiences during the Mara trim war : Bodleian ii 2355. 

1055. It was for Captain (afterwards Sir) John Kennaway 
(the first Resident at Haidarabad, 1788-94) that an anonymous 
author wrote 

A history of the Poona State from the reign of Narayan 
Rao (a.d. 1773) to the peace of 1787 between the Peshwa and 
Tlpu Sultan (beg. Sawdni'h i mamlakat i Dukhan ) : Bleu i 328 a 
(early 1.9th cent.}. 

1056. Laehlimi Narayan “Shallq ” Aurangabad! (see pp. 476-8), 

Bisat al-ghanaHm s a history of the Marat has to their 
defeat by Alimad Shah Abdul! at Panipat in 1174/1761, written 
at the request of Captain (afterwards Sir John) Malcolm and 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (qq) THE MARAT' HAS 763 

completed in 1214/1799 : Rieu i 3285 (circ. a.d. 1799), 329/; 
(A.H. 1215/1801), A§aSyah i p. 220 nos. 282 (a.h. 1297/1880), 
343 (a.h. 1204 /1 789-90), Eth6 ii 3018. Rehatsek p. 73 no. 10. 

Edition (Persian text or Urdu translation ?) : place ? 
1322/1904-5 (Asafiyah i p. 220 no. 921). 

Urdu translation (?) : Bisat al-ghanaHm [described as “ A his- 
tory of the Marhattas in Urdu 55 by Ghulam Samdanl Khan 
Gauhar without mention of Lachhml Narayan], Nizam al- 
matabi”, Haidarabad (see Haidarabad Coll. p. 27, where the date 
is not specified). 

1057. It was by order of the British Resident that Slta-Ram, 

th e Akhhdr-nams, translated from Marat’hi originals and com- 
pleted in July 1824 the work which in the B.M. MS. has the 
heading— / : /V J : sh. / ■ '7 y/ ' 

Tar jamah i kaifiyat i nasab-namah i Rajah i Satarah- 
wdlah qaum Marhattah Bhoslah, a history of the Marat’has 
to the reinstatement of BajI Rao by Wellesley in May 1803 : 
Rieu i 3296 (a.d. 1824). 

1058. For the Makhzan al-futuh of Bhagwan-Das Shlvpun 
see p. 644 supra. 

1059. W§jid ‘All Khan, a grandson of Nawwab ‘All Mardan 
Khan, left Haidarabad in the time of Sikandar-Jah (aec. 
1218/1803, d. 1244/1829) and went to Poonah, where he entered 
the service of BajI Rao. After serving him for four years and 
taking an active part in his wars against the British lie returned 
home. 

Gulshan i jangy a history of BajI Rao’s wars against the 
British from 1230/1815 to 1233/1818 : Rieu iii 969 (19th cent.). 

1060. SaSdar ‘All Shah “ Mun§ii ” was, according to 
W. Erskine (see Rieu ii 725a), originally named M. Muhyl al-Din 
but changed his name on renouncing the world just as his father 
Muzaffar-Jang had taken the name of Qalandar ‘All Shah. He 
belonged apparently to a noble family of the Nizam’s Dominions, 
but that he lived for a time at least in Bombay may be inferred 



784 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC, 

from the eulogies of W. Erskine, his special patron, and Dr. [John] 
Taylor, who had restored him to health, which occur in the 
jirjw i razm. 

Jirjls i razni> a mithimifi on the wars of General Wellesley 
against Tipu Sultan (a.d, 1799-1802) and the Mamthas {a.d. 
1803) : Bleu ii 725a (autograph. a,H; 1229/1814), 

Continuation (on the war with Hoikar, a.d. 1804) : Rieu 
ii 7258 (autograph), 

Further continuation (on. the Blmratpiir campaign, a.d. 
1804—5) : Rieu ii 728a (autograph), 

1061. Of unknown authorship- is hf 

Muntakhab i tawdrlkh i khanadan i Bhonslah 
Rajaha-yi Nagpur } annals of the RhSslah rajahs of Nagpur 
from a.d. 1659 to a.d. 1818 compiled from seven Persian and 
twenty-five Marathi sources in December 1823 for Richard 
Jenkins, British Resident at Nagpur : Ethe 489. 

1082. Other works : 

(1) Ahwal i Bhao Marhattah u sabab i amadan i u 
ba-Hindustan u kushtah shudan i u bd tamdm i hamrdhi- 
ydn dar muhdrabah i Ahmad Shah i Abdali bah hudud i 
Panipat : Ethe 527 (12 and 13. Giro. a.d. 3808 (?)).* 

(2) Ahwal i hasab u nasab i Janubiydn a kaifiyat i 
auj u hashmat i an-ha (the opening words) or, as in (he colo- 
phon, Ahwal i mnadmi i Marhattah-ha dar Himluxtdn : 1,0. 
3959 a (a.d. 1794), Eth<§ 488 (n.cl). 

(3) Ahiodl i Rag’hundfh Rad : Ethe 527 (4) (full. 30a- 
416, a few pages relating to the year 1187). 

(4) Dhikr i ahwal u ibtida i bind i fasad i Shod i 
bad~nihad etc., a chronicle of the Ehoslah family from its origin 
to the operations against Rajah Ram after the capture of his 
capital Raygarh in" 1101/1689-90 or 3.1 02/1 890- 1 : Ethe 488 
(incomplete). 

(5) Extracts relating to the Maratlias from tin 1 Khizdnah i 
'amir ah. the ‘ Alamgtr-ndmah , the Tdrikh i Rohelah (autlior not 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (ff) BALA-G’HAT 765 

stated) followed by the history of the Marat’has mentioned on 
p. 760 supra : Ethb 490 (quite modern), Ivanow 198 (late 19th 
cent.). i - ■ 

( 6 ) Haqiqat i bind u ‘uritj i daulat i rdjahd i Satarah, 
a short history (8 foil.) of the Rajahs of Satarah from the origin 
of the family to the time of Ram Rajah, when the government 
became vested in the Peshwa : R.A.S. P. 69 (4) — Morley 79, 
P. 69 (5) Morley 80. 

(7) A history, incomplete and unidiomatic, of the rise of the 
Bhoslah family probably translated from a Marathi chronicle 
by a certain Daulat Sing’h, who is described, as the author in an 
inscription on the fly-leaf : EtM 487. 

(8) Hhnnmth'i at (i^w^ i Markattah Siwa-ji Rajah Saiarn- 
mllak, as it is inappropriately headed, a very brief account of 
events from the accession of Baji Rao II to the end of his reign, 
by Mir Badr al-Dln, a resident of Chichoncl (near Ahmadnagar) : 
Bombay Univ. 160 (probably autograph). 

(9) A short account (5 foil) of Mad’hau Rao Peshwa, comprising 
the events which took place between 1174/1760 and 1187/1773 : 
R.A.S. P. 69 (6) = Morley 82. 

For works relating to the Battle of Panipat see also pp. 398-9 
and 620-1 supra. AYy AAA 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (rr) BALA-G’HAT 

1063. Allr Husain ‘All Khan b. S. ‘Abel al-Qadir KirmSnI. 
the author of the Nishfm i Haidan (see p. 774) and the BcuVd 
ahnm'dnl, a life of the saint Baba Fakhr al-Dln Husaini, was 
successively in the service of Haidar ‘All, the ruler of Mysore 
(d. 1782), his son Tlpu Sultan (d. 1799) and Lieut.-Col. Colin 
Mackenzie (for whom see Buckland Dictionary of Indian 
biography , p. 268). 

Tadhkirat al-bilad wa-l-hukkdm^ a history of some of 
the Bala-g’hat principalities to 1215/1800-1, the date of comple- 
tion, in twelve anrangs, viz. (1) Permkonda (Anantapur District, 
Madras) and Bijainagar (Vijayanagar) or Anlgundl (Anagundi), 



766 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


(2) Sara (in Mysore), (3) Ad’hdnr (Bellari Bist., Madras). (4) 
Afghans of Savanur ; (D4mrw§;r Bist., , Bombay), (3) Khans of 
Karapah ('‘ Cuddhpah ' Madras), (6) Kandanfil (Karnul, 
Madras), (7) Pallgars (“ Poligars ") of Harpanahalli (Belkin 
Bist., Madras), (8) Raidrug (Bellari Dist,), (9) Balapur (Mysore), 
(10) Kinchau Gaddah (Bellari Dist-.), (11) Gut! (Bellari Bist-.), 
(12) Sirhatti (Sangll Bist., Bombay): Rieu i 331 (early 
19th cent.), LO. 374 1 (early 1 9th cent.). 

: English, translation of Akrmig 4 : ' .An' historical sketch of the 
Pal an Principality of Shdnoor (in W. Kirkpatrick’s . Select letters 
of Tippao Sultan , London 1811°*, Appendix D (pp. xi-xxxii)). 

English, translations, or summaries, of Aurang 0 (Karnul) 
and Aiming 12 (Sirhatti) : Select letters of Tippoo Sultan . . 
Appendix G (pp. li-lxii) and note 19 at the foot of pp. xviii-xx. 

1064. Munshi M. ‘Azina al-DIn b. M. Paid al-Bln DLWY, 1 

a native of Arkat (Arcot), was for fifteen years in the service 
of the East India Company as nmnsB to Saiykl Diva* al-DIn 
Principal Sadr Amin (Chief Indian judge) at Sirs! (Kanara Bist.). 
He then went to Savanur (an Indian State of circ. 70 square 
miles in the D'hurwar District of the Bombay Presidency), 
and entered the service of the ruling Navwab Biler Khan 
Bahadur Biler-Jaug (ace. 1834, 0. 1862), at whose request he 
.wrote the ; 

. Tarikh i Diler-Jangi, a. history of the Savauftr State com- 
pleted in. 1262/1846. 

Edition: Jamb al-akhbar Press [Madras 2 ] 1262-3/1817*. 

1065. Other works: 

(l) Almal-namah i Karnul : EtlK 527 (3) (foil. 23«~3By). 

1 This is probably DalawL Of. W;ibld Mirzii Ttn life ami w>rks of Amir 
Khmrnu p. 102, where it. is said that tin- Rajah of Tilang sent u hist dalawl * 
or commander ” to help Malik Kaffir’s army and where the wur«l is explained 
in ft note us being 11 J'rom Karn j sir., apparently meaning Knnamvj dal - 
mi army” and meaning “ a onmmander-m-ehici’ and hence the prime-minister 
under the Hindu rulers of Mysore (ef. Aiyangar, p. 512) 

- Cf. Ar berry's 1,0, catalogue of Persian books pp. U7, UbL 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA: (ss) MYSORE 7G7 

M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (ss) MYSORE 

1066. An anonymous author (MunshI Amir, according to a 
note on the fly-leaf of Ethe 516), who after serving for two 
years under Captain (afterwards Sir) John Kennaway left his 
service on the last day of Dhu i-Qa'dah 1196/6. Nov. 1782 and 
then returned to Ilaidarabad, wrote 

( Qissah i Haidar C AU Khan), a history of Haidar ‘All to 
1 196/1782 (beg. Sitapsk IN win ) : Rieu iii 1033a (circ. a.d. 1850), 
MM 51.0 (n.d.). 

1067. In 1196/1782 an anonymous author wrote 

Ahwdl i Nawwdb Haidar ‘All Khan Bahadur (beginning : 
Ch u In tdzdh-tar nihdUst), a history of Haidar ‘All Khan from 
his birth to 1196/1782 completed with a brief statement concern- 
ing his death on 1 Muharram 1197/7 Dec. 1782 : Rieu ii 802a 
(18th cent.). 

1068. Lalah Bud Sing’h “ Munshi ”, possibly identical with 
Bud’h Sing'h Kiiatri, who wrote the Risdlak i Nmiak SMh 
(see p. 666 supra), spent three years in the compilation of his 
Tawankh i Haidan, probably soon after Haidar ‘All’s death. 

Tawdnkh i Haidari^ a life of Haidar ‘Ali Khan from his 
birth in 1125/1713 [so] to his death and the accession of Tipu 
Sultan in 1197/1782 : Eth<§ 518 (a.h. 1217/1802), 519 (n.d.), 
520 (fragment only). 

1069. At the request of Richard Johnson 1 an anonymous 
author wrote his 

Ahwdl i Haidar i All Khan (beg. : Bar mrat-mmsdn), a life 
of Haidar ‘All in nine bobs compiled in 1199/1784-5 : Etb6 
517 (autograph, a.h. 1199/1785). 

1070. Tipu Sultan was born at Devanhalli on the 20th of Dhu 

J For an account of Richard Johnson see an article by Sir T. Arnold in 
Rnpam, no. 6 (Calcutta, April 1921). 



768 


H. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

‘1-Hijjah 1163/20 Nov. 1750. 1 At the death of his father, Haidar 
‘All Khan, on 7 Dec. 1782 he became ruler of Mysore and con- 
tinued the war which his father had been waging against the 
British. Having defeated General Matthews at Bednur and 
forced Colonel Campbell to surrender after a prolonged siege at 
Mangalore in 1788, lie made peace in 1784. Soon afterwards lie 
sent an embassy to the Sublime Porte in the vain hope of enlisting 
the Ottoman Sultan’s support against the British. 2 * * * * * 8 In 1786 he 
assumed the title of Padshah, In the same year his territory was 
invaded jointly by the MaraPhas and by a contingent from 
Haidarabad. After some successes against them he made peace 
early in 1787. In this year he sent an embassy to Paris, but 
he obtained only empty promises of future support. In December 
1789 he invaded Travancore. In February 1792 he was besieged 
in Seringapatam by Lord Cornwallis, and agreed to cede half 
of his dominions, pay an indemnity and surrender two of 
his sons as hostages. In 1797 he renewed his efforts to 
obtain help from the French and sent envoys to Mauritius. 
This action, together with other evidences of hostile intention, 
caused Lord Mornington, who became Governor-General in 
1798, to declare war. In March 1799 Tipii was defeated at 
Malvalli by General Harris and on the 4th of May he was killed 
in the course of General Baird’s storm of Seringapatam. 

A report on the correspondence and other documents found 


1 XiSefni i Hatdttri p. Other dates art* given elsewhere, e.g. 1740 

(Stewart) and 17133 (Bowring). Kirkpatriek says In a louse paper in my 

possession, containing directions for the military salutes on various deeitstipnap*), 

[Footnote " (**) I have since met. with the same regulations in th a Futlnlf 

Mfijdhiil&m ”J there is n note, or memorandum, purporting, that the Sultan 

was bom on the 14th of Tftlooey of the* year of the Higera 1 HJo ” {Sided letter.'! 

IK 217, where the 14th of Thinner [i.e, TvhVl, the 6th month in Tipfi's first 
reformed calendar] in a solar year corresjKtnding to 17 83 is equated with the 
20th of December). 

8 For the diary of Ghulam-'Ali Khun, an envoy who travelled to Istanbfd 
in 1200-1, see Ivanow 1078 {} Vaqu'r i Mamzil i JHlm). A report by Tipfi’s 
envoys to Haidarabad slated 1217 Mauindl and dealing chiefly with the expenses 
incurred on the jonrnev is also preserved at < ’ulcutia ihatims 1080, Ruz- 
mnmh i irukalu i HaUlamhud). 



769 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (ss) MYSORE 

in. the palace at Seringapatam was submitted, to the Governor- 
General on 27 July 1799 by Colonel William Kirkpatrick, and 
is printed, almost in full, on pp. 180-95 of Lt.-Col. A. Beatson’s 
View of the origin and conduct of the war with Tippoo Sultaun 
(London 1800*). Erom the mass of these papers certain docu- 
ments were selected by the Governor-General for examination 
by N. B. Edmonstone, the Persan Translator to the Govern- 
ment (for whom see Buekland’s Dictionary of Indian biography, 
p. 132), and were published in translation (with the text of 
the Erench, but not the Persian, documents) in a volume entitled 
Official documents, relative to the negotiations carried on ly Tippoo 
Sultaun , with the French nation , and other foreign states , for 
purposes hostile to the British nation ; to which is added, Proceed- 
ings of a Jacobin club, formed at Seringapatam, by the French 
soldiers in the corps commanded by M. Dompart: with a translation 
. . . (Calcutta : printed at the Honorable Company’s Press. 
1799*). 1 Some of the translations reappear in Copies and extracts 
of advices to and from India, relative to the cause, progress, and 
successful termination of the war with the late Tippoo Sultaun, 
Chief of Mysore ; the partition of his dominions in consequence 
thereof ; and the distribution of the captured property found in 
Seringapatam. Printed for the use of the proprietors of Fast-India 
Stock, [London ?] 1800*, 2 and in the appendix to the afore- 


1 In the same year (before the Calcutta publication ?) appeared at Fort 
St. George [Madras] a volume of -which there is a copy in the British Museum 
(see Edwards col. 577), but not in the India Office Library, and which bears 
on the title-page the words Copies and translations of official documents relative 
to ike negotiations carried on by Tippoo Sultaun with the French nation and other 
foreign states . . . prior to the commencement of the war between the English and 
that prince in Feb. 1799 . . . Fort St. George 1799. This cannot differ much 
from the Calcutta publication. 

2 Alm ost identical with the documents contained in this publication are 
those pi’inted irx The Asiatic Annual Register . . .for the year 1799 (2nd ed., 
London 1801*), State papers, pp. 41-100 (Heading : Papers presented to the 
House of Commons, relating to the late War in the East Indies with Tippoo 
Sultaun. ( Ordered to be printed 26th September 1799)), and. Supplement to the 
state papers, pp. 201-300. 


770 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

mentioned work of Lt.-Col. Beatson. An unofficial second edition 1 2 
of the Fort St. George publication mentioned in the note on this the 
previous page is A review of the origin, progress, and result of the 
decisive war with the late Tippoo Sultaun , in Mysore : with notes ; 
by James Salmond, Esq. of the Bengal military establishment. To 
which are added, Some account of Zemaun Shah — The Proceedings 
of a Jacobin Club, formed at Seringapatam — Official advices to 
India on the subject of the War— Am abstract of the forces employed — 
Letters from Generals Stewart and Harris, containing the, accounts 
of the engagemen ts on the 6th March and 7th May 1 779 ; and Major 
General Baird? s Report of the storming of Seringapatam ; — And an 
appendix, containing translations of the principal state papers 
found in the Cabinet of Tippoo Sultaun ; and other important 
official papers . . . (London 1800°*. Pp. xxxii, 88 : Appendix, 
pp. 300, unpaginated). 

The letters and other documents mentioned above are quite 
different from the Select letters translated by W. Kirkpatrick 
(see below). 

(1) Tarikh i khuda-dddif a brief autobiography extending 
to the termination of the Marat’ha War, i.e. Feb. 1787, which 

evidently formed, as far as it went, the ground-work of the 

1 On p. six is a “preface to second edition ”, which begins as follows: 
“ Several very important Papers on the subject of the Mysore War having been 
received from India since the publication of the Quarto edition of this Work, 
and others then published having by means of the Papers printed for the use 
of the Proprietors of India Stock, and through the medium of the public prints , 
been since very generally communicated, it is presumed that a new edition, 
in the present form, will not be unacceptable to the Public. Such documents 
antecedent to the capture of Seringapatam, as are already sufficient!}' known, 
have been omitted. The orthography of the whole of the original .French 
Papers is so extremely incorrect, that the authenticated Translations only aro 
preserved in this edition. With this exception, all the Papers found in the 
PaJaee of Seringapatam, which were originally published by the Authority 
of the Governor General in Council at Madras, have been republished.” 

2 This title, not mentioned by Ethe, is recorded by Kirkpatrick, Select 
letters, preface p, xviii : “ The copy with which that gentleman, ” j i.e. Colonel 
Ogg ] “ favored me was entitled Tareekhe, Khod&d&dy, i.e. the Khodudddy Annals, 
or History of the Khoddddd Sircar Sarkdr i Khudu-dad was the official title 
of Tipu Sultan’s government and was, for example, stamped on the bindings 
of books belonging to his library. 



M. HISTORY OF INDIA : ( SS ) MYSORE 771 

more diffuse and elaborate history of Zynul Aabideen Shoostry . . 
(Kirkpatrick) : Ethe 2990 (45 folk, defective at both ends, 3 
See also W. Kirkpatrick’s account of this MS. in his Select letters 
of Tippoo Sultan , London 1811, preface, pp. xvii-xviii). 

Translated extracts (amounting to “ a considerable portion ” 
of the whole) : Select letters, of Tippoo Sultan . . . arranged and 
translated by IT. Kirkpatrick, London 1811, pp. 18-21, 57-9, 
147, 202-7, 325-32, 374-5, 387-90, 410-11, 425-31, 476-83, 
and appendix pp, iii-xi. 

(2) Letters (see also pp. 768-70 above) : Ethd 525 (vol. i 
only, covering the years 1198-1201/1784-7 and containing all 
the letters of which translations were published in the Select 
letters of Tippoo Sultan as well as more than 600 others, a.d. 1800) . 

English translation of selections : Select letters of Tippoo Sultan 
... arranged and translated by William Kirkpatrick . . . London 
1811°* 

(3) Register of Tipu Sultan's dreams with their 
interpretations: Ethd 3001 (autograph. Cf. Beatson, op. 

: cii, infra, pp. 196-7). V: hTh/py 

English translation of six dreams : A view of the origin and 
conduct of the war with Tippoo Sultaun . . . by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Alexander Beatson, London 1800*, appendix, pp. oix-cxiii. 

Various official manuals and collections of documents relating 
to the administration of Mysore in Tipu’s time have been pre- 
served. 1 2 They include (1) hukm-namahs, instructions and regula- 
tions intended for different departments and officials, Ivanow 
1645-9, 1676 7, 1679, 1681, 1684-93, Berlin 68 (3), 68a, 516, 
531 (II), 531 (25), Ethd 526, R.A.S. P. 167-70, (2) Dawdbit 
i sultdm, regulations for the proper shape and form of royal 
insignia, the orbs or disks at the top of banners, seals, official 

1 The first three pages, accidentally destroyed while the MS. was in Col. 
Kirkpatrick's possession, " were occupied chiefly with an account of the Sultan’s 
ancestors.” 

. * Cf. Government and administrative system of Tipu Sultan by Surath Charm, 
Sen Gupta (in the Journal of the Department of Letters ( University of Calcutta), 

vol. xix (Calcutta 1929)). yy 



772 


IT. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


signatures, etc., Eth<§ 2761, 2762 (a portion only. Dated. 1226 
Maul udi 1 ), Ivanow 1642 (probably the same portion as Ethe 
2762), (3) (Risdlah i pudak-hd ), on medals, decorations, flag- 
tops, seals, brands, etc., Ivanow 1640, 1041, (4) l ' A description 
of the Seals, Flags, Standards, 2 Inscriptions, etc. used by Tipft 
Sultan ” (perhaps identical with (2) or (8) above). R.A.S. P. 171. 
(5) various other documents, Ivanow 1648, 1 082-8, R.A.S. P. 88 
— Morley 78, P. 172. 

A manuscript of this kind must be the uriginal of The Mysorean 
Revenue Regulations. Translated by B. Crisp from, the uriginal 
Persian, under the seal of Tippoo Sultaun (Calcutta 1702 ). For 
the Path al- mujahidin which contains regulations for Tipfi's 
army see p. 778 infra. 

[Biographical Anecdotes of the late Tippoo Suita an ; together 
with an Account of his Revenues , Establishment of his Troops , etc. 
Taken from the information of one of Tip-poo's Officers, written in 
the year 1790 and Translated from the. Persian by (.‘apt. J. A. 
Kirkpatrick (in The Asiatic Annual Register . . . for the Year 
1799 (2nd. ed., London 1801*), Characters, pp. 1-5) ; Lt.-Coj. 
A. Beat-son A view of the origin and conduct of the war with Tippoo 
Sultaun . . ., London 1800 (portrait frontispiece) ; C. Stewart 
Memoirs of Futteh Aly Khan Tippet Sultan (in C. Stewart A 
descriptive catalogue of the oriental library of the. lute Tippoo 
Sultan of Mysore, Cambridge 1809, pp. (48) -(94)) ; M. Wilks 
Historical sketches of the South of India, in an attempt tv trace the 
history of Mysoor , London 1810-17, 2nd ed, Madras .1869 ; 
Lewin B. Bowring Haidar AH and Tipu Sultan, Oxford 1892 
(Rulers of India series) ; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography 

pp. 424- 5 ; Envy. hi. under Tipu Sultan (Haig), and many other 

works.] 

1 For the Maniac! I era (an era of .solar years from Muhammad’s birth) intro- 
duced by Tipu see J. li. Henderson Coin s of Haidar Alt and Tipii Kit l tan, 
Madras 19:21. p. 1) seqq. The account given by Kirkpatrick in Ins Select Utters, 
pp. xxvi-xxxvii, needs correction in the light of Henderson's statements. 

a For reproductions of tracings of two such standards preserved in the 
(lliapel of the Iloyal Hospital, Chelsea, see an article by T. Grahame Bailey 
in , the Hulled in of the School of Oriental Studies, vol, ii, pt. 3 (1922) pp, 549-54 
{of. vol. ii, pt. 4 (1923) p. 833). 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (ss) MYSORE 773 

1071. A certain Ghulam-Hasan 1 wrote at Tipu’s request 
and completed in 1198/1784 his 

Tipu-namah or Fath-namah i Tipu Sultan, a mathnawi in 
49 dastans on Tipu’s wars: Eth(5 1719 (a.h. 1221/1807), 1720 
(n.d.), 1721 (n.d.). 

1072. S. Zain al-‘abidm b. S. Radi [al-Din] Musawi Shushtaii 
was a younger brother of Mir-‘Alam (for w T hom see pp. 750-2 supra ) . 
According to S. Husain Bilgrami, A memoir of Sir Satar Jung, 
Bombay 1883, p. 10, he “ left Haidarabad at an early age, 
and resided for the rest of his life at Tipu’s court According 
to Sprenger ( Catalogue ... of the libraries of the King of Oudh, 
p. 591) “ He lived long at Madras and was in the service of 
Nawab A^af-jah, subsequently he went to Balaghat [sic] and 
entered the service of Haydar ’alyy Khan, and finally he became 
a cburtier of Typu Sultan, . . . He died at Haydarabad (Subhe 
watn, p. 105).” According to H. G. Briggs, The Amm yol. i, 
London 1863., p. 141, he died at Seringapatam during the siege 
in 1799. 

His best-known work, written a.ii. 1197/1783 at Tipu Sultan’s 
request and under his supervision, is the Fath al-mujahidin 
which contains rules and regulations for Tipu’s army (see Bodleian 
1903, Ethe 2738-59, Rieu Suppt. 406). At the request of Tipu 
Sultan he wrote also the Mu’aiyid al-mujakidln, a collection 
of metrical Wmtbaks (see Ethe 2619, Ivanow 882-3, Sprenger 571). 

Sultan al-tawankfa a florid history of the Sultans of 
Mysore elaborated from materials dictated by Tipu himself and 
divided into two daftars ((1) Bath Na’ik and Haidar ‘All, (2) 
Tipu's reign to a.d. 1789) : EtM 521 (apparently imperfect). 

Description: Historical sketches of the South of India, in an 
attempt to trace the history of Mysoor ... By Lieul.-Ool. Mark 
Wilks, vo.L i, London 1810, pp. xix-xxv. 

[W. Kirkpatrick Select letters of Tippoo Sultan, London 1811, 
p. 163-4; Subh iwatan p. 105; Sprenger 571. ] 

J There seems to be no good ground for Garein. de Tassy’s identification 
of this author with Husain ‘AH Khan KirmanL 



774 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

1073. A certain Hamid Khan who accompanied Lord 
Cornwallis, the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief, 
in his campaign against Tipu Sultan (Dec. 1790-Feb. 1792) 
wrote — • 

Tarikh i Hamid Khan A a history of Haidar ‘All. and Tipu 
Sultan down to the peace of 1206/1792 : Bankipur vii 619 
(19th cent.). 

1074. The Nasab-nanuih i rdjahd i Maimr was originally 
written in Canarese. By order of Tipu Sultan two Persian 
translations were made in 1212/1798 by Asad Anwar and Ghularn- 
Ilusain. One of these is the work described below. 

Nasab-namah (or Fihrist , or Ahwal) i rdjahd i Maisur u 
Nagar> a list of the rulers of Mysore from the time of Timmaraj 
to that of Haidar ‘All, with the dates of their birth, the names 
of their wives and children and the countries over which they 
ruled : R.A.S. P. 86 = Morley 74, Morley 75, Morley 76, Eth4 
514, 515, Ivanow 199 (19th cent,). 

1075. Mir Husain ‘All Khan b. 8. ‘Abd al-Qadir Kirmani, 
the author of the Tadhkiral al-bildd wa-1-knkhm, which he 
completed in 1215/1800-1 (see p. 765), and of the BtvlT al-ma'anl, 
a life of the saint Baba Fakhr al-Dln Husainl, was in the service 
of Haidar ‘All and his son Tipu Sultan. 

Nishan i Haidari , a history of Haidar ‘All and Tipu Sultan 
completed a.h. 1217/1802: Browne Pers. Cat. 105 (a. if. 1231/ 
1816), Ivanow 200 (a.h. 1231/1816 ?), Bankipur Suppf, i 1775 
(a.h. 1233/1817-18), A$afiyah i p. 258 no. 297 (a.h. 1299/ 
1881-2), Eth6 522, 523, 524 (small fragment), R.A.S. P. 87 = 
Morley 77. 

Edition: Bombay 1307/1890 

Translation : (a) The History of Hyder Naik , . , Namtuh 
of the Karmitic Balaghaut . , . Translated . . . by Colonel IF. Miles, 

1 The “ Humeed Khaney, by Humeed Khan, Moonshee to Lord Cornwallis 
in 1792 ” is among the authorities mentioned on p. 388 of The. History of Hyder 
Shah, alias Hyder Ali Khan Bahadur : and of his son, Tippoo Sultaun. By 
M. M. D. L. T. . . . Revised and corrected by H.H. Prime Gholam Mohammed 
(London 1855). 


775 


M. HISTORY OP INDIA : (ss) MYSORE 

London 1842 °* (Oriental Translation Fund). ( b ) The. History 
of the Reign of Tipu Sultan, being a continuation of the Neshani 
Hyduri ; . . . Translated ... by Colonel W. Miles. London 
1804 c * [sic., for 1844]. 

1076. Not later than 1223/1808 was written 

A history of the Rajahs of Seringapatam and of 
Haidar i All and Tipu to the latter's death in 1213/1799 (Bar 
([hi hr 1 riydsat A mjahd-yi Sirang-Patan u Naumdb Haidar ‘ All 
Khrlu Bahadur jmiml-nmkmi it Jmdmt i Tipu Sultan i sMMd etc., 
begitmiiig Pa s at hmml i Kirdgdr i karsaz ruzgdr) : OxSoxd 
Ind. Inst. MS. WhinfiekI 62 (a.h. 1223/1808), Ethd 531 (foil. 
57-112). 

1077. For .Safdar ‘‘All Sbah. ts Miinsif s ’l./^1s; i ram,- which 
contains a metrical account of Wellesley’s campaign against 
,‘ppfi Sulpn, she.p.. 764 supra,. - 

1078. Mohammad Sultan (i.e. Prince. M.), better known as 
H.H. Prince Ghnlam-Muhammad, one of the youngest of 
Tlpil Sultan's twelve sons, was born in. March 1795 and was 
therefore only four years old when his father was killed. With 
other sons ofTlpu's he was removed from Seringapatam to Vellore. 
In 1806. after the Vellore Mutiny, he was transferred to Calcutta 
and there In* lived the rest of his long life. Highly respected 
for his amiability, hospitality, charity and toleration, he was a 
favourite in ollieial circles. He visited England in 1855 and again 
In 1859. when he persuaded the Secretary of State, Sir Charles 
Wood, to make a special grant lo the Mysore family. In February 
1871 he was made a K.C.S.L Certain charities were founded 
by him in perpetuity for the poor of all races at Calcutta and in 
Mysore. He died at Kasapagla, near Calcutta, on 1 i August 
1872. He '• revised and corrected " Th History of llyder Shah , 
alias llyder AH Khan Bahadur : and of his son, Ti-ppoo Sultaun. 
[Written in Loudon 1784] By M. M. I). L. T. [i.e. M. M, de la 
Touche ?J. General in the Army of the Mogul Empire, London 
1855. 

'.."(''The Mosque of Prince Glmlam Muhammad, the finest mosque 



776 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 

in Calcutta, near the intersection of Dharamtola St. and Chow- 
ringliee, was erected by him t£ in gratitude to God, and in com- 
memoration of the Honourable Court of .Directors granting him 
the arrears of his stipend in 1840 

Kdmdma i Hydary 5 or Memoirs of the brave and noble Hyder 
Shah, sumamed Hyder Ally Khan Bahadur . To which is annexed 
a sketch of the history of Ms illustrious sou, Tippoo Sultan. Com- 
piled from the different works written by English, French, and 
Oriental authors. Ca!cutta l848°*. 

Urdu translation by Ahmad ‘All Oopamawf : Hamalat i 
Haidari, Russapuglah [i.e. Rasapagla. a southern suburb of 
Calcutta] 184.9°*. 

[Kdr-ndmah i Haidari pp. 931-8 (portrait facing p. 935) ; 
Correspondence and memorials of Prince Gholam Mahomed 
addressed to the Government of India and the Hon hie Court of 
Directors (in Extracts from Capt. Colin Mackenzie's work regarding 
the dominions of the late Tippoo Sidtaun 1854) ; The Times 20.3. 187 1 
p. 6 a, 11.9.1872 p. 6a, 19.9.1872 p. 106; The Englishman (Calcutta) 
13.8.1872 p. 2d ; The Indian Daily News (Calcutta) 13.8.1872 
p. 2d; The Times of India (Bombay) 14.8.1872 p. 2d; Lewin 
B. Bowring Haidar All and Tipu Sultan pp. 10, 201.] 

1079. Other works : 

(1) Accounts of the events of a.h. 1197-1200/1783 6 : Eth6 
528 (1-3). 

( 2 ) Ahwdl i rajah i Soldpur u rajah i Sfirangpatan : 
MU 527 (18), 

(3) Ahwal-namah i Haidar Na’ik, a very short biography 
of Haidar ‘All (8 foil.) : MU 527 (1) (not; later than a.d, 1808). 

(4) History of Tipu Sultan and his court, by MunshI M . Qasim : 
no MSS. recorded, 

English translation : I.O. MSS. Eur. C. 10 pp. 203-25 (Kave 
291). 

(5) Short account of Dhundia Wagh. or. as he is called here, 
D’hundu-ji Wag’h, the famous freebooter of Mysore, who 


777 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (it) COORG 

was at last killed by the British in 1800 (see Beale Oriental 
biographical dictionary p. 1*20) : Eth6 859 (5). 

(6) Short historical ; account' of Seringapatam and its rajahs, 
their contests with Haidar ‘All and Tipu Sultan and the final 
annexation of Mysore by the E.I.Co. (a.h. 1 144/1731-2 — 1214/ 
1799-1800) : EtM 529. 

(7) A similar work ( Kaifiyat i ri’asat i Sn-Rang-Pattan 
etc.) : EtM 530. 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (tt) COORG 

1080, Of unknown authorship is 

Ahwal i mulki Kurg, a short account of the conquest of 
Georg in 1187/1778-4 during Haidar ‘All’s reign (beg. ; Qalam 
i raqam-mnj ) : Eth6 532. 

1081. It was at the request of Maharajah Vira Rajendra 
Wodeyar (b. a.h. 1178/1764-5, acceded a.h. 1203/1788-9, 
deposed a.d. 1834) that Ip&sain Khan Lohani. one of his mmsBs, 
began in 1211/1796-7 to translate from original Kanarese records 
his 

History of the Rajahs of Coorg from a.h. 1047/1637 -8 to 
ah. 122*2/ ROT : Rien i 333 (a.d. 1807), EthA 533 (a.h. 1240/ 
1824), Xvanow 20 1 (late 19th cent.). 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (>u<) THE CARNATIC 

1082, Jaswant Ray b. Bhagwant Ray !>. Sundanias 
“Munshi 55 was a munslfi ' by profession and the son of a munshl 
born at Lahore, in 1118/1706 -7 he went to the Carnatic and 
obtained the patronage of the Governor, Sa‘adat Allah Khan, 
the ancestor of the Nawwabs of the Carnatic, by composing a 
qasldah in. his praise. An autograph copy of his dlinln written 
A.H. 1124/1712 at Sara in the province of Bijapur is in the 
possession of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Ivanow 830, cf, 
lithe 1695). 


778 


II. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, ETC. 


SaHd-namah 3 a pompously written biography of Sahidat 
Allah Khan, entitled also M. Said (properly M. ‘All h. Ahmad, 
d. 1145/173*3, see Ma'dtkir al-u/uard' ii 513). from his birth in 
1061/1651 to If) .Ramadan 1135/1723 : Rieu i 33b/ (early 18th 
cent.), Ethd 500 (much shorter. Damaged, a.h. 1220/1.814), 
2843 (complete, a.h. 1265/1840). 

[Autobiography near the beginning of the Aald-ndatah ; 
Sprenger pp. 507, 508 (?) ; Rieu i 331 ; Elbe 500. j 

1083. Mir M. Ismail Khan u Abjadi ” was bom at (,'hingleput. 
He was the tutor (us! ad) of the Xawwiib Thudat al-Umara’ 
(ruled a.h. 1210/1795 -1216/1801). On finishing the Anuvir- 
ndmah in 1174/1760-1 he was rewarded by the. Nawwab Wfda- 
Jah (M. ‘All ‘Umdat al-Muik, who ruled a.h. 1 163/1750-1210/ 
1795) with 6,700 rupees. In 1189/1775 -6 In 1 received t he title of 
Malik al-shu e ard\ 

For his Persian diwdn see Asaiiyah i p, 7 16 no. 482. Tva-now 
873, and Nadhlr Ahmad 107 and for Ids Urdu dltvav Blumhardt's 
I.O. catalogue of Hindustani MS8. no. 137. A work of his entitled. 
Tuhfah li-sibijdn is mentioned bv Garcin de Tussv, who possessed 
a MS. 

Anwar-ndmah , a mathmu'i on the exploits of the Xawwab 
Anwar al-Dln Khan (d. 1.1 62/1749) with a summary of events 
under his successor to the date of completion, a.h. 1 17 1/1700 1 : 
Ivanow 872 (a.ii. 1176/1762 3), As‘ad 2077 Timer 553 
(a.h. 1242/1826). Berlin 973 (slightly defective). EtM 1716 
(iuL), 2904 (n.d.). 

[Tuzuk i Wald-Jdhi , tmqaddimih (see Ethe 501); Suhh i 
V'ainn 27-31 ; Spmiger nos. 64 5 ; (Tuvin d»* Tassy 98- 9 ; 
.Reale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 15.] 

J084. Mnnshl Burhan Khan b. Hasan Hindi was commissioned 
in 1195/1781 by Xavvwfib Wulfi-Juh ‘Umdat ul-Mulk (M. ‘All, 
who ruled from 1162/1749 to 1210/1795) to compose (largely] 
on the basis of " Abjadl's " A tucar-uatnah (see § 1083 supra) 
a history of the rulers of iho Carnal ie from the time of their 


779 


M. HISTORY OF INDIA : (uu) THE CARNATIC 

ancestors in al-Madmah 1 to his own time. He died on 27 Jumada 
ii 1240/1825. For his Ruqa‘dt see Asafiyah i p. 124. 

Tuzuk i Wald-Jahi , a history of the Carnatic, especially 
of Anwar al-Dln Khan [d. 1162/1749] and his son Wala-Jah, 
planned to iferist of a muqaddimah, two daftars and a hhatimah, 
but probably never continued beyond the first daftar : Ethe 501 
(only the Muqaddimah (in praise of “ Abjadi ”) and Daftar i 
(completed in 1200/1786 and extending to Clive’s capture 
of Pondicherry in 1761). N.d.), Madras (ascribed to “ Abjadi ”). 

English translation : Tuzak-i~W dldjdln of Burhcin ibn Hasan, 
Translated . . . by S. Muhammad Husayn Nainar . . . Part I. 
From the early days to the Battle of Ambur (1162 a.r.) . . . 
Madras 1934 to be continued (Madras University Islamic 
■Series No. 1). -".'A 

Description and summary : Nawab Anicaru’d-din Khan of 
the Carnatic. From the Turn k-i - Walajahi of Burhamd d-din. By 
C. S. Srinivasachari (in Indian Historical Records Commission. 
Proceedings of meetings. Vol. xiii. Calcutta 1932, pp. 121—9). 

[Hadtqat al-mardm (in Arabic) p. 12.] 

1085. An anonymous author (Sa‘d- Allah Khan ? see Eth6 
2844) completed in 1218/1803 his 

WagdH c i sdadat , a short history of the Nawwabs of Arkat 
(from Ba £ adat- Allah Khan to Safdar ‘All Khan (d. 1155/1742)) and 
the Jaglrdars of Vellore (from Ghulam-' All Khan to Ghulam- 
Murtada Khan (d. 1176/1762-3)) in three fasts ; Eth6 2844 
(lacks Fast iii), 2845 (with an appendix containing the history 
of Vellore to 1803). 

1086. M. Karim 2 Khair al-Dln Hasan Ghulam-Damin b. 
Iftikhar al-Daulah Hafiz M. Nasir Khan Bahadur §amsam-Jang 
was born in 1194/1780, received the title of Sahib al-Daulah 
Jaladat-Jang in 1210/1795-6, that of Khwurshed al-Mulk 
in 1231/1816 and on his father's death in 1236/1820 that 

1 The Nawwabs of the Carnatic belonged to the tribe, who claim to 

be of Arab descent. 

2 The names M. Karim are omitted by Ethe, but they are given by Nainar 
in his preface to the Tuzuk i Wala-Jahi p. xiii. 


780 


II. HISTORY, BIOQRAPHY, ETC. 

of Iftikhar al-Daulah M. Nasir Khan Bahadur Samsam- 
Jang. In Rajab 1249/1833, when living at Madras, he paid 
homage to ‘Azim-Jah, the Regent, and was requested by him to 
write a history of his ancestor ‘Uindat al-IJinara’, as “ AbjadI ” 
had done for Anwar al-Din Khan in his Amvar-namah (see 
p. 778 supra). He therefore wrote the Sawcmihut i mumtdz, which 
he completed on 27 Dhti d-Hijjah 1252/4 April 1837. 

Sawdmhat i mumtaz, a history of the years 1209-16/1794- 
1801, i.e. the last year of Nawwab Wala-Jah ‘Umdat al-Mnlk and 
the reign of ‘Umdat al-Umara ? (a.d, 1795-180.1), with a summary 
of later events under ‘Azhn al-Daulah (a.d. 1801-19), ‘Azim-Jah 
(a.d. 1820-25), A‘zam-Jah (1825) and Ghulam M. Ghauth 
(1825-55) under the regency of Nawwab ‘Azim-Jah, the first 
Prince of Arcot : MM 502 (a,h. 1266/1850), Nadhir Ahmad 68 
(a.h. 1281/1864-5. AM i Islam Library, Madras), probably also 
Apfiyah iii p. 100 no. 1299 (“ Tuzuk % Wald- J ahl ” written in 
1249 by M. Karim Khair al-Din Hasan Ohulam-Damin) . 

EngHsh translation : “ has been finished, and will be issued ” 
(presumably in the Madras University Islamic Series). 

Description : TuzaJc-i-WaldjdM . . .Translated . . . by ... 
Nainar . . . Part I , pp. xiii-xvii. 

4 .•'.••• : " ■ 1 ' , 

1087. Other works : 

(1) Asas i riyasat i Kamatak , a history of the Carnatic 
by M. Khair al-Din Khan Mahmud- Jang. 

Edition : Pakhr i Nizami Press [Haidarabad 1 ] date % (see 
Haidarabad Coll. p. 44). 

(2) Tahrik al-shifdh bi-ausaf Wala-Jah, by Raushan 
al-Daulah Bahadur- Jang b. Nawwab "Wala-Jah : A$afiyah ii 
p. 1740 no. 34 (4). 

(3) Tdnkh i niyahat i c Azim-Jdh, a history of the year 

1252/1836-7, by Ghulam-Muhammad ‘Ali entitled {al-mukhdtab 
bah) ‘Azim-Jah, brother of A‘zam-Jah, Nawwab of the Carnatic ; 
Apflyah hi p. 98 no. 1092 . , 

!, where the location of the Fakhr i 


1 See HaAip^rabad Coll. p. 4 
Press ^Sfeidarabad,